Skip to main content

Full text of "Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar Commemoration Volume"

See other formats



CD  ^ 

OU   1  58200  |m 



B*f  Vldwan  T.  Pcitatitoppa 

jy«&<*"  «vav"?^$.J  .g 
f  K.   PonniaJi  Pi/Jrti 

V.   Rarttanatha 

By  P&ndithar  L.    P.    K     Ra 

j'f  £?£?»  «jf*CBr«K»;i£lb?  AIJ&T 

iBy  Pand&thar  L,    P.    K     Rnm&nathan  Ch^tVar 

.    *T 


By  5. 


r    P 

Vwfur^n  G 

By  Prof    K. 


By  K.  5,   PiffcM 

By  A, 


T.  4, 

B|i   ffimfer  If 

l<p^«*  ** 

H,   K, 










By  C.  Saraswathi  Bai  .  .  1059 

Sanskrit  Department  (Annamalai  University)  .  .  1063 

By  Pandit  S.     Ramasubba  Sastri  ..  1066 


By  V.   K.  Seshadriacharya  Siromani  and  Vidwan  ..  1068 

By  K.   Srinivasachari  ..  1069 


By  V.    Subrahmanya  Sastri  ..  1071 

By  V.    K.    Seshadriacharya  Vidwan,  Siromani  ..  1076 

%  ^TCRII  S  sft*ft  ^T  qm 

By  Mrs.  Padmasani  Aravamuthachari  .  .  1082 

Verses  in  Kannada  .  .  1089 

^e)^0?i(501)  3rf^rt^0. 

By  A.   K.   Puttaramu  .  .  1090 

SA  d<*  e^. 

By  K.    V.    Puttappa  ..  1093 

iW^od  So  tfsrarWtf. 
By  K.    V.    Puttappa  ..  1094 

By  Sir  Umar  Ali  Shah  .  .  1097 

By  Viduan  T.  Appanna  and  Jampana  Chandra  Sekara  Rao  .  1098 


By  G.    Jashava  HOl 

TT-tf.  «T.  wsrg^Tjj   ^3g  ^(^tfo<, 

By  Venkataswami  Gupta  tt  1103 

eadSS  ^8W»sj&^» 
By  Jampana  Chandra  Sekara  Rao  ..  H09 



~  '  PAGE 


Kuttamath  „«_ 

..  1117 

By  O.   tf.  A.  Ramayya  Sastri  1119 

By  P.  Anantan  Filial 


By  K.  N.  Gopala  Pilhi 

By  T.  K.  Krishna  Menon  n3? 

cn|oaio<D©o6o  o^(uT|(?>QJorf|AOo 

By  P.  Krishnan  Nair 

By  K.  K.   Kurup 

oa.ojo  oroocalroojo 

By  K.  Parvathi  Ammal 

..  1167 

By  C.  N.  A.  Ramayya  Sastri  11?5 

H.  H.  Ramo  Varma  Appan  Thampuran  1179 

By  Vallathol 

..  1185 


The  Rajah  Saheb  of  Chettinad    (Frontispiece) 

1.  The  Rajah  Sir  S.Rm.M.  Annamalai  Chettiar 

2.  Father  and  Brothers 

3.  The  Rajah  Saheb  and  the  Rani  Saheba  of  Chettinad 

4.  The  Rajah  Saheb  of  Chettinad  in  LL.D.   Robes   (Madras 


5.  The  Rajah  Saheb  on  his  walk  in  the  garden 

6.  Kumararajah  Sir  M.  A.  Muthiah  Chettiar,  B.A. 

7.  Kumararajah  in  Mayoral  Robes 

8.  Kumararajah  M.  A.   Muthia  Chettiar  as  Pro- Chancellor, 

Madras  University 

9.  S,    Rm.    M.    Rm.    Ramanathan    Chettiar,    Under- Sheriff. 


10.  M.    A.    Chidambaram    Chettiar,    3rd    son    of    the    Rajah 

Saheb  of  Chettinad 

11.  The  River  View  of  the  Palace  at  Adyar 

12.  The  Rajah  Saheb's  Palace  at  Kanadukathan 

13.  Proposed   Chettinad  Palace  at  Chettinad 

14.  Proposed  Chettinad  Palace  at  Chettinad   (Another  View) 

15.  The     Rajah     Saheb's     Rest     House     at     the     Chettinad 

Railway   Station 

16.  The   Rajah   Saheb's   Bungalow   at   Ootacamund 

17.  Aerodrome    Building,    Chettinad 

18.  The   Rajah   Saheb   of   Chettinad   at   the   opening   of   the 

Chettinad   Aerodrome 

19.  A  Group  Photo  at  the  Chettinad  Aerodrome 

20.  The   Rajah  Saheb   at   the   Chettinad  Aerodrome 

21.  Lady  Pentland  Women  and  Children  Hospital,  Chettinad 

22.  The  Rajah  Saheb  of  Chettinad 

23.  Pro-Chancellor,     Chancellor     and     Vice-Chancellor     (in 

Academic  Robes,  1931) 

24.  H.   E.   Lord  Erskine,  G. C.S.I.    (Chancellor,  Annamalai 

University,   1934-39) 

25.  H.    E.    The    Hon'ble   Sir   Arthur    Oswald   James   Hope, 

G.C.I.E.,   M.C.,    Chancellor,   Annamalai   University, 
from  1939 



26.  Diwan  Bahadur     S.     E.     Runganadhan     M.A.,     I.E.S. 

(Retd.),  Vice-Chancellor  from  1929-1935 

27.  The  Right  Hon'ble  V.  S.  Srinivasa  Sastriar,  P.C.,  C.H., 

LL.D.,   Vice-Chancellor   from   1935-1940 

28.  Rai  Bahadur  Sir  Kurma  Venkata  Reddy  Nayudu  Garu, 

K.  C.S.I.,      D.Litt.,      Vice-Chancellor,      Annamalai 
University  from  1940 

29.  Library  and  Administrative   Buildings 

30.  Interior  View  of  the  Srinivasa  Sastri  Hall 

31.  Annamalai  University  Convocation,  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai 

Chettiar  presiding 

32.  Arts  College 

33.  Arts  College 

34.  Science  College 

35.  Oriental  College 

36.  Music  College 

37.  Gokhale  Hall— Union  Hall 

38.  The    All-India   Economic    Conference,    1934 

39.  Hostel 

40.  Women  Students'  Hostel 

41.  The  Park  and  the  Bandstand 

42.  Sports  Pavilion 

43.  Guest  House   and  Staff  Club 

44.  Hospital 

45.  Posts  and  Telegraph's  Office  and  Professors'  Quarters 

46.  Ladies  Club 

47.  Vice-Chancellor's  Bungalow 

48.  Acting   Vice-Chancellors 

49.  Sri   Pasupatheswarar   Temple— Annamalainagar 

50.  Nagarathar    reception   to   Rajah   Sir   Annamalai   Chettiar 

at  Koilur  on  April,  1930. 




Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chetliar  was  born  at  Kanadu- 
kathan  on  the  30th  of  September  1881.  He  was  the  third 
son  of  Muthiah  Chettiar,  a  man  distinguished  for  his  practical 
piety  and  benevolence.  Muthiah  Chettiar  was  a  greatly 
respected  member  of  the  Nagarathar  community  of  which 
he  was,  in  his  day,  the  undisputed  head.  He  was  thorough- 
going in  his  benefactions.  He  renovated  the  temple  of  Sri 
Nataraja  at  Chidambaram  at  a  cost  of  several  lakhs  of  rupees 
and  also  established  a  choultry  where  pilgrims  could  find 
iood  and  shelter.  In  the  cold  weather,  at  the  time  of  the 
Arudhra  Darsanam,  the  choultry  is  thick  with  pilgrims  from 
all  over  the  country  and  gets  the  appearance  of  a  little  town. 
He  also  repaired  and  renovated  the  famous  shrine  at  Karur, 
which  has  since  been  in  an  excellent  state  of  preservation. 

Muthiah  Chettiar's  piety  was  profound.  He  undertook 
a  pilgrimage  to  Benares  and  for  half  the  distance  he  went  on 
foot.  While  at  Benares,  at  the  desire  of  his  community,  he 
began  the  construction  of  the  Nagarathar  choultry  a  spaci- 
ous and  richly-endowed  rest-house  on  the  Dasaswamedha 
Ghat,  where  hundreds  of  pilgrims  congregate  everyday  all 
the  year  round. 

Muthiah  Chettiar  had  three  sons,  Chidambaram,  Rama- 
swami  and  Annamalai.  Chidambaram  Chettiar,  a  forceful 
personality,  was  the  first  among  the  Nagarathars  to  make 
roads  in  Chettinad.  Cart-tracks  and  pathways  began  to 
give  place  to  metalled  roads  over  which  one  could  pass  in 


comfort  and  safety.  He  had  two  sons,  Sir  M.  C.  T.  Muthiah 
Chettiar,  who  attained  considerable  prominence  in  the  social 
life  of  Madras  and  Pethachi  Chettiar,  who  died  com- 
paratively early.  This  branch  is  represented  now  by  Sir 
M.  C.  T.  Muthiah  Chettiar's  son,  the  Hon'ble  M.  C.  T. 
Chidambaram  Chettiar. 

Ramaswami  Chettiar,  the  second  son,  was  a  man  of  great 
probity  and  public  spirit.  He  was  nominated  to  the  Legis- 
lative Council  constituted  under  the  Morley-Minto  Reforms 
and  was  the  first  member  of  his  community  to  receive  that 
distinction.  He  built  and  endowed  a  school  at  Chidambaram, 
which  is  now  flourishing  as  the  Ramaswami  Chettiar  High 
School.  He  was  Chairman  of  the  Chidambaram  Munici- 
pality for  many  years  and  was  President  of  the  Taluk  Board. 
For  his  many  services,  the  distinction  of  Dewan  Bahadur 
was  conferred  upon  him. 

Annamalai — the  subject  of  this  sketch — was  the  third 
son  of  Muthiah  Chettiar  and  is  said  to  have  been  his  father's 
favourite,  probably  from  being  the  youngest  of  his  sons. 
His  was  a  normal  childhood  and  youth  with  little  to  dis- 
tinguish them  from  those  of  his  contemporaries.  Proba- 
bly a  distaste  for  what  was  merely  mamul  and  conventional 
and  a  more  than  ordinary  propensity  to  get  into  mischief 
were  the  main  features  of  his  early  youth. 

Annamalai  Chettiar's  early  years  were  years  of  pre- 
paration. His  father  was  keen  upon  giving  him  a  good  up- 
bringing. He  personally  supervised  his  studies  and  gave  him 
a  thorough  grounding  in  the  family  business.  From  early 
in  his  career,  Annamalai  Chettiar,  studied  different  systems 
of  banking  and,  in  time,  came  to  be  acknowledged  as  an 
expert  in  that  field. 



Muthiah  Chettiar  died  when  Annamalai  was  nineteen. 
After  his  death,  his  sons  effected  a  partition  of  the  family 
properties  among  themselves  and  began  to  conduct  their 
several  businesses  separately.  Chidambaram,  the  eldest 
and  Annamalai,  the  youngest,  stayed  on  at  Kanadukathan 
while  Ramaswami  Chettiar  chose  Chidambaram  for  his  resi- 
dence and  stayed  there,  more  or  less  permanently,  visiting 
Kanadukathan  at  intervals. 

For  about  ten  years  Annamalai  Chettiar  devoted  him- 
self entirely  to  his  business  and  family  affairs.  He  was  very 
careful  in  his  choice  of  agents  to  conduct  his  firms  abroad 
and  he  avoided  the  not  uncommon  mistake  of  leaving  too 
much  to  them.  System,  regularity  and  attention  to  detail 
marked  his  way  of  doing  business.  With  slackers  he  had 
no  patience  at  any  time  and  such  was  his  driving  power  and 
force  of  example  that  his  firms  and  businesses  were  run 
without  a  hitch. 

The  results  of  his  methods  were  seen  in  the  returns. 
His  business  prospered  exceedingly.  With  fuller  profits  he 
decided  to  lead,  not  an  easier,  but  a  fuller  life.  The  ances- 
tral family  house,  big  as  a  barn,  was  not  exactly  to  his  taste 
and  he  built  himself  a  commodious  house  at  Kanadukathan. 
It  is  a  gracious  edifice  built  in  the  conventional  Nagarathar 
style  but  planned  on  liberal  lines,  with  larger  halls  and 
ampler  verandahs  than  is  common  in  Chettinad.  It  is  a 
house  with  character.  In  that  palatial  abode  more  than  one 
Governor  has  been  an  honoured  guest.  Men  of  light  and 
leading  from  all  over  the  country  have  enjoyed  the  Rajah's 
princely  hospitality  within  its  halls, 

Annamalai  Chettiar  toured  extensively  in  India, 
Burma,  Ceylon  and  Malaya.  He  was  always  fond  of  seeing 
"  cities  of  men,  manners  and  governments,"  and  acquired 


by  personal  study  a  remarkable  degree  of  varied  knowledge. 
In  1 910,  in  company  with  his  nephew,  the  late  Sir  M.  C.  T. 
Muthiah  Chettiar,  he  toured  over  Europe.  He  was  also 
accompanied  by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Miller  of  the  American  Mis- 
sion. They  were  old  friends  of  his  and  it  was  his  appre- 
ciation of  their  devoted  services  that  was  largely  respon- 
sible for  his  gifts  to  the  American  Mission.  He  spent 
many  months  in  England  and  saw  a  good  deal  of  the  country. 
Annamalai  Chettiar  was  deeply  interested  in  local  self- 
government  and  took  advantage  of  his  stay  in  England 
to  study  the  administration  of  parishes  and  county  councils. 
To  this  tour,  Annamalai  Chettiar  says  he  owes  much.  He 
was  impressed  by  the  efficiency  of  the  day-to-day  administra- 
tion of  affairs  in  the  west,  the  highly-developed  civic  sense 
of  the  people  and  wondered  why,  in  this  respect  modern 
India  should  not  follow  the  example  of  the  west. 

On  his  return  to  India,  he  enlarged  the  sphere  of  his 
activities.  He  desired  to  give  practical  expression  to  his  in- 
terest in  local  affairs  and  got  a  chance  to  do  so  when  he  be- 
came the  Chairman  of  the  Karaikudi  Union.  He  did  not 
regard  his  job  as  a  sinecure;  he  took  his  responsibility 
seriously  and,  in  his  time,  things  began  to  hum.  People  still 
talk  of  the  days — it  was  before  the  discovery  of  the  internal 
combustion  engine — when  Annamalai  Chettiar  used  to 
drive  up  to  Karaikudi,  all  the  way  from  Kanadukathan,  in 
his  landaulette  drawn  by  a  magnificent  pair  of  iron-grey 
horses,  go  round  the  town,  giving  orders  and  seeing  them 
carried  out  and  return  to  Kanadukathan,  while  to  the  rest 
of  the  townfolk,  the  day  was  just  beginning.  Spacious  days 
they  were  and,  in  his  own  heart,  I  feel  certain  Rajah  Sir 
Annamalai  Chettiar  looks  back  with  longing  to  the  days 
of  the  streamlined  landaulette,  on  which  the  most  luxurious 
Daimler  or  Buick,  he  asserts,  is  not  a  patch. 


He  was  Chairman  till  1913.  His  tenure  of  the  Munici- 
pal Chair  gave  him  a  lot  of  insight  into  the  problems  of 
Municipal  administration,  the  ways  of  men  who  will  help 
and  those  who  will  hinder,  and  he  learned  at  firsthand  when 
wheels  move  and  when  they  get  stuck.  He  was  also  a  mem- 
ber of  the  District  Board  and,  in  this  capacity  also,  he 
bestowed  careful  attention  to  parochial  problems.  He  was 
so  great  a  believer  in  self  help  that  he  induced  his  native 
village  of  Kanadukathan  to  form  itself  into  a  voluntary 
union  without  waiting  for  the  government  to  confer  that 
status  on  it. 

Annamalai  Chettiar  was  ever  ready  to  do  everything 
in  his  power  to  serve  the  interests  of  law.  On  one  occa- 
sion His  Majesty's  mails  were  waylaid  and  stolen.  Infor- 
mation was  sent  to  Annamalai  Chettiar  who,  with  a  hand- 
ful of  men,  scoured  the  country  in  person  and  finally  suc- 
ceeded in  running  the  offenders  to  earth  at  an  out-of-the 
way  spot,  just  as  they  were  in  the  process  of  dividing  the 
'  swag  '.  At  the  sight  of  the  '  intruders '  they  bolted,  leav- 
ing the  larger  part  of  the  loot  behind.  Annamalai 
Chettiar  recovered  the  properties  and  duly  forwarded 
them  to  the  District  Magistrate.  The  Police  were  soon 
on  the  tracks  of  the  runaway  robbers.  Those  were  the 
days  of  highway  robberies  and  dacoities  and  Annamalai 
Chettiar's  pluck  and  determination  came  in  for  cordial 
appreciation.  Here  was  another  proof  of  his  public  spirit 
and  soon  afterwards  he  received  the  sanad  and  badge  of 
Rao  Bahadur.  They  say  that  "a  good  launch  is  half  the 
voyage"  and  there  can  be  no  gainsaying  the  fact  that  Rao 
Bahadur  Annamalai  Chettiar  made  his  launch  into  public 
life  in  a  most  favourable  wind. 


In  1916,  Rao  Bahadur  Annamalai  Chettiar  was  nomi- 
nated to  the  Madras  Legislative  Council,  and  from  this 
time  he  divided  his  time  between  Chettinad  and  Madras. 

From  a  very  early  period,  Rao  Bahadur  Annamalai 
Chettiar  was  deeply  interested  in  education.  Education,  he 
was  convinced,  was  the  prime  need  of  this  country  and  he 
made  liberal  contributions  whenever  possible.  In  1915,  he 
provided  a  hostel  for  the  students  of  the  American  College 
at  Madura,  a  gift  which  was  greatly  appreciated.  The  sister 
institution,  known  as  the  Madura  College,  was  languishing 
for  lack  of  funds.  Rao  Bahadur  Annamalai  Chettiar  was 
approached  for  financial  aid  and  he  readily  contributed 
about  30,000  rupees,  being  one  half  of  the  amount  needed 
for  acquiring  a  site  for  the  location  of  the  College.  The 
other  half  was  contributed  by  the  Government. 

The  family  had  already  to  its  credit  the  High  School 
established  by  Dewan  Bahadur  Ramaswami  Chettiar  at 
Chidambaram.  Rao  Bahadur  Annamalai  Chettiar  desired  to 
extend  the  family  benefactions  so  as  to  cover  the  field  of 
higher  education  as  well.  His  ambition  was  to  build  and 
endow  a  College.  He  consulted  his  old  friend  and  colleague 
on  the  Legislative  Council,  The  Right  Hon'ble  V.  S.  Srini- 
vasa  Sastriar  who  enthusiastically  supported  the  idea.  The 
two  called  in  Mr.  P.  A.  Subramauia  Aiyar,  Headmaster  of 
the  Hindu  High  School,  a  veteran  educationist,  and  took 
counsel  together.  They  discussed  details,  ways  and  means. 
The  idea  grew  and  took  shape  in  Annamalai  Chettiar's  mind. 
The  question  was  where  the  proposed  college  should  be 
located.  At  ope  time,  Annamalai  Chettiar  thought  of 
Madura  but  the  rival  claims  of  Chidambaram  could  not 
easily  be  brushed  aside.  He  had  not  come  to  a  decision 



when  his  brother,  the  Dewan  Bahadur,  died.  It  was  patent 
that  he  would  have  to  take  some  practical  interest  in  the 
conduct  of  the  High  School  and  it  struck  him  that  the  best 
plan  under  the  circumstances  would  be  to  locate  the  Col- 
lege also  at  Chidambaram,  Doubts  were  raised  whether  the 
South  Arcot  District  was  the  most  suitable  area  for  the 
establishment  of  a  college.  It  was  said  that  the  experience 
of  the  past  was  against  it,  as  twice  previously  a  College  had 
been  started  at  Cuddalore,  but  had  been  allowed  to  languish. 
Annamalai  Chettiar  was  unconvinced.  What  were  the  rea- 
sons for  the  failure,  he  kept  asking.  In  his  own  mind,  he 
knew  the  answer.  Lack  of  funds,  a  Micawber-like  waiting 
on  hope,  and  slackness  in  management  should  have  been 
the  reasons  why  the  College  did  not  take  root.  He  thought 
over  the  matter  deeply  and  came  to  the  conclusion  that 
Chidambaram  was,  on  the  whole,  best  suited  for  the  pur- 
pose and  decided  in  its  favour.  The  reasons  which  weighed 
with  him  were,  firstly,  Chidambaram's  historic  and  religious 
associations  which  qualified  it  to  be  the  seat  of  a  University, 
and  secondly,  the  family's  age-long  connection  with  the  town 
and  its  devotion  to  Sri  Nataraja,  under  whose  divine  care 
and  protection  they  had  prospered  in  the  past. 

The  idea  once  formed,  there  was  no  delay  in  carrying  it 
out.  With  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai,  to  decide  is  to  act.  A 
staff  of  brilliant  men  was  collected  and  the  work  was  taken 
in  hand.  The  College  had  started  work  by  1918.  The 
absence  of  a  suitable  building  was  not  allowed  to  stand  in 
the  way.  Necessary  extensions  were  made  to  the  High 
school  to  accommodate  the  classes  newly  formed.  At  the 
same  time  plans  for  the  building  of  a  College  were  maturing. 
A  suitable  site  was  selected  and  the  work  of  construction 
began  in  right  earnest.  Annamalai  Chettiar  threw  himself 


into  the  work  heart  and  soul  and  spared  no  pains  for  the 
early  completion  of  the  project.  He  had  expert  assistance 
but  he  went  over  every  inch  of  the  ground  himself.  In 
purely  academic  matters,  he  trusted  implicitly  to  his  educa- 
tional advisers.  On  the  practical  side,  he  held  easy  sway. 
In  planning  the  buildings,  in  providing  funds  and  seeing  to 
their  proper  application,  Rao  Bahadur  Annamalai  Chettiar 
took  the  utmost  interest.  Not  a  stone  was  laid  and  not  a 
rupee  spent  which  had  not  met  with  his  previous  approval. 
Though  the  Rao  Bahadur  looked  to  most  things  in  person,  he 
took  care  not  to  get  into  people's  way.  His  own  views  and 
suggestions  were  so  sensible  and  practical  that  his  advice 
was  sought  at  every  turn.  On  the  academic  side,  he  was 
ably  assisted  by  Mr.  K.  A.  Nilakanta  Sastri,  the  first  Princi- 
pal of  the  Sri  Minakshi  College.  In  the  work  of  construc- 
tion he  had  the  benefit  of  the  willing  assistance  of  such 
engineering  experts  like  Dewan  Bahadur  A.  V.  Ramalinga 
Aiyar,  Dewan  Bahadur  Duraisingam  and  Dewan  Bahadur 
N.  Swaminatha  Aiyar. 

No  suitable  contractor  was  locally  available.  Materials 
had  to  be  brought  down  from  great  distances  but  this  was 
not  allowed  to  deter  or  delay  the  work  which  had  been 
undertaken.  He  worked  hard,  and  his  employees  worked 
hard.  The  Rajah  acts  on  the  principle  that  the  labourer  is 
worthy  of  his  hire.  And  the  labourers  in  turn  reacted 
so  splendidly  to  the  prevailing  mood  that  work  became  a 
pleasure.  The  construction  proceeded  like  clockwork  and 
the  new  Sri  Minakshi  College  was  completed  and  fit  for 
occupation  in  1923. 

While  engaged  in  advancing  the  cause  of  higher  educa- 
tion, Rao  Bahadur  Annamalai  Chettiar  had  not  been  un- 
mindful of  his  other  obligations.  In  1920,  he  stood  for  elec- 


tion  to  the  Council  of  State  and  was  returned  at  the  top  of 
the  polls.  In  the  same  year,  the  Viceroy  appointed  him  one 
of  the  Governors  of  the  Imperial  Bank  of  India.  In  both  of 
these  capacities,  he  had  increased  opportunities  of  serving 
the  country.  His  vast  experience  of  banking  made  him  ex- 
tremely valuable  on  the  Bank's  Governing  Board  while,  as 
an  elder  statesman,  he  expressed  himself  with  moderation 
and  good  sense.  To  the  Council  of  State  he  was  elected 
thrice  consecutively,  and  was  always  returned  at  the  head 
of  the  polls. 

To  him  honours  were  not  slow  in  coming.  In  1922,  he 
was  made  Dewan  Bahadur  and  in  1923,  a  knighthood  was 
conferred  upon  him.  Never  were  honours  more  deservedly 
bestowed.  Apart  from  the  record  to  his  credit  crowded 
with  achievement,  his  courtesy  and  charm  of  manner  had 
obtained  for  him  a  large  and  ever-increasing  circle  of  friends 
belonging  to  all  parties  and  spread  all  over  the  country. 

The  Sri  Minakshi  College  was  prospering.  With  the 
years,  it  grew  in  reputation  and  popularity.  So  good  was  its 
work  and  so  high  its  standing  in  the  educational  world  that 
Sir  Annamalai  conceived  the  idea  of  making  it  the  nucleus 
of  a  University.  He  took  counsel  with  his  numerous  friends, 
both  academic  and  lay,  and  they  welcomed  and  supported 
the  idea.  Lord  Goschen,  who  was  Governor  of  Madras,  and 
whose  interest  in  the  Sri  Minakshi  College  was  keen  and 
constant,  gave  the  proposal  his  instant  blessing.  An  Anna- 
malai University  Bill  was  drafted  and  was  passed  into  law. 
And  the  University  came  into  being  in  1929, 

The  inauguration  of  the  University  was  hailed  with 
universal  satisfaction  in  our  province.  Sir  Annamalai, 
the  Founder,  is  the  Pro-Chancellor  of  the  University. 


The  Right  Hon'ble  V.  S.  Srinivasa  Sastriar  was  appointed 
Vice-Chancellor  but,  because  he  had  to  go  away  as  the 
Agent  to  the  Governor  General  in  South  Africa,  he  could 
not  take  up  the  appointment.  Dewan  Bahadur  S.  E.  Runga- 
nadhan  was  appointed  Vice-Chancellor  in  1929  and  he  held 
the  office  till  1935.  Dewan  Bahadur  S.  E.  Runganadhan's 
unremitting  care  and  attention  helped  to  increase  the  use- 
fulness of  the  University.  He  was  succeeded  by  the  Right 
Hon'ble  V.  S.  Srinivasa  Sastriar  who  was  Vice-Chancellor 
for  five  years  and  by  the  distinction  of  his  personality  and 
his  devoted  work  enhanced  the  status  and  reputation  of  the 
University.  For  reasons  of  health  Mr.  Sastriar  had  to  resign 
in  1940,  and  Sir  Kurma  Venkata  Reddi  Garu,  Ex-Governor 
of  Madras,  with  a  distinguished  record  of  public  service  suc- 
ceeded him  as  Vice-Chancellor. 

Annamalainagar,  as  the  University  area  is  called,  is 
a  lovely  creation.  Beautifully  designed  colleges  and  halls, 
comfortable  quarters  for  the  staff,  broad  and  shady  parks,  a 
magnificent  cricket  pitch  and  spacious  playing  grounds  make 
it  an  ideal  spot  for  the  dissemination  of  education.  The  place 
is  packed  with  all  the  amenities  of  life.  Rowing  facilities, 
clubs  for  men  and  women,  temples  and  tanks  give  the  Uni- 
versity its  distinctive  charm.  Sanskrit,  Tamil  and  Music 
stand  out  prominently  in  the  University  courses,  a  matter  of 
deep  significance  from  the  cultural  point  of  view.  Students 
from  the  Tamil  country  flock  to  it  in  thousands  and  receive 
the  education  which  is  so  readily  imparted  in  ideal 
surroundings.  And  they  are  deeply  appreciative  of  the 
bounty  of  the  founder  who  saw  the  "  seed  of  learning  " 
imbedded  within  the  young  and  enabled  "its  flowered 
future"  to  unroll,  The  Founder's  Day  is  a  sort  of  minor 
annual  carnival  at  Annamalainagar. 



In  1929,  the  high  and  unique  distinction  of  a  hereditary 
Rajah  was  conferred  upon  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar.  A 
magnificent  thrill  of  delight  went  through  the  country.  The 
Nagarathars  were  overjoyed  and  organised  what  was  a  regu- 
lar carnival  to  express  their  joy.  The  celebrations  were 
held  at  Kovilur,  the  traditional  meeting-place  of  the  ninety- 
six  villages  of  Chettinad.  Thousands  of  fairy  lamps,  gleaming 
in  the  evening  in  the  streets,  gay  with  bunting  and  green- 
ery, turned  the  sleepy  little  township  into  a  veritable  fairy- 
land. The  Right  Hon'ble  V.  S.  Srinivasa  Sastriar  presided 
on  the  occasion.  His  close  friendship  with  Rajah  Sir  Anna- 
malai Chettiar  and  the  mutual  regard  which  was  known  to 
subsist  between  them  pointed  to  him  as  the  person  most 
fitted  to  take  the  chair. '  Numerous  friends  of  the  Rajah, 
representing  all  communities  and  all  shades  of  opinion, 
were  present.  In  a  magnificent  speech,  The  Right  Hon'ble 
V.  S,  Srinivasa  Sastriar  showed  how  eminently  the  Rajah 
was  fitted  for  the  regal  rank  bestowed  on  him. 

The  University  of  Madras  marked  their  appreciation 
of  the  Rajah's  services  to  education  by  conferring  on  him 
the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Laws. 

In  1935,  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  visited  England  at  the 
head  of  a  delegation  whose  purpose  was  to  obtain  the  neces- 
sary safeguards  in  regard  to  the  position  of  Indians  in  a 
separated  Burma.  The  Rajah  Sahib  interviewed  the  Secre- 
tary of  State,  Sir  Samuel  Hoare,  Mr.  R.  A.  Butler,  Lord 
Winterton  and  other  leading  members  of  Parliament.  It 
was,  on  the  whole,  a  successful  trip  and  valuable  concessions 
were  obtained.  Separation,  however,  has  forced  into  promi- 
nence other  outstanding  matters  all  of  which  Rajah  Sir 
Annamalai  Chettiar  handles  with  his  accustomed  energy  and 
determination.  The  Indo-Burma  Immigration  Agreement 


which  has  been  exercising  the  public  mind  considerably,  is 
engaging  his  attention  at  the  moment. 

From  England,  the  Rajah  paid  a  flying  visit  to  the 
United  States  of  America.  He  was  accompanied  by  Rani 
Lady  Annamalai  Chettiar  and  both  of  them  appeared  to  have 
enjoyed  the  visit  greatly.  Their  only  regret  was  that  they 
had  to  return  very  quickly  to  keep  their  various  engage- 
ments in  Great  Britain.  While  in  England,  the  Rajah 
visited  the  Universities  of  Oxford  and  Cambridge.  In 
Oxford,  he  met  the  Master  of  Balliol  who  showed  him  over 
the  University.  He  discussed  problems  of  University 
Administration  with,  it  was  said,  "considerable  insight." 
He  also  visited  the  several  slum  areas  as  he  is  keenly  interest- 
ed in  the  housing  conditions  of  the  poor.  His  visits  were 
not  intended  to  fill  a  dull  hour;  he  was  serious  and  purpose- 
ful in  making  them,  he  was  ulike  a  chiel,  takin  notes".  Sir 
Annamalai  had  the  knack  of  turning  all  his  experiences  to 
practical  account.  He  personally  designs  the  quarters  which 
he  provides  for  his  numerous  employees  and  dependants, 
and  these  are  invariably  airy  and  comfortable. 

Before  returning  to  India,  Sir  Annamalai  visited  Belgi- 
um, France  and  Germany.  In  Paris  he  was  able  to  dp  a  real 
good  turn  to  his  country.  The  Government  of  French  Indo- 
China  were  beginning  to  look  upon  Indians  with  dis- 
favour and  had  actually  expelled  some  of  them.  Sir 
Annamalai  took  the  matter  up  with  the  French  Govern- 
ment. The  India  Office  put  him  on  to  the  British  Embassy 
in  Paris,  who  arranged  a  meeting  with  M.  Rollin,  the  Minister 
for  Colonies.  M.  Rollin  recognised  the  force  of  Sir 
Annamalai's  contentions  and  promised  to  remedy  the 
situation,  which  he  did  v/ithout  loss  of  time.  In  this 
connection  the  Rajah  remembers  with  gratitude  the  help 


willingly  given  among  others  by  M.  Outrey,  an  exceedingly 
genial  and  helpful  member  of  the  Chamber  of  Deputies, 
and  M.  Eugene  Simoneau,  a  cultivated  and  charming  young 
Frenchman,  employed  as  Secretary  to  M.  Rollin  and  who 
has  since  joined  the  administration  at  Morocco  as  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Cabinet  of  General  Nogues. 

If  the  Rajah  has  a  hobby,  it  is  building.  It  may  be  said 
of  him  that  he  has  given  much  and  built  much.  In  England, 
and  all  over  the  Continent,  he  studied  novel  building  designs 
with  a  practised  eye.  His  houses  are  models  of  elegance  and 
comfort.  His  home  at  Chettinad  is  commodious,  well-light- 
ed and  airy  and  Chettinad  House  at  Adyar  is  a  lovely  piece 
of  architecture.  With  the  Adyar  on  one  side  and  the  sea  on 
the  other,  in  a  spacious  park,  it  stands,  a  fabric  in  white, 
which  looks  like  fairy  gossamer  at  dawn  in  a  December  mist. 
The  Palace  which  he  is  now  engaged  in  building  at  Chettinad 
is  certain  to  surpass  similai  edifices  in  grandeur  and  com- 

And  in  hall,  grange  and  park,  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai 
loves  to  dispense  hospitality.  His  visiting  list  is  long  and  his 
geniality  and  princely  hospitality  have  won  all  hearts. 
He  is  lucky  in  his  helpmate.  Rani  Lady  Annamalai 
Chettiar  is  an  ideal  wife,  and  has  won  all  hearts  by  her 
piety  and  charitable  disposition. 

In  his  house  at  Chettinad  he  has  been  honoured  by  the 
visits  of  successive  Governors  of  the  Province.  Lord 
Pentland  stayed  with  him  in  1916  and  was  struck  by  the 
Rajah's  standing  in  his  District. 

In  1932,  Lord  and  Lady  Willingdon  visited  Chettinad 
and  greatly  enjoyed  their  stay  at  his  house.  Lord  Goschen 
was  his  guest  in  1925.  The  Stanleys  spent  a  day  with  him  in 


1934  and  recently  in  March  last,  the  Rajah  had  the  honour 
of  entertaining  His  Excellency  Sir  Arthur  Hope  at  Chettinad. 
Rajah  Sir  Annamalai's  services  to  his  community  have  been 
marked  by  careful  attention  to  their  interests  here  and 
abroad.  He  has  been  the  President  of  the  Nattukkottai 
Nagarathars'  Association  for  many  years  and  has  secured 
for  the  Association  valuable  rights  and  privileges. 

Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar's  paramount  claim  to 
public  esteem  lies  in  the  abundant  charities  which  he  has 
founded.  Apart  from  the  University  which  is  the  biggest 
endowment  ever  made  by  a  single  individual  in  these  parts 
and  by  all  accounts  one  of  the  first  four  or  five  leading 
endowments  in  all  India,  he  has  given  large  sums  for 
schools,  hospitals  and  similar  benefactions.  It  is  a  safe 
estimate  that  his  numerous  benefactions  have,  so  far  cost 
the  Rajah  over  a  crore  of  rupees — a  truly  magnificent  re- 
cord indeed. 

One  may  safely  prophesy  that  the  future  of  the  family 
and  the  family  charities  is  assured.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai 
Chettiar's  sons  are  sure  to  carry  on  the  family  tradition.  His 
eldest  son  Kumararajah  Sir  M.  A.  Muthiah  Chettiar  has 
already  distinguished  himself  in  the  public  life  of  the  Presi- 
dency by  his  great  gifts  or  organization,  and  leadership.  As 
Mayor  of  Madras,  as  a  Minister  of  State,  as  the  leader  of  the 
Justice  Party  and  as  a  businessman  he  has  won  laurels.  The 
Rajah's  younger  sons,  Mr.  Ramanathan  Chettiar  and 
Chidambaram  Chettiar  are  in  business.  The  former  is  also 
Deputy  Sheriff  of  Madras. 

In  his  own  personal  habits  the  Rajah  is  extremely  simple. 
He  adheres  resolutely  to  the  Tamil  maxim  which  exhorts 
one  to  rise  before  the  dawn.  He  is  generally  up  at  four  in 
the  morning,  has  a  bath  and  has  an  early  cup  of  coffee.  He 



is  at  his  desk  by  six  and  by  about  ten  contrives  to  get  through 
the  bulk  of  the  day's  work.  He  walks  about  a  great  deal  and 
is  happiest  when  sauntering  on  his  grounds  directing  a  path 
to  be  made  here  or  a  tree  to  be  planted  there.  Of  music 
he  is  passionately  fond,  and  often,  while  at  work,  he  turns 
on  the  wireless  to  listen  to  his  favourities.  He  has  taken  in 
hand  the  resuscitation  of  Tamil  music  and  it  is  the  prayer 
of  his  numerous  friends  that  he  should  live  long  to  enjoy 
the  sweet  strains  he  is  doing  so  much  to  revive. 


Governor  of  Madras 

I  am  very  pleased  to  hear  that  the  University  is  cele- 
brating in  a  fitting  manner  the  Shastipurti  of  Rajah  Sir 
Annamalai  Chettiar,  and  to  add  my  own  warm  congratula- 
tions. The  Rajah's  munificence  has  been  widespread,  but 
it  is  above  all  for  his  magnificent  contribution  to  the  cause 
of  education  in  South  India  by  the  founding  of  Annamalai 
University  that  his  name  will  be  remembered  among  future 
generations  with  affection  and  respect. 




As  a  philanthropist,  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar 
stands  foremost  in  South  India.  The  munificent  gifts  that 
he  has  made  for  the  cause  of  education,  medical  aid,  and 
women  welfare  all  over  India  and  elsewhere,  not  to  speak 
of  his  other  charities,  distinguish  him  as  the  most  generous 
hearted  gentleman  of  the  present  generation.  In  particu- 
lar, the  University  at  Chidambaram  founded  by  him  with 
departments  of  Science,  Tamil,  Sanskrit  and  Music,  the  first 
residential  teaching  University  in  South  India,  is  a  boon  to 
the  rising  generation.  The  University  town  has  sprung,  as 
if  by  magic,  into  a  centre  beaming  with  intelligent  faces  and 
pursuing  academic  work  of  a  high  order.  That  part  of  the 
town  in  which  the  University  is  situated  has  been  fittingly 
named  after  the  Founder,  having  been  converted  from  a 
dry  waste  into  a  model  town  with  all  modern  amenities. 
Thus  the  University  with  its  colony  stands  to  the  credit  of 
Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  as  a  monument  of  his 
educational  munificence.  We  heartily  congratulate  him  on 
the  happy  function  of  the  celebration  of  the  completion  of 
his  60th  year  and  wish  him  long  life  and  prosperity. 


President,  Theosophical  Society 

It  is  with  very  great  pleasure  that  I  add  my  congratu- 
lations to  all  those  with  which  I  am  Sure  Rajah  Sir  Anna- 
malai  Chettiar  will  be  inundated  on  the  occasion  of  his 
Shashtiabdapurti — a  notable  spiritual  event  in  his  life  and 
the  herald,  I  am  sure,  of  that  added  fineness  of  stature  with 
which  the  new  period  will  bless  him. 

The  Rajah  Saheb  has  been  in  the  public  eye  almost 
from  the  beginning  of  his  career,  and  it  was  not  long  before 
he  entered  the  public  service  in  the  Councils  of  this  Presi- 
dency and  of  India.  Indeed,  this  very  year  marks  the 
twenty-fifth  anniversary  of  his  association  with  the  Madras 
Legislative  Council,  while  on  each  occasion  that  he  stood 
for  election  to  the  Council  of  Stale  he  was  returned  at  the 
top  of  the  poll,  thus  receiving  a  notable  token  of  the  esteem 
in  which  he  has  always  been  held  both  by  the  general 
public  and  by  his  own  community.  His  Majesty  the  King- 
Emperor  has  fittingly  recognised  the  outstanding  worth  of 
Sir  Annamalai  by  conferring  upon  him  honour  after 
honour,  and  worthily  have  these  been  worn. 

As  a  business  man  he  has  achieved  success  which  few 
even  among  his  peers  have  reached,  largely  because  his 
benefactions  have  always  increased  as  his  worldly  pros- 
perity has  grown.  But  the  crown  of  them  all  has  been  the 
great  Annamalai  University  at  Chidambaram — a  verita- 
ble monument  to  his  public  spirited  patriotism  and  kingly 
generosity.  Most  rightly  did  the  Rajah  Saheb  say  in  1926, 
a  few  years  before  the  actual  establishment  of  the  Univer- 

Since  days  long  past,  Chidambaram  has  been  a  great 
centre  of  culture  in  South  India  and  has  enlisted  the 


devotion  alike  of  her  warriors  and  kings,  philosophers 
and  poets.  It  has  often  struck  me  that  at  Chidam- 
baram, if  anywhere  in  South  India,  there  is  a  great 
opportunity  fur  working  on  chosen  lines  and  to  noble 
ends  that  synthesis  of  the  great  cultures  of  the  East  and 
the  West  which  is  the  prime  task  of  our  country  and 
of  her  educational  institutions  at  this  hour. 

Chidambaram  is  indeed  a  sacred  spot  fragrant  with 
the  splendour  of  noble  lives  and  with  the  dedication  of 
mighty  saints,  and  there  could  be  no  better  setting  for 
the  education  of  India's  young  citizens  in  the  true 
spirit  of  their  Motherland. 

Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  has  thus  sought  to  make 
available  to  these  modern  days  of  India's  life  the  very  soul 
of  India's  spiritual  greatness  that  her  young  sons  and 
daughters  of  to-day  may  be  greatly  inspired  to  build  a  future 
worthy  of  her  incomparable  past. 

Surely  the  blessings  of  Bharata  Mata  must  be  upon 
him  for  this  signal  act  of  filial  homage  to  her  and  will 
gladden  his  way  as  he  passes  this  sixtieth  landmark  of  his 
present  incarnation. 

May  he  be  spared  many  years  to  continue  his  great 
services  to  India  and  to  this  Presidency. 

MR.  T.  AUSTIN,  C.I.E.,  I.C.S., 

Adviser,  Government  of  Madras 

I  gladly  add  my  best  wishes  to  the  commemoration 
volume  which  is  to  mark  the  completion  of  Rajah  Sir  Anna- 
malai Chettiar's  sixtieth  year.  The  list  of  his  benefactions 
is  long  and  varied:  in  the  great  generosity  shown  towards 



educational  institutions  and  the  welfare  of  women,  he  has 
taken  the  direction  where  help  is  so  much  needed.  I  wish 
the  Rajah  Sahib  many  more  years  of  useful  life. 

REV.    FATHER  P.    CARTY,  S.J. 

The  61st  birthday  celebration  of  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Anna- 
malai  Chettiar  of  Chettinad  appeals  to  me  not  only  as  the 
worthy  public  recognition  of  the  truly  royal  munificence  of 
one  of  India's  most  distinguished  sons  and  benefactors,  but 
also  as  an  event  of  national  importance,  occurring  as  it  does 
at  the  very  time  when  the  world  suffers,  as  it  has  rarely  suf- 
fered before,  from  the  inhuman  machinations  of  ruthless 
malefactors.  This  horrifying  background  of  fierce  war  and 
bloodshed  involving  in  its  destruction  peaceful  and  harmless 
citizens  even  more  than  the  armed  forces,  sets  out  by  con- 
trast, as  nothing  else  would,  this  admirable  life  of  peaceful 
endeavour  so  generously  and  so  unassumingly  spent  in  the 
one  object  of  doing  good  and  being  good  to  others  and 
making  people  happy. 

The  benefactions  of  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  have  be- 
come a  household  word  not  only  in  South  India  but  in  the 
North  and  in  Burmah  as  well;  and  what,  to  my  mind,  makes 
their  chief  value  is  the  high  purpose  which  we  discover  be- 
hind each  one  of  them.  They  are  either  charitable  endow- 
ments seeking  to  relieve  the  misery  of  the  poor,  or  religious 
endowments  which  clearly  indicate  his  high  spiritual  motives 
and  reveal  that  sense  of  service  to  man  for  God's  sake  which 
is  so  different  from  mere  humanitarianism; — or,  lastly,  but 
not  the  least,  educational  endowments  which  he  has  spread 
so  lavishly  throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  India  and 
Burmah.  If  I  stress  this  last  proof  of  his  genuinely  gener- 


ous  and  kindly  heart  it  is  because  by  his  munificent  largesses 
in  this  field  he  has  shown  the  high  value  he  sets  on  the  pro- 
motion of  education  and  learning  in  India,  In  this  he  is  per- 
fectly right,  since  obviously  a  nation  of  illiterates  is  bound 
to  lag  behind  in  every  form  of  improvement  and  progress. 
And  though  India  cannot  certainly  be  called  an  illiterate 
country  when  we  consider  the  quality  and  the  numbers  of 
those  of  India's  sons  who,  in  the  field  of  learning  and  science, 
can  proudly  stand  any  comparison  with  those  of  other  coun- 
tries, nevertheless  the  hundreds  of  millions  who  still  await 
their  chance  of  receiving  even  a  fairly  adequate  elementary 
education,  reveal  perhaps  one  of  the  chief  factors  which 
account  for  the  slow  march  of  all-round  progress  in  India. 
For  it  is  by  the  brains  of  its  citizens  that  a  nation  ultimately 
develops  and  prospers. 

It  is  the  peculiar  merit  of  Dr.  Kajah  Sir  Annamalai  to 
have  keenly  realized  this  fundamental  need  of  India  and  to 
have  come  forward  to  meet  it  on  so  magnificent  a  scale.  It 
is,  moreover,  a  peculiar  trait  of  his  enlightened  generosity 
that  by  the  crowning  foundation  of  the  Annamalai  University 
he  has  opened  up  new  vistas  of  higher  learning  and  efficiency 
to  many  a  poor  student  who,  but  for  this  institution  and  the 
free  scholarships  with  which  it  is  endowed,  would  have  been 
unable  to  rise  from  their  humble  surroundings  and  to  take 
place  among  the  builders  of  India's  future. 

I  feel  deeply  honoured  to  have  been  invited  to  associate 
myself  with  the  many  admirers  of  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai 
in  expressing  in  however  imperfect  a  manner,  my  personal 
esteem,  respect  and  admiration  for  him  on  this  auspicious 



On  the  occasion  of  the  Sastyabda-poorti  of  Dr.  Rajah 
Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  of  Chettinad,  I  have  great  pleasure 
in  wishing  him  many  more  years  of  happy  and  useful  life. 

My  son  was  a  student  of  the  University  of  which  Rajah 
Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  is  the  founder,  and  the  glowing 
accounts  he  has  given  me  of  the  University  will  ever  remain 
fresh  in  my  memory. 

KULAPATHl   DR.    J.    H.    COUSINS, 

Art   Adviser  to   the   Government   of  Travancore ; 
Head  of  the  Department  of  Fine  Arts,  University  of  Travancore 

I  have  watched  the  career  of  the  Honourable  the  Rajah 
of  Chettinad,  with  deep  appreciation  of  the  princely  manner 
in  which  he  put  the  material  results  of  his  genius  in  the 
affairs  of  the  outer  life  into  the  creation  of  a  great  institution 
for  the  development  of  the  powers  of  the  inner  life  of  the 
young  men  and  women  of  South  India.  I  have  also  been 
much  gratified  by  his  continued  fostering  of  the  Annamalai 
University,  and  trust  that  the  institution  will  have  the 
benefit  of  his  guidance  for  many  fruitful  years  to  come. 


Barrister-at-Law,  President,  Council  of  State 

I  am  very  glad  to  state  that  I  had  come  in  close  contact 
with  my  friend  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  of  Chetti- 
nad for  many  years  in  our  capacity  as  members  of  the  Coun- 
cil of  State,  and  I  had  always  entertained  very  high  opinion 
of  his  business  ability  and  his  noble  and  spotless  character. 
He  was  well  respected  by  all  the  members  of  the  Council  of 


State  and  his  debates  in  that  House  were  full  of  information, 
sober  thought  and  sound  judgment.  His  business  capacity 
is  very  much  respected  in  the  town  and  Presidency  of 
Madras.  He  is  an  ornament  of  his  community  and  I  pray 
that  he  will  be  spared  for  many  years  to  render  good  and 
substantial  services  to  his  country  which  for  many  years 
he  has  so  faithfully  discharged. 

PKOFESSOR  B.   B.   DEY,  D.Sc.   (LONDON),  F.I.C.,  I.E.S., 

Presidency  College,  Madras. 

The  foundation  of  the  Annamalai  University  the  first 
real  residential  University  in  the  South,  through  the  vision 
and  munificence  of  one  single  individual,  is  unique  in  the 
annals  of  education  in  this  Presidency,  and  the  beneficial 
work  of  the  University  with  its  high  standard  of  efficiency 
is  slowly  becoming  known  throughout  the  country. 

My  close  association  with  the  University  even  from  its 
inception,  and  particularly  with  the  Chemistry  department 
which  has  been  built  up  so  efficiently  by  my  friend  Dr.  S.  N. 
Chakravarthi  has  made  me  familiar  with  the  work  of  the 
Science  Departments  and  particularly  with  the  research 
activities  in  Chemistry  and  in  Physics,  which  would  do 
honour  to  any  of  the  old  Universities  in  this  country. 

I  send  my  best  wishes  for  success  of  the  celebrations  of 
the  event. 

Ex-Governor  of  Madras. 

I  send  my  best  wishes  to  the  Rajah  of  Chettinad  on 
the   occasion   of   his   sixtieth   birthday.     The   Annamalai 



University  will  remain  a  lasting  symbol  of  his  love  for 
learning  and  culture.  The  Tamil  country  should  ever  be 
grateful  to  Sir  Annamalai  as  one  of  the  leading  educational 
benefactors  of  South  India.  May  he  be  with  us  for  many 
more  years. 

Presidency  College,  Madras 

It  is  extremely  pleasing  to  me  to  render  my  tribute  on 
the  occasion  of  the  celebration  of  the  Shashtiabdapurthi 
(61st  birthday),  of  the  Rajah  Saheb  of  Chettinad  for  the 
invaluable  services  he  has  rendered  to  the  cause  of  higher 
education  in  this  country. 

Apart  from  the  traditional  and  free-handed  generosity 
for  which  his  family  has  been  noted,  his  own  benefactions 
for  the  relief  of  suffering,  the  uplift  of  the  poor,  the  renova- 
tion of  our  ancient  temples  and  the  promotion  of  indigenous 
culture  have  been  immense.  Besides,  one  cannot  but  be 
struck  with  his  pioneer  achievement  in  a  new  and  most  fruit- 
ful direction,  namely,  the  starting  on  a  magnificient  scale, 
of  the  first  Unitary  Residential  University  in  South  India. 
This  is  but  the  beginning  of  the  realisation  of  the  idea  of 
establishing  Residential  rather  than  merely  Examining, 
Universities,  at  the  principal  centres  of  culture,  within  the 
jurisdiction  of  the  overgrown  University  of  Madras  and  the 
Rajah  Saheb  deserves  to  be  congratulated  on  taking  the 
first  step  in  this  direction. 

It  was  on  the  sub-structure  of  the  Sri  Minakshi  College 
at  Chidambaram  which  the  Rajah  had  started  in  1920  and 
which  had  developed  into  a  vigorous  and  popular  Honours 
College,  that  the  Annamalai  University  was  founded.  It 


not  only  embodies  the  idea  of  a  University  of  the  Residen- 
tial type  but  also  serves  as  a  centre  in  which  the  genius  of 
Tamil  culture  can  be  fostered.  For  over  two  decades  the 
Rajah  has  assiduously  watered  and  anxiously  watched  the 
tender  plant  that  had  been  set  in  the  soil  of  hallowed 
Chidambaram.  The  sapling  has  now  become  a  big  and  leafy 
tree  spreading  its  foliage  over  a  number  of  branches 
of  learning,  one  of  which  we  may  note  with  pride,  is 
South  Indian  Music  and  another  the  department  devoted  to 
the  revival  of  Tamil  Literature  and  Culture. 

The  Rajah  Saheb's  many-sided  philanthropy  has  thus 
reached  its  acme  in  the  Annamalai  University.  This  will 
perhaps  be  the  most  serviceable  and  enduring  of  all  his 
charities.  It  is,  my  sincere  prayer  that  he  may  be  long 
spared  to  us  to  see  his  work  thrive  and  prosper  and  if  possi- 
ble, to  render  yet  other  valuable  services  to  South  India. 


"I  would  wish  the  Rajah  Saheb  many  a  long  year  of 
useful  service." 


It  is  but  right  and  fitting  that  the  Annamalai  Univer- 
sity is  celebrating  in  a  fitting  manner  the  60th  year  of  its 
great  founder  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar.  His  many 
sided  charities  are  well-known  throughout  India  and  have 
earned  the  esteem  of  his  fellow  countrymen.  My  esteemed 
father  the  late  Mr.  V.  V.  Jogiah  Pantulu,  and  myself  have 
known  the  Rajah  Saheb  for  nearly  two  decades  and  we 
always  appreciated  his  services  to  the  country.  His  sacrifice 


for  establishing  the  University  will  ever  be  remembered.  I 
wish  the  Rajah  Sahib  long  life,  happiness  and  prosperity  to 
continue  his  great  work  of  putting  the  University  on  a  sound 


Chief  Justice  of  India  and  Vice -Chancellor,  Delhi  University 

The  princely  benefactions  of  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai 
Chettiar  of  Chettinad  are  known  over  the  whole  of  India, 
and  it  is  difficult  to  say  which  we  have  admired  the  more, 
the  magnificence  of  his  gifts  or  the  breadth  of  his  sympa- 
thies, for  no  good  cause  has  ever  appealed  to  him  in  vain. 
Education  owes  him  an  inestimable  debt,  not  only  for  what 
he  himself  has  done,  great  though  that  is,  but  for  the  noble 
example  which  he  has  set  to  others. 

It  is  not  given  to  many  men  at  their  Shashtiabdapurthi 
to  look  back  on  a  life  so  full  of  liberality  and  beneficence  ; 
and  all  those  who  labour  in  the  field  of  education  will  join 
in  offering  their  most  hearty  congratulations  to  the  Rajah 
Saheb  upon  this  anniversary  and  their  earnest  prayers  that 
he  may  live  to  enjoy  many  more  years  of  happiness  and 

MR.    A.    A.    HAYLES, 

Editor.  Madras  Mail. 

Nearly  a  hundred  years  divide  Annamalai  Chettiar 
from  Pachaiyappa,  but  it  is  significant  that  the  century 
which  opened  with  the  founding  of  a  school  and  college  by 
one  great  South  Indian  should  have  closed  with  the  esta- 


blishment  by  another  of  a  university.  Rajah  Sir  Anna- 
malai  Chettiar  will  be  best  remembered  for  the  university 
which  bears  his  name,  but  that  only  partially  represents  his 
benevolence.  From  the  temples  he  has  built  or  renovated 
and  endowed  for  the  benefit  of  his  fellow  religionists  to  the 
hospitals  and  other  public  institutions,  big  or  small,  that  he 
has  supported  his  charity  has  flowed  into  many  channels, 
helping  those  less  favourably  circumstanced  than  himself. 

A  genial,  wise  and  uncommonly  shrewd  personality, 
Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  has  made  friends  in  many 
places  and  in  different  walks  of  life.  They  join  his  col- 
leagues and  fellow- workers  in  wishing  him  continued  hap- 
piness and  prosperity. 

C.J.E.,  B.L.,  M.L.A., 

Vice-Chancellor,    Calcutta    University 

On  the  happy  day  when  the  Hon'ble  The  Rajah  of 
Chettinad,  the  Pro-Chancellor  of  the  Annamalai  University 
completes  his  sixtieth  year  I  recall  the  great  service  which 
he  has  rendered  to  the  cause  of  education  and  social  wel- 
fare of  the  people  of  the  province  of  Madras.  The  Anna- 
malai University  stands  most  pre-eminently  as  the  monu- 
ment of  his  great  work.  He  has  given  a  new  incentive  to 
the  cultural  life  of  the  people  cf  the  Annamalai  area  and 
I  am  sure  that  a  time  will  come  when  under  the  auspices 
of  the  University,  Annamalai  will  stand  second  to  none 
in  the  cultural  progress  of  India.  The  Rajah  has  been 
closely  associated  with  many  aspects  of  public  life  and  the 
people  all  over  India  must  always  feel  gratitude  for  all 
that  he  has  done  for  the  people  of  this  country. 



President,  H.E.H.  The  Nizam's  Executive  Council 

I  have  had  the  privilege  of  knowing  Dr.  Rajah  Sir 
Annamalai  Chettiar  for  a  number  of  years  and  of  being 
aware  of  the  great  charities  dispensed  by  him  for  public 
benefit  and  utility,  the  most  monumental  endowment  being 
the  Annamalai  University  itself  which  derives  its  name  from 
its  most  generous  donor.  The  example  set  by  this  great 
philanthropist  is  one  which  may  well  be  copied  by  others 
who  have  the  good  fortune  of  possessing  wealth  and  the 
spirit  and  the  heart  to  use  it  for  the  benefit  of  mankind. 


It  is  with  genuine  pleasure  that  I  avail  myself  of  this 
opportunity  to  convey  my  hearty  felicitations  to  Rajah  Sir 
Annamalai  Chettiar  on  the  completion  of  his  sixtieth  year, 
and  to  wish  him  many  years  of  happiness  and  usefulness  to 
his  fellow-citizens. 

Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar's  record  as  a  philanthropist  is 
one  of  which  any  man  may  be  proud.  As  the  Founder  of 
the  Annamalai  University,  his  name  will  ever  be  remem- 
bered. That  University  will  stand  for  all  time  as  the 
noblest  record  of  his  munificence  and  his  public  spirit. 

A  most  obliging  friend,  a  generous  host,  a  successful 
business  man,  Sir  Annamalai  is  a  most  prominent  and  popu- 
lar figure  in  the  social  and  commercial  life  of  this  Province. 

Let  me  wish  him  once  more  every  good  fortune  in  the 
years  to  come. 



I  count  it  a  privilege  to  send  a  message  for  the  Com- 
memoration Volume  to  be  presented  to  Dr.  Rajah  Sir 
Annamalai  Chettiar  of  Chettinad  on  his  61st  birthday. 

Few  men  acquire  great  riches;  fewer  still  use  those 
riches  for  the  common  weal.  The  Rajah  has  done  both. 
He  must  indeed  be  a  happy  man  when  he  contemplates  the 
many  monuments  of  his  generosity — and  particularly  the 
spectacle  of  that  University  which  was  founded  and 
endowed  by  him,  and  so  fittingly  perpetuates  his  name. 

Titles  have  rightly  been  bestowed  upon  the  Rajah;  but 
I  have  no  doubt  that  on  this  day  his  heart  will  be  warmed, 
not  by  their  decorative  dignity  but  by  the  gratitude  and 
affection  of  all  classes  in  his  and  succeeding  generations. 

When  I  wish  him  many  happy  returns  of  his  birthday 
anniversary,  it  is  not  the  usual  formal  greeting.  It 
expresses  the  sincere  wish  of  one  of  his  many  friends  that 
he  may  long  be  spared  to  continue  his  charitable  activi- 
ties and  to  share,  with  his  family,  the  satisfaction  and  re- 
ward of  years  of  distinguished  public  service. 


In  any  part  of  the  world  to  find  a  man  who  devotes  his 
wealth  to  discriminating  charities,  bringing  great  institu- 
tions into  existence  for  the  benefit  of  his  fellow  subjects,  is 
rare.  Such  a  man  is  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar, 
whom  the  whole  of  India  in  general,  and  the  Madras  Pro- 
vince in  particular,  will  congratulate  on  his  61st  birthday. 
He  will  ever  be  remembered  in  his  Province  as  the  Founder 
of  a  great  University  and  as  a  great  patron  of  Art  and 


Young  men  of  the  Province  of  Madras  will  for  genera- 
tions be  grateful  to  the  man  who  helped  to  educate  them. 
May  all  the  educational  institutions  founded  by  him  help  to 
produce  Indians  who  will  be  an  honour  to  their  country. 

It  is  a  pleasure  to  know  the  Rajah  Saheb  personally,  a 
most  unassuming  man  who,  having  amassed  a  fortune, 
delights  in  helping  those  who  are  not  so  fortunate  as  himself. 
May  he  continue  to  add  to  the  good  works  that  have  distin- 
guished his  whole  career. 

Minister  for  Home  Affairs  &  Leader  of  the  State  Council,  Ceylon 

I  have  been  invited  to  associate  myself  with  the  cele- 
brations which  the  Annan) alai  University  proposes  to  hold 
in  connection  with  the  sixty-first  birthday  of  Sir  Anna- 
malai  Chettiar,  the  Founder  and  Pro-Chancellor  of  the 
University.  I  respond  with  sincere  pleasure,  and  send  this 
brief  message  in  order  to  express  my  high  appreciation  of 
the  great  services  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  has  rendered  to 
his  country,  notably  in  the  sphere  of  education. 

Last  December  it  was  my  good  fortune  to  visit  the 
Annamalai  University  and  see  for  myself  the  magnificent 
work  that  is  being  done  in  that  unique  institution.  Dur- 
ing that  visit  I  had  also  the  opportunity  of  gaining  some 
idea  of  the  generous  liberality  with  which  Sir  Annamalai 
is  maintaining  religious  and  charitable  institutions  in  that 
part  of  the  country. 

"Data  jagati  durlabhah"  (a  giver  is  rare  in  this  world) 
is  an  ancient  and  true  saying.     Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  has 

by  his  munificence  earned  the  right  to  be  enrolled  among 


those  rare  beings  who  spend  their  wealth  nobly  for  the  wel- 
fare of  humanity. 

MB.  T.  J.  KEDAR,  B.A.,  LL.B.,  M.L.A., 
Vice -Chancellor,  Nagpur  University 

It  is  with  the  greatest  pleasure  that  I  associate  myself 
in  the  celebration  of  the  Diamond  Jubilee  of  the  Founder 
Pro-Chancellor  of  the  Annamalai  University. 

Unique  among  the  educational  benefactions  in  Modern 
India,  the  princely  donation  of  the  Hon'ble  Rajah  Dr.  Sir 
S.  R.  M.  Annamalai  Chettiar  of  Chettinad  laid  the  founda- 
tion of  a  new  teaching  University  in  India.  And  it  has  been 
given  to  him,  as  it  has  been  given  to  few,  to  nurse  and  bring 
up  the  most  favourite  child  of  his  own  charity  and  to  set 
it  going  on  the  path  of  progress  under  his  paternal  guid- 

May  the  noble  Rajah  live  a  hundred  years  and  may  his 
great  example  inspire  others  and  bear  thousandfold  fruit ! 


Additional  Secretary  to  the  Government  of  Madras,  Public  Department 

I  am  glad  that  the  Annamalai  University  is  intending 
to  celebrate  the  Sashtiabdhapoorthi  of  its  Founder-Pro- 
Chancellor.  It  is  very  meet  that  it  should  do  so.  The 
attainment  of  the  Sixtieth  year  is  an  auspicious  event  in 
the  life  of  every  Hindu  ;  but  in  the  case  of  the  Rajah  of 
Chettinad,  who  has  dedicated  such  a  substantial  part  of  his 
wealth  as  he  has  done  for  the  benefit  of  the  Annamalai 



University,  the  event  is  one  for  national  celebration  and 

The  name  of  the  Rajah  of  Chettinad  will  be  promi- 
nent in  the  roll  of  the  honoured  names  of  great  Kings, 
Noblemen  and  others  who  have  encouraged  learning  and 
Arts.  In  one  sense,  his  work  is  greater  than  that  of  many  of 
tKem,  as  he  has  not  been  content  merely  with  patronising 
one  or  more  individual  poets  or  musicians,  but  has  created 
a  whole  University  with  its  many-sided  activities  which  in 
course  of  time  would  bring  forth  a  whole  host  of  poets, 
philosophers,  economists,  scientists,  musicians  and'  leaders 
of  men. 

The  Rajah  of  Chettinad  is  an  example  of  what  is 
expected  of  rich  and  wealthy  men  in  these  days.  ThougK 
the  inheritor  of  a  vast  fortune,  he  is  one  who  has  not  been 
content  to  sit  idle  and  enjoy  himself,  but  his  life  has  been  a 
great  example  of  active  work,  diligence  and  devotion  to 

Even  as  regards  this  University,  but  for  his  persever- 
ence  and  resolve,  it  would  not  have  come  into  being.  After 
its  coming  into  existence,  the  constant  care  and  attention 
he  has  been  bestowing  on  its  welfare  and  progress  are  truly 

His  original  endowments  and  gifts  to  the  University 
which  are  already  fabulous  have  constantly  been  added  to, 
every  time  when  the  University  was  in  need  of  help. 

But  the  University  is  no  longer  the  Rajah's  property 
but  is  a  national  institution  specially  intended  for  the 
benefit  of  the  Tamil  land.  It  is  the  duty  of  all  of  us  to  see 
that  the  institution  does  not  languish  for  want  of  support 
and  that  it  becomes  truly  and  in  effect  a  magnificent 
Temple  of  Learning  for  the  whole  of  the  Tamil  land. 


Chidambaram  is  situated  in  the  heart  of  the  Tamil 
country.  It  is  known  in  our  ancient  books  as  the 
centre  of  the  Universe.  It  has  hoary  traditions  of  learn- 
ing; but  the  glory  of  the  ancient  traditions  of  this  town 
will,  I  hope,  be  nothing  as  compared  with  the  glory  which 
ought  to  be  its  future. 

Being  a  Residential  University,  it  has  special 
facilities  to  enable  the  students  tc  learn  the  greatest  of 
all  Arts,  and  so  far  as  India  is  concerned,  also  the  most  diffi- 
cult of  all  Arts,  namely,  the  art  of  living  together.  It  can  not 
only  help  in  the  creation  of  a  cultured  and  intelligent 
society,  but  to  build  up  a  fraternity  which  will  replace  the 
strife  of  classes  by  social  peace. 

Now  that  an  Andhra  University  has  come  into  ex- 
istence for  the  Andhradesa,  a  Travancore  University  for 
the  Malayalam  speaking  peoples,  a  Mysore  University  for 
the  Kannada-speaking  people,  this  University  must  be 
treated  by  the  Tamilians  as  the  embodiment  of  their  aspira- 
tions and  the  realisation  of  their  unity. 

It  is  the  prayer  of  every  citizen  in  this  Province 
that  the  Raja  of  Chettinad  will  be  spared  to  us  for  many 
many  years  to  come  and  that  he  and  his  children  and  chil- 
dren's children  will  be  happy  and  prosperous  from  genera- 
tion to  generation. 


Advocate  General,  Madras 

I  rejoice  in  the  opportunity  that  you  have  so  kindly 
afforded  me  to  send  my  most  cordial  and  affectionate 
greetings  to  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar,  the 
Founder  and  Pro-Chancellor  of  the  University  on  his  61st 


birthday.  The  event  represents  according  to  our  Hindu 
notions  a  significant  mile-stone  in  one's  life  and  it  is  singu- 
larly appropriate  that  the  University  which  he  founded  and 
has  been  nursing  with  such  devotion  should  organise  the 
celebration  with  felicite'  and  goodwill. 

The  Annamalai  University  is  by  far  the  most  outstand- 
ing contribution  to  the  cause  of  University  education  by 
any  private  benefactor  in  this  part  of  India.  To  the  Rajah 
of  Chettinad  belongs  the  credit  of  giving  a  new  direction 
to  the  well-known  philanthropy  and  the  public  spirit edness 
of  the  Nattukottai  Chettiar  community.  Not  content  with 
founding  the  University  the  Rajah  has  been  taking  a  sustain- 
ed, living  atid  parental  interest  in  the  work  of  the  University 
and  has  add^d  largelv  to  ihe  original  foundation  bv  the 
institution  of  new  scholarships  and  studentships. 

it  is  not  \\f±\rovL(  Signincance  that  the  University  is 
located  in  the  heart  of  the  Tamil  country  sanctified  by  the 
shrine  of  Lord  Sri  Nataraja,  "The  Kovil"  of  Saivite 
Literature.  At  Chidambaram  Patanjali  and  Vyagrapadha 
performed  their  great  tapas  and  Nandanar  in  later  times 
attained  his  beatitude.  I  have  no  doubt  that  Sanskrit  and 
Tamil  culture  will  radiate  from  this  University  and  that 
votaries  of  science  and  humanities  will  gather  within  its 
walls  and  spread  knowledge  to  the  different  parts  of  India. 

It  is  my  fervent  hope  and  prayer  that  the  Rajah  may  be 
long  spared  in  health  and  happiness  to  be  of  service  to  the 
country  and  to  the  cause  of  education,  that  the  institution 
which  he  has  founded  and  nursed  may  grow  from  strength 
to  strength  and  that  from  its  walls  may  go  forth  men  and 
women  filled  with  the  sense  of  the  text  of  the  great  Upani- 




Om.  From  the  unreal  lead  me  to  the  Real. 
From  darkness  lead  me  to  Light. 
From  death  lead  me  to  Immortality. 

MB.    V.    N.    KUDUVA,  M.A.,  I.C.S., 
Collector,  South  Arcot, 

For  generations,  Nagarathars  have  been  weJI-known 
for  their  charities.  The  temples  renovated  and  en- 
dowed by  them  are  innumerable,  and  they  are  by  no 
means  confined  to  the  Tamil  Nad.  A  healthily  conserva- 
tive community,  their  charities,  while  they  are  extensive, 
had  till  recently  a  tendency  to  run  in  time-honoured  and 
traditidnal  grooves.  It  was  given  to  the  Rajah  Sir  Anna- 
malai  Chettiar  of  Chettinod  the  auspicious  occasion  of  whose 
sixtyfirst  birthday,  has  evoked  expressions  of  gratitude  from 
his  countrymen,  to  strike  a  new  channel  of  philanthropy  by 
devoting  a  considerable  portion  of  his  wealth  to  the  creation 
of  a  new  University  which  perpetuates  his  name. 

Chidambaram  is  singularly  fortunate  to  have  attracted 

the  attention  of  the  Rajah  Sahib's  family  and  to  have  been 
the  recipient  of  their  benefactions.  For  over  three  genera- 
tions, members  of  his  family  have  spent  a  fortune  in  the 
stupendous  task  of  renovation  of  the  great  Sabhanayaka 
shrine  including  the  rebuilding  of  the  gopurams,  manta- 
pams,  and  fine-pillared  corridors  of  the  inner  enclosures  of 
the  Sri  Nataraja  Temple,  a  shrine  which  was  for  over  fifteen 




centuries  a  great  centre  of  South  Indian  culture, 
which  attracted  the  devotion  of  the  Chola  Kings  and  a 
large  number  of  saints,  philosophers  and  poets  who  have 
left  an  indelible  mark  and  shaped  the  culture  of  the  Tamil 
people.  The  action  of  the  Rajah  Sahib  in  completely  and 
effectively  renovating  the  dilapidated  shrine  of  Sri  Govinda- 
raja  is  characteristic  of  his  catholicity  of  mind  in  view  of  the 
age-long  disputes  between  the  followers  of  the  Vaishnavite 
and  Saivite  faiths  which  had  marred  the  harmony  of  the 
great  shrine.  Chidambaram  has  also  to  be  specially  grateful 
to  the  Rajah  Sahib's  elder  brother,  the  late  Dewan  Bahadur 
Ramaswami  Chettiar,  for  its  two  great  amenities,  a  flourish- 
ing High  School  which  provides  for  the  education  of  its 
youth,  and  its  protected  water-supply  which  has  to  a  large 
extent  minimised  the  ravages  of  cholera  arid  filaria. 

The  nucleus  of  the  University,  Sri  Minakshi  College 
was  founded  by  the  Rajah  Sahib  in  1920,  and  by  rapid  and 
successive  stages,  it  has  been  developed  into  a  University  of 
a  unitary  teaching  and  residential  type  which  is  unique  in 
South  India.  The  purpose  and  aims  of  this  University  in 
the  words  of  the  Rajah  Sahib  are  "to  embody  and  work  for 
the  synthesis  of  the  great  cultures  of  the  East  and  the  West 
which  is  the  prime  task  of  our  country  and  her  educational 
institutions  at  this  hour/'  Provision  has  been  made  for  re- 
search, and  a  unique  feature  of  this  University  is  a  well- 
endowed  faculty  of  oriental  studies  including  a  school  for  the 
training  of  the  youth  in  the  art  of  Carnatic  and  Tamil  music. 

The  University  is  still  in  the  stage  of  development,  and 
it  is  essential  for  its  development  as  a  residential  University 
that  its  authorities  should  endeavour  to  promote  the  social 
and  corporate  life  of  its  students  in  a  healthy  manner.  One 
of  the  objects  of  its  Founder  Pro-Chancellor  is  to  satisfy, 


after  the  inauguration  of  the  Mysore  and  Andhra  Universi- 
ties, the  desire  of  the  people  of  the  Tamil  Nad  to  have  a  Uni- 
versity of  their  own.  It  is  therefore  natural  that  educa- 
tion should  be  imparted  in  a  manner  to  promote  the  highest 
ethical  and  cultural  wealth  of  the  Tamil  race.  It  is  hoped 
that  this  University  will  build  up  a  healthy  and  noble  tra- 
dition and  give  scope  for  the  full  expression  of  the  Tamil 
genius  without  restricting  it  to  the  barriers  of  provincia- 


Chief  Justice  of  the  Madras  High  Court 

Ine  Sixtieth  anniversary  of  the  birtn  oi  Dr.  Kajah 
Annamalai  Chettiar  oi  Chetlinad,  the  Bounder  and  Jb^ro- 
Chancellor  oi  the  Annamalai  University  provides  a  tilting 
opportunity  for  the  members  oi  Ihe  University  to  acknow- 
ledge the  deep  debt  oi  gratitude  which  they  owe  to  him.  The 
debt  is  not,  however,  confined  to  the  members  oi  the  Uni- 
versity. It  is  a  debt  wnich  all  in  South  India  owe.  The 
public  benefactions  oi  Or.  Kajah  bir  Annamalai  Chettiar 
have  been  many,  but  the  greatest  benefaction  oi  all  has  been 
the  foundation  of  the  Annamalai  University.  It  is  impossi- 
ble to  conceive  of  a  more  useful  object  to  which  wealth 
could  be  devoted  in  times  of  peace. 

It  may  not  be  possible  to  express  adequately  in  words 
the  gratitude  which  is  felt  for  the  magnificent  public  spirit 
which  the  Founder  has  shown,  but  the  feeling  of  gratitude 
is  there  and  all  will  join  in  offering  him  their  sincere  con- 
gratulations on  this  happy  occasion  and  in  the  prayer  that 
he  be  granted  many  more  years  of  life  to  watch  and  aid  the 
development  of  the  University  which  he  has  founded. 



Vice-Chancellor,  Osrnania  University  and  Educational  Member, 
Hyderabad,    Dcccan. 

The  foundation  and  munificent  endowment  of  the 
great  Annamalai  University  by  its  Founder  Pro-Chancellor, 
the  Hon'ble  Rajah  of  Chettinad,  has  marked  him  as  a  true 
benefactor  of  his  country.  The  University  will  be  a  peren- 
nial fountain  of  learning,  to  which  the  youth  of  India  will 
come  in  great  numbers  and  drink  deep  of  the  springs  for 
generations  to  come.  On  this  the  60th  Anniversary  of  the 
birthday  of  the  Founder,  thousands  of  his  grateful  country- 
men join  in  paying  him  a  tribute  of  admiration  for  his  pious 
and  selfless  act  of  which  the  Annamalai  University  is  an 
enduring  monument. 

MR.   R    P.  MASANI,  M.A., 
Vice-Chancellor,  University  of  Bombay 

I  am  very  glad  to  hear  that  it  is  proposed  by  your  Uni- 
versity to  celebrate  the  completion  of  60  years  of  the  life  of 
the  Hon'ble  the  Rajah  of  Chettinad,  Founder  Pro-Chancellor 
of  the  Annamalai  University,  and  that  as  a  part  of  the  cele- 
brations it  is  proposed  to  present  a  Commemoration  Volume 
to  the  Rajah  Saheb  on  the  28th  September  1941.  You  are 
thereby  honouring  one  who  has  taken  a  very  keen  interest 
in  the  promotion  of  higher  education  and  rendered  it  possi- 
ble by  his  munificent  donation  to  found  a  residential 
university,  I  have  much  pleasure  in  sending  to  your  Univer- 
sity, and  through  you  to  the  Rajah  Saheb  also,  my  cordial 
greetings  and  best  wishes. 




I  consider  it  a  privilege  to  be  asked  to  send  a  message 
to  be  incorporated  in  the  Commemoration  Volume  that  it 
is  proposed  to  present  to  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar 
of  Chettinad  on  his  completing  his  Sixtieth  year.  It  is  a 
happy  thought  on  this  occasion  to  recognise  the  many 
extremely  valuable  services  that  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai 
has  rendered  to  the  Southern  Presidency,  to  the  cause  of 
Education  and  to  Hindu  Religion,  and  its  Shastras.  His 
charities  have  been  on  a  princely  scale  and  have  been  both 
catholic  and  enlightened.  The  founding  of  the  splendid 
University  in  Annamalainagar  both  Teaching  and  Residen- 
tial will  be  a  lasting  monument  to  the  public  spirit  and 
generosity  of  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  and  of  his 
distinguished  family,  as  lasting  as  the  famous  temples  of 
Chidambaram  which  he  has  renovated  at  great  cost.  That 
Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  will  be  long  spared  to 
continue  his  useful  public  services  and  his  generous  chari- 
ties for  many  years  to  come  must  be  the  fervent  hope  of 
every  friend  and  well-wisher  of  his. 

THE  REV.   JOHN  K.   MILLER,   M.A.,  D.D  , 
White  Lodge,  Coonoor,  The  Nilgiris,  S.   India 

It  is  with  real  pleasure  that  I  add  my  tribute  and 
hearty  congratulations  to  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar 
of  Chettinad,  whose  friendship  I  have  enjoyed  for  more 
than  thirty  years,  on  having  completed  sixty  years  of  life  so 
satisfactorily  for  himself  and  others. 


To  few  has  it  been  given  and  made  possible  to  do  so 
much  for  others  as  he  has  done  and  I  hope  he  may  live  for 
many  more  years  to  do  even  greater  service  for  humanity. 

In  1910  it  was  my  privilege  to  help  in  preparing  him  and 
his  nephew  the  late  Sir  M.  C.  T.  Muthiah  Chettiar,  for  a  visit 
to  Europe  and  to  the  coronation  of  our  late  good  King 
George  the  Fifth  and  to  accompany  them  on  the  voyage 
and  trip  through  Europe. 

This  visit  I  am  sure  did  much  in  awaking  these  gentle- 
men to  a  realisation  of  India's  needs  to  their  own  ability  to 
help  meet  them  and  our  Madras  Presidency  has  benefited 
greatly  from  their  gifts  and  public  service. 

In  1913  a  gift  from  the  then  Rao  Bahadur  Annamalai 
Chettiar  made  possible  a  hostel  for  our  Pasumalai  Normal 
Training  School  and  a  few  years  later  he  gave  a  generous 
donation  towards  our  fund  for  the  installing  of  our  water  and 
Electric  lighting  plant  and  he  has  since  given  to  other  good 
causes  at  Pasumalai. 

It  was  also  the  privilege  of  Mrs.  Miller  and  myself  to 
assist  him  in  entertaining  at  his  Chettinad  home  three  of  our 
Madras  Presidency  Governors,  beginning  with  H.  E.  The 
Right  Honourable  Lord  Pentland  and  on  these  occasions  to 
see  the  laying  of  foundation  stones  for  numerous  schools  and 
hospitals  in  Chettinad. 

I  have  watched  with'  interest  the  work  of  Dr.  Rajah  Sir 
Annamalai  and  of  his  children,  who  are  following  in  his  steps 
and  finding  ample  opportunity  for  service  of  mankind. 

With  every  good  wish  for  a  long  and  happy  life  for  him- 
self and  family  I  subscribe  myself  as  one  who  is  his  true  and 
loyal  friend. 


SIB  B.  L.  M1TTEB,  Kt.,  K.C.S.I.,  M.A.,  B.L.,  BAB-AT-LAW, 

Advocate  General  of  India, 

Possession  of  wealth  may  be  a  blessing  or  a  curse.  In 
India  material  wealth  has  never  been  given  the  dominant 
value  which  it  possesses  in  western  civilization.  Here  the 
value  is  measured  by  the  use  made  of  it.  The  place  of  the 
owner  of  wealth  in  society  is  conditioned  by  the  extent  to 
which  he  regards  his  ownership  as  a  trust.  Rajah  Sir 
Annamalai  has  always  acted  up  to  the  Indian  ideal  and, 
hence,  the  high  estimation  in  which  he  is  held  by  his  coun- 
trymen. He  has  used  his  great  wealth  for  the  spread  of  edu- 
cation, relief  of  distress  and  other  acts  of  charity.  I  recall 
an  occasion  when  I  appealed  to  him  for  help  to  Lady  Irwin 
Girls'  School  at  Simla  and  Delhi.  He  said  little,  but,  in 
about  an  hour's  time,  I  received  from  him  a  cheque  in  five 
figures.  The  amount  so  generously  given  formed  the 
nucleus  of  a  building  fund.  The  school  now  possesses  a 
magnificent  building  and  it  is  one  of  the  foremost  educational 
institutions  in  New  Delhi  for  the  benefit  of  Indian  girls  of 
all  provinces  and  all  communities.  I  have  known  Rajah  Sir 
Annamalai  for  many  years  and  I  know  how  completely  he 
is  inspired  by  the  Indian  ideal  of  the  union  of  Lakshmi  and 
Saraswati.  I  offer  my  hearty  felicitations  on  his  completing 
his  sixtieth  year. 


I  have  heard  of  the  great  efforts  of  the  Hon'ble 
Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  has  made  in  favour  of  educa- 
tion in  this  country.  Myself,  as  a  pioneer  of  education  and 
as  the  opener  of  a  new  field  of  discoveries,  am  deeply  mov- 
ed by  those  who  open  the  possibilities  to  human  beings  of 


obtaining  the  development  which  should  be  due  to  every 
human  spirit.  To  him,  therefore,  I  convey  my  congratula- 
tions on  the  attainment  of  his  Sixtieth  Birthday.  I  hope 
that  his  life  may  last  long  and  that  his  figure  may  long 
remain  an  example  to  the  rest  and  a  living  monument  of 
those  who  have  deserved  well  from  India  and  from  the  rest 
of  humanity. 

REV.  L.  D.  MURPHY,  S.J., 

Principal,  Loyola  College,  Madras 

It  gives  me  great  pleasure  to  have  this  opportunity  of 
adding  my  voice  to  the  general  chorus  of  congratulations  to 
Rajah  Sir  S.  R.  M.  Annamalai  Chettiar.  It  is  easy  without 
exaggeration  to  speak  in  terms  of  high  praise  of  the  Rajah's 
manysided  character,  with  its  lotus-like  development  against 
a  background  of  utter  simplicity  of  life.  Success  sits  lightly 
on  his  shoulders  and  the  black  care  which  the  poet  Horace 
foretells  for  such  eminence  as  the  Rajah  has  attained  can 
never  be  his  familiar.  Its  approach  would  be  denied  by  the 
royal  spirit  of  lavish  generosity  which  has  been  so  constant  a 
companion  in  all  his  undertakings.  Religion,  Education  and 
the  poor  are  his  special  beneficiaries  and  together  they  form 
a  strong  buckler  to  protect  him  from  harm.  May  God  grant 
him  many  years  of  useful  life  for  their  benefit. 


Ph.D.  (LONDON), 

University  of  Madras 

Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  of  Chettinad,  in 
whose  honour  this  volume  is  issued  on  the  occasion  of  his 


sixtieth  birthday  is  known  throughout  India  and  Greater 
India  as  the  founder  of  the  Annamalai  University  and  also 
a  number  of  charitable  institutions.  The  Tamilnad,  in 
particular,  can  never  forget  this  magnificent  and  liberal 
patron  of  learning  who  has  made  Chidambaram  a  centre 
of  light  and  leading.  Although  there  are  several  munificent 
men  in  this  great  country,  the  Rajah  Sahib,  is,  I  think, 
the  first  person  to  specially  pay  attention  to  the  promotion 
of  learning  on  modern  lines  by  founding  a  University  which 
is  named  after  him. 

The  Rajah  Sahib  has  shown  a  rare  devotion  to  Dravi- 
dian  languages  and  culture.  At  a  critical  time  in  the  his- 
tory of  the  Tamil  language  he  has  come  to  its  rescue.  He 
has  endowed  special  prizes  for  the  study  of  Tamil  and  has 
thus  inaugurated  a  new  era  of  Tamil  learning. 

The  Rajah  Sahib's  beneficence  is  so  great  that  many 
towns  and  cities  derive  advantage  from  his  charity.  His 
charities  stand  out  as  a  brilliant  example  of  what  a  single 
individual  with  his  own  unaided  resources  can  achieve.  He 
is  imbued  with  a  spirit  of  such  great  self-sacrifice  as  is  rarely 
met  with  in  a  man. 

South  India  may  well  feel  proud  that  it  has  produced 
such  a  noteworthy  person  who  has  done  so  much  to  quicken 
the  intellectual  life  of  this  part  of  India.  May  he  live  long 
and  continue  to  provide  facilities  for  the  development  of 
culture  and  enlightenment. 

University  of  Madras 

I  was  for  some  time  closely  associated  with  some  of  the 
numerous  benefactions  which  have  made  the  Rajah's  name  a 






household  word  in  South  India;  and  I  had  many  opportuni- 
ties of  observing  and  admiring  his  great  qualities  of  indus- 
try, clearness  of  mind,  far-sightedness  and,  most  import- 
ant of  all,  promptness  in  well-doing.  I  have  the  pleasantest 
recollections  of  my  association  with  the  Rajah  Sahib  who 
in  building  up  a  great  educational  institution  conceived 
policy  on  large  and  generous  lines  and  gave  his  Principal 
and  staff  the  widest  academic  and  administrative  freedom 
in  carrying  it  out. 

I  wish  him  many  years  of  life  full  of  happiness  to  him- 
self and  his  family  and  of  service  to  the  country. 

MR.  H.   C.   PAPWORTH,  M.A.,  I.E.S.,  O.B.E., 
Principal,  Presidency  College,  Madras 

I  greatly  appreciate  the  invitation  to  write  a  short  tri- 
bute on  the  occasion  of  the  sixtieth  birthday  of  Rajah  Sir 
Annamalai  Chettiar  of  Chettinad,  Founder  and  Pro-Chan- 
cellor of  Annamalai  University.  I  do  so  with  special  plea- 
sure, as  it  has  been  my  privilege  to  be  a  member  of  Anna- 
malai University  from  its  foundation. 

Many  colleges  in  English  universities  and  many  univer- 
sities in  America  owe  their  foundation  to  private  benefac- 
tors. In  some  cases  these  foundations  assumed  and  still 
retain  the  name  of  the  benefactor  as  their  title;  in  other 
cases,  especially  in  some  of  the  older  foundations,  the  origi- 
nal name  has  given  place  to  another  dedication.  In  India 
the  Rajah  Saheb  of  Chettinad  has  the  honour  of  being 
a  pioneer  in  this  munificent  work,  for  it  was  his  bounty  plac- 
ed at  the  disposal  of  the  State  which  made  possible  the 
foundation  of  the  University  which  bears  his  name. 


All  educationists  and  all  who  prize  the  inestimable 
benefits  of  knowledge  and  sound  learning  will  remember  his 
munificence  with  gratitude,  and  offer  him  their  felicitations 
at  the  ensuing  commemoration  of  his  birthday. 


It  gives  me  profound  pleasure  to  offer  my  hearty  con- 
gratulations to  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  of  Chetti- 
nad  on  the  occasion  of  his  Sashtipurthi,  the  completion  of 
a  period  of  life  unique  with  abundant  feelings  of  philan- 
thropy and  rare  aptitude  for  the  creation  of  colossal  chari- 
ties like  the  Annamalai  University.  May  God  spare  him  for 
many  more  years  with  blessings  of  prosperity  and  healthy 
life  to  do  further  useful  service  to  our  great  country  INDIA 
and  her  people. 


I  have  known  my  dear  friend  the  Rajah  of  Chettinad 
for  a  very  long  time.  A  gentleman  of  charming  manners, 
he  makes  his  visitors  feel  quite  at  home  from  the  outset.  It 
is  indeed  a  pleasure  to  converse  with  him.  His  hospitality 
is  proverbial.  Possessing  business  talents  of  an  extraordi- 
narily high  order  he  works  hard  day  and  night.  That  he 
should  work  so  assiduously,  though  endowed  by  Providence 
with  immense  wealth,  is  truly  praiseworthy.  This  is  a 
quality  worth  acquiring,  as  it  enables  one  to  spend  more 
money  for  charitable  purposes.  His  manifold  philanthropic 
activities  cover  a  very  wide  and  varied  field.  He  thus  sets 
a  noble  example.  The  most  outstanding  of  his  charities  is, 


of  course,  the  famous  Annamalai  University.  He  has  been 
rendering  meritorious  services  to  the  country.  Many  are 
the  poor  that  are  benefited  by  the  munificence  of  this  gene- 
rous Rajah.  Most  heartily  do  I  congratulate  my  esteemed 
friend  on  this  auspicious  occasion  of  his  "Shastipurti".  May 
God  grant  him  long  life,  happiness  and  prosperity! 

KUNWAR    SIR   JAGADISH   PRASAD,    K. C.S.I.,    C.I.E.,    O.B.E.,    LL.D. 

Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  of  Chettinad  is  one 
of  those  rare  men  in  India  who  have  used  their  riches  for  the 
benefit  of  their  fellow  men.  He  is  the  founder  of  the  only 
Unitary,  Teaching  and  Residential  University  in  South 
India,  the  Annamalai  University  of  Annamalainagar.  Other 
educational,  charitable,  religious  and  social  institutions 
have  benefited  largely  from  his  open-hearted  generosity. 

It  is  right  and  proper  that  his  countrymen  should  do 
him  honour  not  only  as  a  munificent  benefactor  of  learning 
but  as  setting  a  worthy  example  to  others  of  the  right  use 
of  great  wealth. 

I  join  with  others  in  wishing  him  many  more  years  of 
beneficent  service  to  his  province  and  country. 


On  such  an  occasion  as  the  61st  Birthday  of  one  who 
has  so  notably  benefited  Tamilnad  as  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai 
Chettiar,  it  gives  me  great  pleasure — as  Ruler-to-be  of  the 
only  Tamil  State — to  send  a  message  to  the  Vice-Chancellor 
of  the  splendid  University  which  Sir  Annamalai's  generous 

munificence  brought  into  being. 


Many  a  Pudukkottian  already  has  reason  to  bless  the 
name  of  the  Rajah  Saheb  and  his  now  famous  institution, 
and  doubtless  thousands  more  will  do  so.  So  it  is  in  their 
name  as  well  as  my  own  that  I  send  my  sincere  wishes  for 
the  continued  prosperity  and  happiness  both  of  the  Founder 
and  of  his  foundation. 

SIB  S.   BADHAKRISHNAN,  M.A.,  D.LITT.,  LL.D.,   F.B.A., 
Vice -Chancellor,  Benares   Hindu   University 

I  am  glad  to  know  that  your  Pro-Chancellor  the  Hon'ble 
Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar,  Rajah  of  Chettinad,  will  be 
completing  his  Sixty  years  on  the  28th  of  September,  1941. 
The  only  University  in  the  country  founded  by  a  single 
individual  is  yours.  And  for  years  it  has  been  doing  very 
valuable  work.  I  have  no  doubt  that  the  Rajah  Saheb  will 
continue  to  take  an  affectionate  interest  in  the  institution.  I 
wish  him  many  years  of  useful  and  happy  life. 


Barrister-at-LaW'  Bangoon 

I  beg  to  send  from  Burma  a  message  of  congratulation 
to  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  on  his  completing  the 
60th  year  of  his  life.  The  Rajah's  name  is  remembered  with 
respect  in  this  country  where  many  educational  institutions 
have  benefited  by  his  gifts.  In  India  his  charities  have  been 
simply  colossal.  The  Annamalai  University  alone,  which 
constitutes  a  landmark  in  the  history  of  education  in  South 
India,  will  for  ever  remain  a  monument  to  his  kingly  gene- 
rosity, his  love  of  culture,  his  ardent  desire  for  the  spread  of 
education,  more  enduring  than  any  commemorative  present 


that  we  may  offer  him.  We  are  not  all  born  for  great  things, 
but  let  us  not  deny  ourselves  the  greatness  of  appreciating 
things  that  are  great.  May  the  Rajah  live  long  will  be  the 
prayer  of  all  his  friends  and  admirers  among  whom  I  count 
myself,  on  this  happy  occasion. 

Ex-  Chief  Minister,  Madras 

I  appreciate  the  courtesy  that  prompted  you  to  send 
me  intimation  of  the  Sashtipurti  celebration  of  Sir  Anna- 
malai.  My  son  forwarded  me  your  letter.  To  the  numer- 
ous messages  and  greetings  that  will  surely  grace  the 
pages  of  the  Commemoration  Volume,  let  me  add  a  sincere 
tribute  from  one  of  his  own  generation,  whom  wide-gaping 
differences  in  political  creed  and  practice  have  not  prevented 
from  appreciating  the  outstanding  ability  and  virtues  of  the 
Rajah.  But  for  the  unfortunate  abnormality  of  our  national 
status  and  the  struggles  imposed  on  us,  who  can  doubt  but 
Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  would  have  been  to  all  of  us  one  of 
the  safest  and  most  successful  leaders  in  our  public  life?  I 
first  met  him  twenty-two  years  ago  when  I  was  in  the  fever 
of  the  newly-discovered  creed  of  Non-Co-operation  and  I 
remember  how  deeply  I  was  impressed  by  the  manner  in 
which  he  took  my  answer  to  his  request  for  a  vote  in  the 
Council  of  State  elections.  That  impression  has  continued 
unmodified  by  anything  that  has  happened  since  then.  In 
him  we  can  see  one  who  knows  by  instinct  how  to  move 
among  men  of  differing  views,  how  to  be  big  and  powerful 
yet  preserve  untarnished  one's  courtesy  and  humility  of 
mind  and  speech,  how  to  be  a  gentleman  in  the  difficult 
sense  of  the  term.  I  join  his  other  friends  in  congratulat- 
ing him  on  the  jubilee  day  and  send  up  the  wish  and  prayer 


that  all  his  virtues  may  flourish  in  the  younger  men  that 
wait  to  reach  his  age,  round  about  him  in  Chettinad. 


I  am  glad  the  Diamond  Jubilee  of  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai 
Chettiar  is  to  be  celebrated  in  a  worthy  manner.  Not 
merely  because  he  is  a  Rajah  or  a  Knight  but  because  he  is  a 
great  man  who  is  also  a  good  man.  Greatness  and  goodness 
do  not  always  go  together.  There  are  many  great  men,  men 
who  make  a  great  impression  on  the  public  mind,  but  in 
whom  goodness  is  not  very  conspicuous — goodness  of  heart, 
goodness  of  disposition,  a  desire  to  do  good  to  others  and  to 
find  their  own  happiness  in  the  happiness  of  others.  It  is  the 
presence  of  these  moral  qualities  in  a  man  who  has  immense 
means  and  opportunities  cf  doing  good  which  distinguishes 
Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  from  other  rich  men.  It  is 
not  enough  to  own  riches:  what  makes  riches  a  blessing  is  to 
know  how  to  use  it  for  the  good  of  others.  This  knowledge 
Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  possesses  in  an  abundant 
quantity.  I  remember  how  before  making  an  endowment 
which  constitutes  the  foundation  of  the  Annamalai  Univer- 
sity he  consulted  more  than  one  Educationist,  Indian  and 
European,  and  discussed  details  with  them  so  that  the 
money  he  invested  might  prove  most  beneficial — might  bear 
fruit,  tenfold,  thirtyfold  arid  a  hundredfold.  It  is  this  pain- 
staking thoughtfulness,  so  characteristic  of  the  man,  which 
endears  him  to  all  who  know  him.  There  is  so  much  self-for- 
getful dignity  about  the  man  that  his  benefactions  seem  a 
natural  expression  of  his  inner  disposition,  and  are  acceptable 
as  such.  We  have  all  heard  the  saying  "Noblesse  oblige" 
Nobility  has  its  obligations  and  responsibilities.  This  is 


applicable  not  only  to  mere  titular  nobility  but  also  to 
wealth  and  influence  which  when  properly  used  make  a 
man  truly  noble.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  takes  his 
rank  with  Tata,  the  founder  of  the  Tata  family  who  earned 
money  through  business  but  used  that  money  for  the 
benefit  of  his  people  and  his  country.  In  establishing  the 
Annamalai  University,  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  has 
given  an  impetus  to  the  progress  of  education  in  Tamil  Nad 
which  will  continue  for  endless  generations.  In  this 
stream  of  educational  progress  we  of  the  Depressed  Classes 
will  be  caught  up  and  carried  to  new  realms  of  happiness 
and  prosperity  for  which  we  shall  ever  remember  Sir  Anna- 
malai Chettiar  as  a  real  benefactor  of  our  community. 

I  have  compared  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  to  Tata.  Per- 
haps a  more  appropriate  and  closer  analogy  and  nearer  home 
is  to  be  found  in  Pachaiappa  the  founder  of  Pachaiappa 
Charities.  This  gentleman  also  earned  and  amassed  a  large 
amount  of  wealth,  and  endowed  it  all  for  the  good  of  the  peo- 
ple as  religious  benefactions,  in  the  shape  of  free  feeding 
and  temple  worship.  These  benefactions  only  fed  the 
priests  and  did  not  bring  any  return  of  lasting  good  to  the 
people  at  large.  Certain  wise  men,  however,  of  a  later 
generation  realised  the  comparative  fruitfulness  and  barren- 
ness of  these  charities,  and  rescued  a  portion  of  the  funds  for 
the  purpose  of  educating  the  people.  Thus  we  have  tlv* 
Pachaiappa  Schools  in  Madras,  Conjeevaram,  Chidambaram 
and  other  places,  and  among  these  Pachaiappa's  College 
stands  as  a  prominent  monument  of  his  charitable  disposi- 

But  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  did  not  require  the  wisdom 
of  a  later  generation  to  direct  his  benefactions.  He  has  had 
not  only  the  heart  to  give  but  also  the  head  to  direct  his 


gifts  into  fruitful  channels  so  that  they  may  irrigate  the 
homes  and  happiness  of  thousands  of  people  in  the  country. 
The  application  of  charities  to  Educational  Institutions  is 
like  introducing  electric  lighting  and  electric  power  into  a 

Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar's  community  was  always  noted 
for  making  large  benefactions  but  these  had  for  generations 
taken  the  form  of  building  temples  and  choultries  and  feed- 
ing pilgrims  on  festival  occasions.  And  it  was  only  in 
recent  times  that  some  of  them  under  the  influence  of 
enlightened  public  opinion  added  the  starting  and  financing 
of  schools  to  the  list  of  their  benefactions  while  still  the  chief 
item  of  their  charitable  dispositions  was  in  the  direction  of 
religious  endowments.  In  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar's  own 
family  some  younger  members  endowed  local  schools  which 
are  conducted  in  their  names.  But  it  was  given  to  Sir 
Annamalai  Chettiar  to  conceive  a  larger  project  which  will 
cover  the  needs  of  the  whole  presidency  and  benefit  genera- 
tion after  generation  and  become  part  and  parcel  of  the 
intellectual  moral  and  spiritual  legacy  of  this  presidency. 
His  is  not  a  one-sided  endowment  intended  to  benefit  one 
community  rather  than  another.  In  keeping  with  the 
spirit  of  the  times  and  needs  of  the  country  the  doors  of  the 
Annamalai  University  are  thrown  open  to  students  of 
all  communities;  and  on  its  staff  and  council  are 
men  belonging  to  Brahmin,  Non-Brahmin  Hindu,  Christian 
and  Mohammedan  communities.  This  is  in  keeping  with 
the  largeness  of  heart  and  the  breadth  of  vision  of  its 

It  is  not  without  significance  that  the  University  is  in 
a  holy  city,  sacred  to  the  memory  of  the  Panchama  Saint 
Nandanar.  To  me  this  circumstance  is  an  augury  of  the 


bright  future  which  awaits  my  community.  Sir  Annamalai 
Chettiar's  name  will  go  down  in  history  associated  with  the 
moral,  social  and  intellectual  progress  of  the  community  of 
which  Saint  Nandanar  was  the  Prophet  and  shining  star. 


New  Delhi 

A  handsome  tribute  was  once  paid  to  Baron  Rothschild 
that  needy  Jews  sometimes  prayed  to  God  but  more  often 
wrote  to  the  Rothschilds.  The  tribute  will  apply  better  to 
Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar,  as  no  deserving  social  cause 
has  ever  appealed  to  him  in  vain.  His  munificent  charities 
to  religious  and  educational  institutions  have  been  instru- 
mental in  reviving  our  great  cultural  heritage  as  represent- 
ed in  Sanskrit*  and  Tamil  philosophical  works,  in  music  and 
in  other  arts.  He  is  a  true  Rajah,  one  who  has  endeared 
himself  with  the  public  as  the  prince  of  givers.  The  many 
beneficent  institutions  which  he  has  founded  in  India, 
Burma  and  Ceylon  are  standing  monuments  of  his  philan- 
thropy and  of  his  desire  to  serve  his  fellow-men.  May  the 
Rajah  Saheb  be  spared  long  to  continue  his  elevating  acti- 
vities, is  a  prayer  which  will  be  echoed  by  thousands  of  his 

SIR  C.  V.  RAMAN,  KT.,  F.R.S.,  M.A.,  Ph.D.,  Hon.  D.Sc.,  Hon.  LL.D., 

Nobel  Laureate, 
Indian  Institute  of  Science,  Bangalore 

A  unique  place  in  the  esteem  and  affection  of  his 
countrymen  has  been  established  for  himself  by  Dr.  Rajah 
Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  by  his  unparalleled  stervices  to  the 
cause  of  learning,  culture  and  religion  in  Southern  India  for 


over  a  quarter  of  a  century.  Generations  yet  unborn  will 
have  cause  to  feel  grateful  to  him  for  the  opportunities  he 
has  created  for  the  acquisition  of  the  knowledge,  alike  of  the 
East  and  of  the  West,  by  the  youth  of  Tamilnad.  He  has 
saved  for  posterity  the  highest  traditions  of  our  language 
and  our  music  and  ensured  their  permanence  by  transmis- 
sion from  teacher  to  the  taught  in  the  institutions  created  by 
his  princely  benefactions.  In  the  Annamalai  University, 
he  has  established  a  centre  of  learning  of  a  distinctive  kind 
whose  achievements  have  justly  been  a  cause  of  pride  to  his 
countrymen  and  which  will  keep  his  name  and  fame  green 
for  all  time.  We  rejoice  that  he  has  reached  the  sixtieth 
year  of  his  age  in  full  enjoyment  of  his  health  and  strength. 
We  pray  that  he  may  long  be  spared  to  continue  his  life  of 
generous  solicitude  for  the  welfare  of  the  younger  genera- 
tion and  for  the  promotion  of  the  cause  of  learning  and  cul- 
ture in  our  country! 



I  am  delighted  to  learn  that  the  completion  of  the  60th 
year  of  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  is  going  to  be 
celebrated  shortly. 

The  Rajah  Saheb  is  a  brilliant  Gem  of  Tamil  Nad.  He 
is  a  Karma  Veerar.  Men  of  such  keen  intelligence,  untiring 
energy  and  profound  ability  are  very  rarely  found  in  this 
land.  In  his  capacity  for  earning  money  and  in  his  large- 
heartedness  in  utilising  it  for  the  welfare  of  humanity  he 
stands  unequalled  in  this  Province. 

It  is  a  well-known  fact  that  his  charities  are  many- 
sided  and  innumerable  and  thousands  are  benefited  by 


In  short,  this  Great  Vallal  has  has  given  about  one  crore 
of  rupees  for  charitable  purposes.  To-day,  there  is  no  equal 
to  him  in  Southern  India  in  munificence  and  philanthropy. 
It  is  but  proper  that  the  completion  of  the  60th  year  of  this 
great  benefactor  should  be  celebrated  in  a  fitting  manner. 

On  this  happy  occasion,  I  have  great  pleasure  in  wish- 
ing him  long  life,  sound  health,  great  fame  and  prosperity. 

K. C.S.I.,    LL.D., 

Dewan  of  Travancore 

It  is  but  appropriate  and  fitting  that  the  Annamalai 
University  should  celebrate  the  bnasntiabdapurti  ol  its 
founder,  the  Hon'ble  Rajah  Sir  Annamaiai  Chettiar. 

The  community  of  which  he  is  tne  most  famous  repre- 
sentative has  been  noted  for  centuries  tor  iis  businesslike 
habits,  frugality  and  simplicity  oi  living  ana  equally  noted 
for  the  benefactions  made  by  ine  INagarathars  from  out 
of  the  wealth  that  they  have  amassed  by  the  exercise  of 
these  qualities.  Until  quite  recently,  the  community  con- 
centrated on  the  performance  of  various  functions  in  South 
Indian  temples;  and  their  zeal  for  the  renovation  of  temple 
buildings  is  a  well-known  feature.  It  was  left  to  Rajah 
Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  to  conceive  the  idea  of  starting  a 
teaching  and  residential  University  in  one  of  the  most  sacred 
and  holy  spots  in  South  India.  To  the  genius  loci  has 
been  added  the  inspiration  and  stimulus  of  men  like  the  Rt. 
Hon'ble  V.  S.  Srinivasa  Sastri  who  was,  for  some  time, 
the  Vice-Chancellor  and  who  has  been  succeeded  by  my  old 
friend  Sir  K.  V.  Reddy.  The  University  can  do  a  great  deal 
not  only  in  the  matter  of  general  studies  but  for  maintaining 
and  cherishing  those  great  and  ancient  traditions  of  which 


South  India  is  so  proud,  namely,  those  of  Sanskritic  lore  and 
Dravidian  scholarship.  As  a  nucleus  of  Sanskrit  and  Tamil 
learning  and  scholarship,  the  Annamalai  University  has  a 
definite  role  to  fill. 

I  join  the  University  in  wishing  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai 
Chettiar  many  more  years  of  beneficent  activity. 


Commerce  Member,   Government   of  India 

I  am  glad  to  learn  that  the  public  of  the  Madras  Presi- 
dency have  decided  to  celebrate  the  Shashtiabdhapurthi  the 
occasion  of  completing  the  sixtieth  year  by  Dr.  Rajah  Sir 
Annamalai  Chettiar — in  a  suitable  manner  and  that,  in  parti- 
cular, the  Annamalai  University  is  bringing  out  a  Commemo- 
ration Volume  which  will  be  presented  to  the  Rajah  Saheb. 
I  have  had  the  privilege  of  knowing  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar 
for  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century  and  of  being  fairly  intimate- 
ly acquainted  with  his  numerous  activities  in  the  field  of 
politics,  education  and  religion.  No  one  has  done  more  in 
the  Province  than  the  Rajah  in  finding  funds  for  the  promo- 
tion of  higher  education,  religious  education  and  the  fine 
arts.  Temples,  schools,  colleges  and  other  charitable  insti- 
tutions have  equally  benefited  by  his  large  hearted  dona- 
tions. A  side  of  his  activities  which  may  not  have  attracted 
equally  prominent  attention  is  the  help  he  has  given  to  the 
promotion  of  the  cause  of  women.  The  main  Ladies*  Club 
in  Madras  and  several  similar  institutions  in  the  mofussil 
owe  not  a  little  to  his  magnificent  donations.  These  princely 
charities  of  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  will  be  a 
standing  monument  to  the  nobility,  characteristic  of  his 
family  and  of  himself  in  particular.  It  is  needless  to  add  that 
not  by  his  charities  alone  but  by  his  innate  gentlemanliness 


and  sweetness  of  disposition  that  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  has 
endeared  himself  to  every  one  who  has  had  the  privilege  of 
knowing  him.  May  the  blessings  of  Providence  be  vouchsafed 
unto  him  and  may  he  be  spared  for  many  decades  to  continue 
his  great  work  and  to  be  an  asset  to  the  community! 


I  am  glad  to  know  that  you  are  proposing  through  an 
influential  Committee  celebrating  the  completion  by 
Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  of  Chettinad,  of  his 
sixtieth  year  on  the  28th  of  September,  1941  in  a  fitting 

I  thank  you  very  much  for  the  honour  you  have  done 
in  asking  me  to  send  a  message  of  appreciation  of  his  noble 
acts  of  piety,  charity  and  great  munificence,  on  this  happy 
occasion.  I  am  sure  one  more  competent  than  myself  will 
be  better  able  to  pay  tribute  to  his  various  acts  of  charity 
and  benevolence  which  are  wide  and  varied. 

His  one  ambition  in  life  seems  to  be  to  strive,  save  and 
serve  for  the  benefit  of  his  fellowmen  which  is  well  exempli- 
fied by  the  charitable  and  educational  institutions  of  great 
help  and  usefulness  to  humanity.  His  benefactions  are 
varied  and  many  but  the  highest  monument  of  his  benefi- 
cent works  is  the  founding,  equipping  and  endowing  of  the 
great  and  unique  Residential  University  at  Annamalai- 
nagar,  more  fittingly  named  after  him. 

I  am  sure  his  great  name  will  ever  be  cherished  with 
esteem  and  gratitude  by  posterity. 

May  God  bless  him  with  a  further  long  life  of  continued 
prosperity  to  be  of  still  greater  service  to  humanity. 



It  is  indeed  a  kindly  thought  that  should  have  prompt- 
ed the  University  authorities  to  celebrate  the  Founder's 
Day,  that  will  recall  to  the  memory  of  one  and  all,  the  munifi- 
cent benefaction  of  my  esteemed  friend  and  our  illustrious 
countryman,  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar.  And  this  year's 
function  has  a  special  significance  in  that  it  happens  to  be 
his  61st  birthday  Sashtiabdapurti  year.  The  Rajah  be- 
longs to  a  rare  order  typifying  in  himself,  the  aristocracy  of 
Brain,  Heart  and  Bullion  in  happy  harmony.  True  to  the 
dictum,  noblesse  oblige,  he  has  taken  upon  himself  the 
sovereign  task  of  founding  a  University  by  his  solitary  and 
magnificent  efforts— a  University  in  the  true  Oriental  style, 
intended  to  foster  our  Art  and  Culture  and  our  own  Mother 
tongue,  Tamil  studies.  It  truly  recaptures  the  genius  and 
splendour  of  our  former  times,  and  stands  in  grandeur  as 
the  seat  of  modern  Indian  renaissance,  even  as  Nalanda  and 
Taxila  of  ancient  days. 

Situated  at  Chidambaram,  the  holy  spot  where  Lord 
Nataraja  with  his  Divine  dance  attunes  the  Universe  to 
spiritual  height,  the  Annamalai  University  radiates  a  sublime 
charm  partaking  of  His  all-pervasive  spiritual  grace.  Its 
atmosphere  is  permeated  by  Sath,  Chit,  Anand,  brightening 
the  body  and  mind  and  sweetening  the  soul 

The  career  of  the  Founder  is  a  chapter  not  only  in  India's 
commercial  and  industrial  history  but  also  in  the  educa- 
tional history  thereof.  May  the  university  flourish  in  the 
chosen  path  of  its  Founder,  and  may  the  Rajah  Saheb  and 
his  successors  live  for  long,  long  years  brightening  the  pages 
of  his  University  and  those  of  India. 


MB.   C.   B.   BEDDY,  M.A     (CANTAB.),  HON.    D  LITT.,  M.L.C,, 

Vice-Chancellor,  Andhra  University,  Waltair 

I  associate  myself  most  heartily  with  the  movement  to 
celebrate  the  Shashtipurti  of  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chetti  in 
a  befitting  manner.  The  Rajah  Saheb  might  be  justly  re- 
garded as  a  national  asset.  No  merchant  or  industrialist 
of  South  India  has  spent  such  large  amounts  on  public 
benefactions.  For  a  parallel  to  his  philanthropy  we  have 
to  go  to  Bombay.  He  started  by  making  benefactions  in 
the  orthodox  traditional  style  of  the  Hindus.  Some  of  the 
most  expensive  and  elaborate  improvements  of  the  famous 
Chidambaram  and  other  temples  are  to  be  credited  to  his 
religious  spirit.  There  are  choultries  or  Dharmasalas  built 
for  the  accommodation  and  comfort  of  travellers  which  be- 
speak his  sense  of  humanity.  Every  project  for  public  good 
organised  in  South  India  has  found  in  him  an  exemplary  con- 
tributor. But  by  far  his  greatest  achievement  is  the  Univer- 
sity which  very  rightly  bears  his  name.  Contemporary  India 
and  posterity  will  note  how  this  is  the  first  University  found- 
ed by  private  benefaction  and  how  the  entire  extent  of  the 
benefaction  rested  on  the  limitless  generosity  of  one  single 
individual,  the  Rajah  Saheb  of  Chettinad.  There  is  no 
parallel  to  this,  as  far  as  my  knowledge  goes,  anywhere  in  the 
world  excepting  one,  the  Rockfeller  University  of  Chicago, 
founded  and  maintained  by  the  monetary  contributions  of  a 
single  family.  Though  the  Annamalai  University  cannot 
be  regarded  either  from  the  point  of  view  of  the  courses  or 
standards  organised  to  be  anywhere  near  the  world  famous 
institution  in  Chicago,  still  it  is  the  best  that  has  ever  been 
done  by  an  individual  in  India  and  is  notable  furthermore  as 
an  example  to  other  millionaires. 

It  is  not  merely  by  these  outward  achievements  that  the 
Rajah  Saheb  has  made  himself  famous  and  endeared,  but 


by  his  personality.  I  had  the  pleasure  and  privilege  of  being 
his  guest  more  than  once.  No  host  could  have  shown  more 
personal  attention  to  the  comforts  of  a  guest  than  the  Rajah 
Saheb  whose  custom,  in  accordance  with  the  best  tradi- 
tions of  India,  has  always  been  to  attend  personally,  though 
he  could  easily  have  appointed  deputies.  The  lavishness 
of  Chettinad  hospitality  is  well-known  and  is  not  inferior  to 
that  for  which  some  Indian  States  have  become  famous. 
The  Rajah  Saheb,  in  spite  of  his  wealth  and  high  dignity  and 
position,  is  simple  in  his  life  and  dress;  modest  in  his  manner 
and  most  considerate  in  his  dealings  with  others.  He  makes 
no  distinction  between  the  different  linguistic  divisions  in 
the  Presidency.  He  has  Aridhra  affiliations  as  the  owner  of 
an  extensive  Estate  in  Chittoor  District.  His  possessions  in 
Burma  and  interests  in  Ceylon  and  Indo-China  mark  him 
out  not  only  as  a  national  but  as  an  inter-national  figure. 
And  wherever  he  has  property,  he  has  also  exercised  philan- 

Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chetti  ranks  among  the  worthiest 
in  the  country.  Most  successful  as  a  maker  of  money,  he 
has  been  still  more  noteworthy  as  a  spender  thereof  on  right 
good  causes  and  progressive  projects. 

If  the  service  of  the  country,  if  the  advancement  of  its 
material  and  moral  prosperity  are  amongst  the  objectives  of 
a  University,  then  the  Annamalai  University  cannot  have 
a  better  example  before  it  or  a  nobler  inspirer  than  its  own 
illustrious  Founder. 

Adviser  to  The  Secretary  of  State  for  India 

Heartiest   congratulations   Rajah   Sahib's   61st   Birth- 
day.   His  wise  benefactions  have  earned  him  India's  homage 







and  gratitude.     May  his  University  flourish  and  promote 
country's  unity  and  progress.    God  bless  him. 

P.C.,  K. C.S.I.,  M.A.,  LL.D. 

I  am  greatly  obliged  to  you  for  your  letter  of  the  5th  of 
August.  I  note  with  pleasure  that  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai 
Chettiar  of  Chettinad,  the  Founder  Pro-Chancellor  of  the 
Annamalai  University,  will  soon  be  completing  his  60th 
year.  I  also  note  with  pleasure  that  the  Annamalai  Uni- 
versity has  decided  to  celebrate  the  event  in  a  fitting  manner. 

On  this  occasion  I  desire  to  convey  to  the  Rajah  Saheb 
my  heartiest  congratulations  and  best  wishes  for  a  long  life. 
The  Rajah  Saheb's  name  is  an  honoured  name  throughout 
India  as  a  munificent  benefactor  of  education  and  culture. 
If  it  is  a  great  thing  to  earn  so  much  wealth,  it  is  a  still 
greater  thing  to  make  such  good  use  of  wealth.  The 
younger  generation  in  your  presidency  has  every  reason  to 
feel  grateful  to  him  for  what  he  has  done  for  them,  but  more 
than  that  the  entire  country  has  reason  to  be  grateful  to  him 
for  being  one  of  the  very  limited  number  of  our  wealthy 
men,  who  have  set  such  fine  example  to  others.  Long  after 
the  names  of  those,  who  are  so  much  in  the  public  eye  at 
present,  have  been  forgotten  the  names  of  men  like  Rajah 
Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar,  Jamshedji  Tata,  Tarak  Nath  Palit, 
Rash  Behary  Ghose  and  some  others,  will  continue  to  be 
remembered  with  affection  and  gratitude  by  succeeding 
generations  of  their  countrymen  and  will  serve  as  beacon 
lights  on  our  onward  journey.  I,  therefore,  send  him 
through  you  my  best  congratulations  and  wishes  for  a  long 
life  and  I  could  also  ask  you,  as  Vice-Chancellor,  to  con- 
vey to  the  University,  of  which  he  is  the  founder,  my  best 


wishes  for  its  success  and  continued  service  to  the  cause  of 
knowledge  and  culture. 


Hyderabad,  Deccan 

In  adding  my  felicitations  to  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai 
Chettiar  on  his  61st  birthday,  I  am  happy  to  have  this 
opportunity  of  expressing  my  appreciation  of  his  many  and 
far-reaching  benefactions. 

To  the  long  family  record,  almost  an  hundred  years  old, 
of  pious  charities  in  their  chosen  city  of  Chidambaram,  Sir 
Annamalai  Chettiar  has  added  a  rich  chapter  by  his  per- 
sonal and  princely  gifts  to  all  fine  causes — to  promote  and 
foster  ancient  and  modern  learning,  to  encourage  literature, 
music,  art  and  sport,  to  further  movements  for  social  service 
and  social  progress,  to  establish  inter-provincial  and  inter- 
national friendship.  The  Annamalai  University  is  in  itself 
an  enduring  tribute  to  his  splendid  generosity. 

Not  often  in  our  generation  has  great  individual  wealth 
like  his  been  devoted  to  public  welfare  and  progress  with  a 
philanthropy  so  discriminating  in  its  quality  and  so  catholic 
in  its  range. 

MR.  S.  SATYAMURU,  B.A.,  B.L.,  M.L.A. 

I  have  had  the  pleasure  and  the  privilege  of  knowing 
him  intimately  for  many  years  now.  The  highest  tribute,  I 
can  pay  to  him,  is  that  he  is  every  inch  a  gentleman.  I  have 
not  met  a  more  polished,  courteous,  or  thoughtful  gentle- 
man. To  have  renovated  the  renowned  temple  of  Sri  Nata- 


raja,  is  by  itself  an  imperishable  monument  to  the  Rajah's 
distinguished  family. 

The  Rajah  Sahib  has  done  still  a  greater  service  to 
the  country  by  founding  the  Annamalai  University.  From 
inside  knowledge,  I  know  his  paternal  care  and  solicitude 
for  the  welfare  and  the  progress  of  the  Institution. 

His  recent  contribution  towards  the  development  of 
Tamil  Music  may,  I  hope,  mark  a  turning  point  in  the  history 
of  Tamil  Culture.  People  earn  a  good  deal,  but  give  very 
little.  But  the  Rajah  Sahib  has  given  over  a  crore  of  Rupees 
for  charities.  May  God  Sri  Naiaraja  bless  him.  May  he 
and  his  family  live  long,  prosperous,  and  happy  lives  and 
serve  the  cause  of  the  country. 

THE  HOi\  BLt.  D.    S.    SJLNANAVAKA, 
Minister  ot  Agriculture  and  Lands,  Ceylon  Government 

I  am  obliged  to  Sir  K,  V.  Keddi  and  his  Committee  for 
giving  me  the  opportunity  oi  paying  my  own  humble  tribute 
to  a  personality  whose  radiating  imiuence  nas  cheer ed  many 
thousands  oJc  iauman  beings  in  South  india  and  Ceylon.  My 
wife  and  I  have  vivid  recollections  of  the  lavishness  of  the 
hospitality  of  the  Rajah  of  Chettinad  during  our  brief  so- 
journ in  his  city.  That  hospitality,  shown  to  strangers 
within  the  gates,  is  but  the  gleam  of  one  facet  of  a  gem  whose 
lustre  shines  in  and  illumines  the  darkest  recesses  of  a  struc- 
ture of  society  which,  alas,  is  still  not  without  its  dark 
places.  We  in  poor  Ceylon  gasp  in  wonderment  at  the 
fabulous  tales  of  untold  wealth  among  our  neighbours  which 
at  times  reach  our  ears:  we  thrill  with  a  sense  of  indefinable 
pleasure  when  we  hear  that  a  few,  at  least,  of  the  possessors 
of  that  wealth  are  not  content  unless  they  disburse  that 


wealth  for  the  common  good.  The  founding,  equipping,  and 
endowing  of  an  entire  University  by  one  single  individual 
seems  a  miracle  to  us  in  this  country  who  can  scarcely  find 
a  benefactor  to  endow  one  single  Chair.  But  we  take  some 
comfort  from  the  thought  that  the  inspiration  of  such  an 
achievement  cannot  altogether  be  lost,  and  that  though  we 
have  no  Annamalai  Chettiars  in  our  midst  the  emulation 
of  the  Rajah  Sahib's  benefactions  can  still  ue  attempted 
on  a  smaller  scale.  I  have  heard  it  said  that  one  who  lives 
to  his  sixtieth  year  is  entitled  to  be  called  a  purna  ayus, 
one  who  has  lived  a  full  lufe.  It  is  my  prayer,  and  I  know 
it  is  the  prayer  of  all  in  Ceylon  who  are  acquainted  even  in 
the  slightest  degree  with  the  person  or  the  achievements  of 
Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Cheltiar  of  Chettinad,  that  he  will 
be  spared  for  many,  many  more  years  to  come  so  that  his 
life  may  be  fuller  and  richer  for  the  good  of  his  own 
country  and  the  world  in  general. 

MR.  P.    SESHADEI,  M.A.,  M.B.E., 

Principal,  Government  College,  Ajmer  and   President,   All-India  Federation 
of  Educational  Associations 

May  I  join  in  the  felicitations  which  will  be  conveyed 
to  the  Hon.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  on  the  auspici- 
ous occasion  of  his  completing  sixty  years  ?  His  magnifi- 
cent endowment  for  the  creation  of  the  Annamalai  Univer- 
sity is  one  which  will  make  his  name  immortal  in  the  his- 
tory of  Indian  education.  There  have  undoubtedly  been 
many  benefactors  of  education  in  various  parts  of  the 
world,  but  the  example  of  one  whose  princely  generosity  is 
responsible  for  the  creation  of  a  whole  University  is  unique. 
The  numerous  well-wishers  of  the  Rajah  can  do  no  better 


on  this  occasion,  than  to  hope  that  the  Annamalai  University 
will  soon  take  its  rank  among  the  best  Universities  of  India 
and  prove  worthy  of  the  great  generosity  of  its  founder. 


I  am  delighted  to  hear  that  preparations  are  being 
made  at  Annamalainagar  to  commemorate  the  noble  ser- 
vices of  the  Rajah  Saheb  of  Chettinad.  His  love  of  learning 
has  found  perfect  expression  in  the  Annamalai  University. 
It  is  a  growing  and  expanding  organism,  pulsating  with 
activity,  and  is  a  living  definition  of  the  intrinsic  greatness 
of  the  Rajah  Saheb's  heart  and  mind.  As  an  inconspicuous 
Professor  of  Madras  University,  I  had  the  privilege  of 
making  his  acquaintance  in  Madras  in  1920-21  and  I  have 
a  vivid  recollection  of  the  grace  and  charm  which  his  con- 
versation radiated.  Our  paths  diverged  in  1921  and  I  do 
not  think  we  met  again.  But  I  have  kept  in  touch  with 
the  currents  of  events  in  Madras  and  I  find  that  during 
the  last  twenty  years,  the  Rajah  Saheb  has  developed  a 
personality  and  organised  enterprises  of  which,  I  must  con- 
fess, I  had  little  expectation  at  the  time  I  met  him  in  Madras. 
He  is  now  one  of  the  foremost  philanthropists  of  India,  and 
his  wide  sympathies,  practical  work  for  the  social  and  econo- 
mic uplift  and  absolute  sincerity  have  spread  his  name  and 
reputation  through  the  whole  of  Southern  India.  He  is  a 
model  of  what  an  Indian  Merchant  Prince  ought  to  be.  Bacon 
says  that  the  nobler  a  man  is,  the  greater  the  objects  of  pas- 
sion he  has.  The  objects  of  the  Rajah  Saheb's  passions  are 
many,  but  the  Annamalai  University  is  naturally  the  first 
object  of  his  affection.  He  has  put  the  impress  of  his  per- 
sonality on  this  hallowed  institution,  and  I  have  no  doubt 
that  it  perpetuates  the  work  of  its  founder  in  a  manner  that 


is  in  perfect  conformity  with  the  spirit  of  its  Founder.  I 
wish  India  had  more  Chettinads  at  the  present  day,  so  that 
the  humblest  citizen  may  have  an  opportunity  of  nourish- 
ing himself  on  the  best  and  noblest  in  our  Indian  culture/' 


'Adhinakarthar    of    Dharmapuram    AdJhinam,    Dharmapuram,    Mayavaram. 

May  Lord  Chockkanatha  shower  His  choicest  blessings 
on  you,  grant  you  long  life,  prosperity,  peace  and  ever- 
lasting happiness. 

Words  fail  to  express  your  manysided  activities, 
charitable  and  religious  for  the  benefit  of  humanity 
especially  to  the  South  Indians.  As  an  ardent  devotee  of 
Lord  Nataraja,  you  deserve  the  well-deserved  admiration  of 
all  worshippers  and  devotees  of  Lord  Siva  by  your  muni- 
ficent contribution  to  the  repairs  of  His  Shrines  on  the 
mundane  globe  at  Chidambaram  and  Karur,  and  by  your 
lar^e-heartedness  in  having  established  a  residential 
University  in  the  vicinity  of  His  Shrine  at  Chidambaram 
accessible  to  students  of  all  classes,  regardless  of  caste, 
creed,  religion  and  party  politics.  As  pious  as  the  Nain- 
mars,  you  have  in  every  nossible  way  striven  and  are  still 
striving  to  enrich  and  enliven  the  heritage  of  the  South 
Indians — Tamil  Literature  and  South  Indian  Music 
by  your  unequalled  generosity  by  creating  specific  endow- 
ments for  this  purpose.  Your  liberal  charity  with  a  unique 
broad  outlook,  with  a  humanitarian  object,  devoid  of  all 
ostentation  with  no  tinge  of  self  in  it,  and  non-fanatic, 
will  hand  down  to  posterity  your  name  and  fame  as  long 
as  life  exists  in  the  world.  You  have  by  your  unstinted 
help  to  all  deserving  of  help  irrespective  of  any  other  con- 


dition  social,  religious,  political  or  territorial  set  a  living 
example  to  others  by  giving  a  lead  to  show  how  on  this 
earth  one  possessing  wealth  and  influence  and  power  can 
best  serve  the  public,  especially  the  poor. 

May  the  Almighty  bless  you  and  guide  you  in  your 
future  career  to  continue  the  selfless  task  of  sacrifice  you 
have  undertaken. 


Sir  James  and  Lady  Simpson  join  heartily  in  the  Com- 
memoration of  the  Sixtieth  Birthday  of  the  Rajah  of  Chet- 
tinad.  They  recall  very  affectionately  the  many  happy 
visits  and  long  years  of  friendship  and  association  with  the 
Rajah  Saheb  and  his  family. 

What  an  achievement  for  sixty  summers  and  what  a  re- 
markable contribution  the  Rajah  has  made  to  the  Cultural, 
Political,  Economic  and  Social  life  of  India!  Long  may  he  be 
spared  further  to  adorn  his  chosen  motto  "Strive,  Save  and 

K. C.S.I.,  C.I.E.,  B.A.,  B.L.,  LL.D. 

I  am  very  glad  to  hear  that  the  Annamalai  University 
has  resolved  to  celebrate  the  61st  birth-day  of  Rajah 
Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar,  the  founder  and  Pro-Chancellor 
of  the  University,  and  has  decided  to  present  to  him  a  com- 
memoration volume.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  comes 
from  a  family  of  Nagarathar  Chettis  well-known  in  South- 


ern  India  for  its  numerous  charities.  I  knew  his  elder 
brother  Dewan  Bahadur  S.  Rm.  Ramaswami  Chettiar  and 
greatly  appreciated  the  interest  he  took  in  the  administra- 
tion of  Chidambaram  Municipality  and  the  Taluk  Board, 
and  the  health,  education  and  welfare  of  the  Chidambaram 
town.  The  leaders  of  the  Nagarathar  community  have 
always  been  noted  for  their  charities,  but  they  were  gene- 
rally of  a  more  or  less  religious  character:  they  have  taken 
great  interest  in  the  repair,  renovation  and  beautification 
of  the  great  Siva  temples  in  Southern  India,  in  the  constiuc- 
tion  of  choultries  for  the  feeding  of  the  poor  and  izi  the 
foundation  of  religious  Pathasalas  and  other  forms  of  chari- 
ties sanctioned  by  Hindu  usage.  The  Rajah's  family  has  set 
an  example  of  a  more  enlightened  form  of  public  benefac- 
tions in  accord  with  modern  ideas  and  present-day  needs. 
Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  is  the  illustrious  representa- 
tive of  his  family.  It  is  not  possible  to  enumerate  the  many 
charities  which  he  has  founded  or  supported.  The  Anna- 
malai University  is  the  greatest  monument  of  his  enlighten- 
ed munificence.  He  has  encouraged  western  as  well  as 
Oriental  learning  and  culture,  secular  as  well  as  religious 
learning,  the  fine  arts  as  well  as  literature  and  science.  The 
administration  of  his  charities  has  not  been  marked  by  any 
narrow-minded  communalism  such  as  has  become  the  bane 
of  South  Indian  life,  and  will,  it  is  hoped,  continue  to  be 
free  from  any  such  influences.  The  numerous  charities  of 
the  Rajah  have  earned  for  him  the  undying  gratitude  of 
Southern  India.  I  offer  him  my  most  cordial  felicitations 
on  the  auspicious  occasion  of  his  sixtieth  birthday  and  pray 
that  he  may  be  blessed  with  health  and  strength  to  guide  the 
Annamalai  University  for  many  years  to  come  with  his 
broad-minded  outlook  and  generosity. 










LL.D.,  M.L.C. 


I  am  happy  to  be  allowed  to  congratulate  the  Rajah 
Sahib  of  Chettinad  on  his  sixty-first  birthday  and  to  wish 
him  many  more  years  of  prosperity  and  honour.  Like 
hundreds  of  other  people  I  have  received  favours  and  kind- 
nesses from  him  without  number.  These  I  have  acknow- 
ledged elsewhere;  it  is  not  possible  to  acknowledge  them 
adequately.  More  than  these  is  the  affection  and  personal 
attachment  that  prompt  them.  What  I  have  done  or  can 
ever  do  to  deserve  it  all  has  puzzled  me  for  a  long  time.  It 
was  in  the  old  Council  hall  at  Delhi  that  we  met  first.  The 
friendship  that  began  then  has  continued  without  a  break, 
the  years  have  strengthened  and  deepened  it.  We  have 
had  few  trials  and  tasks  in  common,  we  have  not  been 
engaged  together  in  literary  or  business  pursuits,  we  have 
not  journeyed  together  in  India  and  abroad  or  studied 
men  and  measures  out  of  the  same  books.  What  has  drawn 
and  held  us  each  to  the  other?  I  cannot  flatter  myself  that 
I  am  capable  of  doing  him  any  service,  material  or  other. 
The  flow  of  benefits  between  us,  copious  and  uninterrupted, 
has  ever  been  in  one  direction  and  one  direction  only.  In 
the  nature  of  things  it  cannot  be  otherwise.  Am  I  wrong 
then  in  regarding  the  bond  between  us  as  an  example  of 
that  "subtle  inner  force"  which  the  Sanskrit  poet  postu- 
lates as  the  essence  of  love? 

Annamalai  University  comes  late  in  the  story.  I  was 
sixty-six  when  the  Rajah  entrusted  it  to  my  care.  For  five 
years  he  gave  me  his  confidence  and  support  in  the  fullest 
measure.  Twice  during  the  strike  of  students  the  institu- 
tion was  in  serious  peril,  and  as  a  change  of  policy  seemed 
to  me  scarcely  proper,  I  implored  him  to  relieve  me  and  try 


another  management.  His  practical  wisdom  was  truer 
than  mine.  He  left  me  to  weather  the  storm  as  I  might;  and 
though  I  have  no  reason  to  boast,  the  result  vindicated  his 
patience  and  his  trust  in  me.  I  do  not  wish  to  live  a  day 
after  I  have  ceased  to  be  thankful  for  such  a  blessing. 

Of  the  Rajah's  many-sided  career,  I  have  no  detailed 
knowledge.  I  shall  not  presume  to  portray  his  character 
or  canvass  the  qualities  that  have  enabled  him  to  conquer 
difficulties  and  achieve  success.  Two  points,  however, 
which  may  seem  small  to  the  superficial  observer, 
I  venture  to  pick  out  for  special  mention.  A  teacher 
of  youth  cannot  do  less  in  holding  up  to  their  admiration 
and  imitation  the  life  of  a  patron  of  youth.  Though  he  can 
employ  agents  and  secretaries  and  relieve  himself  of  anxiety 
and  hard  work,  the  Rajah  rises  early  and  goes  to  bed  late 
and  fills  the  intervening  hours  with  serious  business,  care- 
fully allotted  and  planned.  To  idle  pastimes  and  strenu- 
ous games  on  the  field,  he  is  a  complete  stranger.  Still  he 
seldom  misses  an  engagement  or  neglects  a  social  duty,  and 
I  have  always  envied  the  equability  of  temper  which  en- 
ables him  to  greet  ail  persons,  high  or  low,  friendly  or 
unfriendly,  with  the  same  engaging  smile. 


Managing  Editor,  "The  Hindu",  Madras 

It  is  with  great  pleasure  that  I  offer  my  felicitations  to 
the  Hon'ble  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  on  the  comple- 
tion of  his  60  years.  I  wish  him  long  life,  health  and  con- 
tinued prosperity. 



President,  The  Madras  Provincial  Scheduled  Castes  Federation 

Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  of  Chettinad  has 
been  spending  a  large  sum  of  money  for  several  years  on 
educational  institutions  in  India  and  abroad,  women's  cause, 
religious  charities,  renovations  and  maintenance  of  temples, 
particularly  Sri  Nataraja  Temple  at  Chidambaram  where 
Saint  Nanda's  shrine  remains  most  sacred. 

Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  is  a  generous  hearted 
gentleman,  a  great  benefactor  and  a  sincere  friend  of  his 

MR.    R.    M.    STATIIAM,    M.A.,    I.E.S.,    C.I.E., 
Director  of  Public  Instruction,  Madras. 

It  gives  me  the  greatest  pleasure  to  send  a  message  for 
the  Commemoration  Volume  to  be  presented  to  Rajah  Sir 
Annamalai  Chettiar  of  Chettinad  on  the  occasion  of  his 
61st  birthday.  I  have  been  connected  with  Education 
in  this  Presidency  for  over  28  years  and  I  am  therefore  fully 
able  to  appreciate  the  immense  contribution  which  the 
Rajah  Sahib  has  made  to  the  furtherance  of  Education  in  all 
its  branches.  It  would  be  difficult  to  find  another  public 
man  who  has  given  so  liberally  and  willingly  not  only  for 
the  establishment  and  improvement  of  many  types  of  edu- 
cational institutions  but  for  all  forms  of  deserving  chari- 
ties. His  gift  of  20  lakhs  of  rupees  for  the  founding  of  a 
Unitary  and  Residential  University  at  Chidambaram  has 
been  a  unique  feature  of  the  development  of  higher  educa- 
tion in  this  Province.  In  thus  remembering  Rajah  Sir 
Annamalai  Chettiar's  wide  generosity  I  am  sure  that  he 
would  like  us  also  to  remember  that  for  nearly  one  hundred 



years  the  members  of  his  family  have  set  aside  large  sums 
of  money  for  religious  and  educational  purposes  in  and 
around  Chidambaram.  I  can  only  conclude  by  expressing 
the  most  sincere  wish  that  the  celebration  which  we  are 
now  commemorating  may  be  most  happy  and  successful  and 
that  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  may  long  continue  to 
extend  his  wise  and  generous  patronage  to  the  work  of  ad- 
vancing Education  in  this  Province. 



Vice- Chanetljor,  Mysore  University. 

It  is  a  great  pleasure  tc  add  my  own  tribute  to  those 
of  others  to  the  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  of  Chetti- 
nad  on  the  happy  occasion  of  the  completion  of  his  sixtieth 
year.  It  was  my  privilege  to  take  part  in  the  celebrations 
of  the  Founder's  Day  in  1937,  and  I  took  advantage  of  the 
occasion  to  pay  my  tribute  to  the  munificence  of  the  Rajah 
in  the  cause  of  higher  education  in  South  India.  His  munifi- 
cence recalls  the  remarkable  manner  in  which  the  million- 
aires of  America,  J.  P.  Morgan  and  Rockfeller,  have  advanc- 
ed the  cause  of  higher  education  and  research  in  America. 
It  is  very  much  to  be  hoped  that  the  great  example  of  the 
Rajah  will  find  numerous  and  equally  generous  imitators. 

Triplicate,  Madras 

On  this  blessed  day,  the  61st  Birthday  of  the  Hon'ble 
Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar,  my  thoughts  go  back 
to  a  period  of  time,  over  twenty  years  ago,  when  he  conceiv- 
ed the  happy  idea  of  founding  a  Collegiate  Institution  at 


Chidambaram  and  naming  it  after  his  mother  of  blessed 
memory.  The  Sri  Meenakshi  College,  which  has  since 
bloomed  into  Annamalai  University  at  Annamalainagar, 
then  came  into  being. 

I  am  proud  at  the  recollection  that  I  was  present  with 
the  Rajah  to  meet  the  University  Commission  headed  by 
Sir  Ramunni  Menon  that  came  to  Chidambaram  to  recom- 
mend the  affiliation  of  the  Sri  Meenakshi  College  to  the 
Madras  University. 

Prior  to  this  time  and  later  also,  we  used  to  have  long 
conversations  about  this  institution — the  selection  of  the 
site,  the  choice  of  the  staff,  the  equipment  of  the  Library, 
Laboratories  etc.  etc.  When,  some  years  later,  he  met  me 
one  evening  and  said  that  the  preparations  for  the  founda- 
tion of  The  Annamalai  University  had  been  completed  and 
that  it  would  soon  commence  to  function^  nobody  was 
happier  than  I. 

"Mighty  of  heart,  mighty  of  mind,  Magnanimous — to 
be  this  is  indeed  to  be  great  in  life,  to  become  this  increas- 
ingly is  indeed  to  advance  in  life — in  life  itself,  not  in  the 
trappings  of  it,"  said  Ruskin  years  ago.  Who  that  knows  the 
Rajah  and  has  watched  his  benefactions  of  various  kinds, 
and.  particularly,  the  rise  and  growth  of  the  Annamalai 
University  would  not  say  that  this  description  applies  very 
aptly  to  him?  All  his  life  the  Rajah  has  been  'scorning  de- 
lights and  living  laborious  days/  living  on  almost  ascetic 
fare,  sleeping  for  not  more  than  four  to  five  hours  a  day  (he 
once  told  me  this),  and  with  an  intelligence,  keen  and  un- 
sleeping, keeping  watch  over  every  little  detail  of  the  busi- 
ness of  his  vast  estates  in  and  beyond  India,  practising,  with 
meticulous  care,  punctuality,  method,  preciseness,  economy 
of  time  and  speech,  to  the  wonderment,  delight  and  admira- 


tion  of  all  who  have  anything  to  do  with  him.  May  we  not 
pray  that  soon  he  may  be  enabled  to  extend  his  benefac- 
tions by  the  addition  to  the  University  of  a  first-rate  Techno- 
logical Institute  equipped  on  up-to-date  lines? 

"To  strive,  to  save,  to  serve' — This  has  been  his  personal 
motto.  How  much  has  he  not  striven?  And  how  much  has 
he  not  saved  and  given  away  to  others  for  +heir  benefit!! 
In  thus  saving  and  giving  away,  he  has  been  walking  in  the 
foot-steps  of  the  Upanishadic  Rishis  of  old  whose  maxims,  as 
quoted  in  Taittariya  Upanishad,  were: 

(a)  Annam  Bahukurveeta. 
Do  multiply  food. 

(b)  Nakanchana  Vasalhou Pratyachaksheeta. 

Tasmat BaJwannam  Prapnuyat. 

Do  not  deny  shelter  to  anv  one  that  seeks  it.  Therefore 
acquire  abundance  of  food. 

And  all  the  commentators  on  the  above  say  that  this 
gathering  of  Annam  is  for  the  purpose  of  giving  to  those  who 
are  in  need. 

All  honour  to  the  Rajah  who  alike  by  the  manner  of  his 
personal  life  and  by  his  rich  benefactions  is  setting  a  bright 
example  to  all  mankind1 



Retired  High  Court  Judge 

Let  me  avail  myself  of  the  privilege  of  paying  a  tribute 
of  praise  in  the  form  of  a  message  to  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Anna- 
malai  Chettiar  of  Chettinad,  at  the  celebration  of  a  memora- 


ble  event  in  his  life- time,  viz,,  his  completion  of  his  sixtieth 
year.  Born  in  a  very  respectable  aristocratic  family,  with 
a  golden  spoon  in  his  mouth,  his  career  in  life  has  been  unique 
in  its  glory.  Endowed  with  a  heritage  of  wealth,  he  has 
worked  himself  up  to  the  pinnacle  of  name  and  fame,  by 
means  of  his  remarkable  skill  in  the  business  of  commerce 
and  banking,  and  being  equipped  with  a  deep  insight,  a 
spirit  of  adventure,  sound  common  sense,  admirable  tact, 
and  suavity  of  manners.  Having  been  blessed  by  the  God- 
dess of  Wealth  in  the  wide  vista  of  his  undertakings,  his 
generous  heart  inspired  him  to  lavish  his  riches  in  numerous 
kinds  of  charities,  which  would  make  his  name  to  be  treasur- 
ed up  in  the  memory  of  posterity,  as  that  of  a  great  benefac- 
tor. His  philanthropy  has  come  out  with  shining  lustre,  from 
out  of  the  crucible  of  action.  While  the  possession  of  even 
large  surplus  wealth,  is  no  prompter  for  the  utilisation  of  any 
portion  of  it  for  the  good  of  others,  which  is  a  sorry  spectacle 
in  the  case  of  many,  is  it  not  a  matter  for  admiration  that 
the  Rajah  of  Chettinad  has  no(  merely  stopped  with  gener- 
ous intentions,  but  has  given  them  concrete  shape  with  a 
spectacular  effect?  Many  and  varied  are  his  benefactions, 
which  can  be  rightly  characterized  as  princely. 

In  the  field  of  education,  his  monumental  benefaction  is 
the  founding  of  the  famous  Annamalai  University.  What 
was  a  barren  tract  of  land,  has  now  become  Annamalai- 
nagar,  a  splendid  colony  with  beautiful  buildings,  spacious 
halls,  hostels,  residential  quarters,  play-grounds,  libraries, 
and  laboratories.  His  religious  charities  reached  their 
climax  in  the  recent  renovation  of  Sri  Tillai  Govindaraja 
temple  at  Chidambaram.  His  steadfast  loyalty  to  the  Crown 
has  been  strikingly  manifested  in  his  generous  contributions 
and  in  several  other  ways. 


Many  humanitarian  causes  in  South  India  and  else- 
where, have  had  his  generous  response.  A  patron  of  music, 
his  sympathy  for  its  encouragement  and  development  is 
laudable.  It  is  no  wonder,  that  he  has  been  the  recipient 
of  high  and  rare  honours  in  the  world.  Above  all,  he  has 
earned  the  deep  gratitude  of  humanity  as  also  the  benign 
Grace  of  the  Almighty. 

May  God  shower  His  choicest  blessings  on  him  and 
may  he  live  long  with  sound  health  and  happiness. 


Administrator,  Pudukottai   State 

It  is  a  pleasure  to  me  to  send  a  message  on  the  occasion 
of  the  Sashtiabdapurti  of  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar.  I 
have  had  the  pleasure  of  his  friendship  for  about  30  years. 
He  and  his, brother  were,  I  think,  pioneers  amongst  the 
Nattukkottai  Chettiars  in  making  large  gifts  to  promote 
education,  medical  relief  and  similar  objects.  Previously, 
the  Nattukottai  Chettiars  confined  themselves  mainly  I  think 
to  "tiruppani"  and  constructing  large  uranis. 

Perhaps  the  most  striking  example  of  his  liberality 
is  the  foundation  of  the  Annamalai  University.  It  is  a  strik- 
ing monument  of  his  generosity.  In  addition  he  has  made 
large  donations  to  a  number  of  Colleges  and  Schools  in 
Madras  Presidency,  in  Burma  and  even  in  Ceylon;  as  well 
as  to  institutions  for  the  study  of  the  Vedas  and  Sastras. 
He  has  also  been  a  liberal  patron  of  Indian  music. 

He  has  given  liberal  donations  to  various  Ladies1 
Clubs  and  Associations  and  Hospitals  intended  for  the  wel- 
fare of  women. 



At  the  same  time,  he  has  spent  large  sums  on  the 
traditional  objects  of  Nattukottai  Chetty  munificence. 

I  think  he  must  be  easily  the  premier  philanthro- 
pist of  South  India. 

I  am  glad  to  associate  myself  with  the  congratula- 
tions to  him  on  this  occasion,  and  wish  him  long  life  and 
prosperity,  and  his  University  every  success. 

SIR  MAHOMED  USMAN,  K.C.I.E.,  B.A.,  M.L.C  , 

Vice -Chancellor,  University  of  Madras 

I  congratulate  the  Annamalai  University  on  celebrating 
the  completion  of  the  sixtieth  year  of  its  distinguished 
founder,  Kajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  of  Chettinad,  who 
is  the  Pro-Chancellor  of  the  University.  His  large-hearted 
charities  to  various  educational,  religious  and  other  institu- 
tions in  this  Presidency  are  well-known.  By  these  generous 
gifts  he  has  earned  the  gratitude,  esteem  and  affection  of 
the  people  of  this  Presidency.  The  most  outstanding  act  of 
his  philanthropy  is  the  foundation  of  the  Annamalai  Univer- 
sity, which  is  the  only  Unitary,  Teaching  and  Residential 
University  in  South  India  and  whose  special  aim  is  the  en- 
couragement of  South  Indian  culture.  He  will  ever  be 
remembered  by  posterity  as  a  great  benefactor  and  a  great 
patron  of  learning  in  Southern  India.  I  "wish  him  long  life 
and  happiness  of  every  kind. 

Judge,  Federal  Court,   Delhi 

It  is  quite  in  the  fitness   of  things  that  the  Annamalai 
University  should  celebrate  the  Shashtyabdapurthi  of  its  en- 


lightened  founder.  The  Community  to  which  Rajah  Sir 
Annamalai  Chetliar  belongs  has  long  been  known  for  the 
Philanthropy  of  its  members;  but,  it  has  often  been  remark- 
ed that  their  Endowments  were  limited  to  the  traditional 
lines,  and  did  not  take  sufficient  note  of  the  needs  of  the 
changing  times.  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar's  family  was  one 
of  the  earliest  in  the  Chettinad  to  recognise  the  force  of  this 
Criticism  and  to  give  the  lead  in  the  direction  of  what  may 
be  called  'enlightened  charity.'  In  his  own  time,  the  Rajah 
has,  in  his  innumerable  acts  of  public  munificence,  shown 
a  striking  catholicity  of  outlook  and  a  wise  discrimination 
in  the  choice  of  the  objects  of  his  bounty,  happily  combin- 
ing the  old  outlook  and  the  new  vision. 

The  Annamalai  University  is  an  experiment  in  the  ser- 
vice of  a  high  ideal  and  it  is  no  wonder  that  criticisms  and 
suggestions  continue  to  be  heard  even  from  well  meaning 
quarters.  I  have  no  doubt  that  the  Rajah  and  those  associ- 
ated with  him  in  the  administration  of  the  affairs  of  the 
University  will  keep  the  ideal  constantly  before  them  and 
the  Rajah  will  be  proud  to  see  the  day  when  the  Annamalai 
University  comes  to  be  recognised  on  all  hands  as  a  fulfil- 
ment of  that  ideal.  May  a  kindly  Providence  be  pleased  to 
spare  him  for  many  more  years  of  useful  and  philanthropic 
service  to  his  mothreland. 

Agent  to  The  H.E.H.   The  Nizam  of  Hyderabad  and  Berar,  Nagpur 

On  this  happy  occasion  of  the  Shastipurti  of  the  Rajah 
of  Chettinad  my  wife  and  myself  send  him  warm  greetings 
and  most  sincere  good  wishes. 


South  India  has  produced  shining  lights  in  several 
spheres — in  statecraft,  science  and  scholarship,  law  and 
medicine;  but  in  philanthropy — judged  by  modern  notions — 
the  same  good  fortune  has  not  fallen  to  our  lot.  The  Rajah 
of  Chettinad  as  a  philanthropist,  while  ranking  with  the 
most  prominent  in  any  part  of  India,  is  in  our  province  first 
and  foremost.  His  benefactions  are  so  outstanding  and  so 
manifold  that  they  will  be  gratefully  remembered  through 
many  generations.  From  every  side  we  hear  of  a  new  world- 
order  based  on  economic  justice;  that  however,  in  spite  of 
the  sincerest  efforts,  will  be  long  in  coming.  Meanwhile,  the 
man  in  the  street  feels  chagrined  at  the  galling  contrast  bet- 
ween extreme  wealth  and  extreme  want  and  challenges  the 
very  basis  of  society.  There  are  a  few  among  the  wealthy  of 
the  world  who  realising  this  make  inequality  less  irritating 
by  giving  generously  for  the  public  weal.  The  Rajah  of 
Chettinad  belongs  to  this  band  of  discerning  men  and  may 
be  truly  described  as  the  Prince  of  philanthropists  in  South 

May  good  luck  attend  him. 


I  am  greatly  delighted  to  hear  that  the  Sashtipurthi 
of  the  Hon'ble  the  Rajah  Sir  S.  R.  M.  Annamalai  Chettiar  of 
Chettinad  will  be  celebrated  suitably  on  the  28th  Septem- 
ber 1941.  I  warmly  offer  my  heartfelt  congratulations  on 
the  event.  It  is  by  no  means  easy  for  me  adequately  to 
describe  the  unique  character  of  the  great  benefactor  and 
founder  of  the  Annamalai  University.  This  University  may 
be  said  to  be  a  model  one  in  all  India.  I  particularly  note 

with  feelings  of  gratitude  that  Physical  Training  is  compul- 


sory  on  all  the  students  of  the  University  and  that  lectures 
on  Physiology,  Health  and  Hygiene  are  delivered  weekly. 
May  I  also  venture  to  suggest  that  compulsory  Military 
Training  is  called  for  by  the  unexpected  crisis  of  the  World. 
I  call  attention  to  the  fact  that  Nazism  is  threatening  even 
India  both  from  the  West  and  the  East.  Hence  the  necessity 
for  the  said  military  training.  May  I  also  venture  to  sug- 
gest that  Hindi,  the  future  National  language  of  our  coun- 
try, be  introduced  as  one  of  the  subjects  of  the  University. 
I  need  say  no  more.  I  am  proud  of  the  fact  that  the  great 
man  is  a  personal  friend  of  mine.  I  prayerfully  wish  the 
founder  and  Pro-Chancellor  long  life  and  prosperity,  bo 
much  so  that  his  ninetieth  birthday  may  be  celebrated  thirty 
years  hence  even  with  far  greater  enthusiasm  and  grai  itude 
than  it  is  possible  at  present,  when  also  the  Annamalai 
University  may  be  the  unrivalled  model  university  in  all 

Devvan,  Mewar  State 

It  has  often  been  a  matter  of  complaint  that  there  are 
not  as  many  public  benefactions  connected  with  education 
in  Madras  as  there  are  in  some  other  major  provinces  of  India. 
This  is  probably  due  to  the  fact  that  compared  with  those 
provinces,  Madras  is  deficient  in  the  number  of  wealthy  citi- 
zens who  can  afford  to  make  large  benefactions.  The  Nattuk- 
kotai  Chetty  Community  is  probably  the  wealthiest  section 
of  the  Madras  population,  but  though  they  have  made  abun- 
dant contributions  to  public  objects,  these  objects  have  been 
more  of  a  religious  character  than  of  educational.  My  old 
friend,  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar,  is  a  shining  exception  to 


this.  He  has  devoted  a  large  sum  to  found  the  University 
which  has  been  named  after  him.  It  is  located  in  the  heart 
of  the  Tamil  country  and  one  of  its  main  objects  is  to  foster 
Tamil  learning  and  culture.  It  is  not  given  to  many  in  any 
country  outside  the  United  States  to  found  a  University  of 
their  own.  A  unique  foundation  of  this  character  deserves 
commemoration  by  the  citizens  of  the  Province.  So  far  as 
the  founder  is  concerned,  his  name  will  live  in  the  good  work 
which  the  Annamalai  University  is  carrying  on.  But  an 
obligation  lies  on  his  fellow-citizens;  to  express  their  grateful 
admiration  of  this  great  charity  and  it  is  a  happy  thought  to 
make  his  sixty-first  birthday  the  occasion  and  a  Commemo- 
v,  i  lion  Volume  the  medium  of  the  thanksgiving. 

Law  Member,  H.E.  The  Viceroy's  Executive  Council 

It  has  given  me  very  great  pleasure  to  learn  that  the 
Annamalai  University  proposes  to  celebrate  the  completion 
of  his  60th  year  by  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  of 
Chettinad,  the  Founder  Pro-Chancellor  of  the  University,  in 
a  fitting  manner,  I  have  myself  been  the  recipient  of  many 
gracious  kindnesses  from  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar,  and 
know  that  the  scope  of  his  charities  is  not  restricted  by  any 
considerations  of  caste,  creed,  or  nationality.  It  is  onlv 
right  that  the  occasion  to  which  I  have  referred  above  should 
be  duly  celebrated  by  the  great  institution  which  he  has 
founded,  and  which  is  only  one — though  the  principal  one— 
of  his  numerous  efforts  in  the  service  of  his  fellow  beings. 



Ex -May  or  of  Madras, 
Leader:  Madras  Legislative  Muslim  League  Party. 

Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Aiinamalai  Chettiar  of  Chettinad  is  one 
of  the  most  eminent  sons  of  India.  He  is  as  good  and  suc- 
cessful a  business  man  as  he  is  bountiful  and  liberal.  He 
has  given  away  about  a  crore  of  rupees  in  charity  in  India 
and  elsewhere.  The  large  sum  of  money  he  is  spending  on 
the  University  at  Annamalaiiiagar,  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
that  ancient  town  of  Chidambaram,  shows  his  large  hearted 
munificence  and  zeal  for  higher  education.  His  systematic 
and  deliberate  policy  of  protection  of  Tamil  learning  is 
manifested  in  his  generous  provision  for  its  study  in  his 
University  at  Annamalainagar. 

Rajah  Sahib  of  Chettinad  has  in  him,  too,  all  the  quali- 
ties of  a  leader  of  men.  He  has  much  of  the  charm  of  man- 
ner, ready  humour  and  almost  tender  loyalty  to  his  friends 
which  makes  a  great  leader. 

Rajah  Sahib  is  fortunate  in  his  sons  who  are  fine  men, 
excellent  and  of  striking  merit.  There  is  in  Kumararaja 
Sir  M.  A.  Muthia  Chettiar  of  Chettinad  a  gentleman  who, 
though  comparatively  young,  has  already  reached  a  posi- 
tion of  eminence  by  his  wisdom  and  charming  manners. 
He,  like  his  great  father,  is  very  much  interested  in  the 
advancement  of  learning  and  culture. 

It  gives  me  genuine  pleasure  to  felicitate  the  Rajah 
Sahib  of  Chettinad  on  the  happy  occasion  of  his  61st  Birth- 
day and  wish  him  a  long  life  of  everlasting  usefulness  and 
uninterrupted  peace  and  happiness. 


Ex -Sheriff  of  Madras, 
Director,  Central  Board  of  the  Reserve  Bank  of  India. 

On  the  happy  occasion  of  my  esteemed  friend  and 
leader  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  entering  upon  his 


Sixty-first  year  I  have  much  pleasure  in  associating  myself 
with  the  chorus  of  good  wishes,  praise  and  congratulations 
that  will  be  pouring  in  from  all  parts  of  India.  His  is  an 
eventful  life  distinguished  for  its  manifold  services  to 
society.  Rajah  Saheb  has  tilled  with  honour  eminent  posi- 
tions of  leadership.  As  a  vigilant  legislator,  as  a  charming 
Prince  among  merchants,  as  .a  great  patron  of  learning  and 
arts,  he  has  endeared  himself  to  the  entire  people  of  South 
India  who  have  nothing  but  praise  for  the  Rajah  Saheb  and 
who,  with  one  voice,  pray  to  the  Almighty  that  He  may 
shower  his  bountiful  gitts  on  the  Rajah  and  the  other  mem- 
bers of  his  family.  The  Kajah  is  fortunate  in  his  sons. 
Among  them,  Kumararajah  Sir  M.  A.  ivluthiah  Cheitiar  has 
already  come  to  prominence  in  the  public  life  of  this  Pro- 
vince, as  a  tireless  worker  for  the  economic  and  political 
regeneration  of  this  country.  Let  me  offer  my  humble  tri- 
butes and  hearty  good  wishes  for  the  long  life,  health  and 
prosperity  of  the  Rajah  Saheb  of  Chettinad. 

BASHEEK  AHMED  SAVEJbD,     M.A.,   B.L.,  M.L. A., 

Advocate,  Member,  Syndicate,  Madras  University. 

It  is  a  pleasure  and  privilege  to  contribute  a  few  lines 
to  the  Commemoration  Volume  that  is  to  be  published  in 
connection  with  the  blst  Birthday  of  the  Rajah  Saheb  of 
Chetlinad.  It  is  but  meet  that  the  Sixty  first  Birthday  of 
the  Rajah  Saheb  should  be  rejoiced  as  a  great  and  eventful 
day  in  the  annals  of  South  India.  Numerous  and  well- 
known  have  been  the  benefactions  of  the  Rajah  Saheb  but 
none  could  exceed  in  wisdom,  merit  and  quality  his 
foundation  of  ihe  Annamalai  University  at  Chidambaram. 
There  could  indeed  be  no  greater  monument  for  his  philan- 
thropy, charity  and  munificence  than  this.  His  contri- 
bution to  the  spread  of  knowledge  and  culture  in  the  shape 
of  this  residential  University,  so  well-conceived  and  so 
v/ell-i banned  remains  unsurpassed.  Greatness  of  mind, 


nobility  of  character,  uniform  courtesy,  sincerity  and 
thoroughness  of  purpose  have  been  the  unique  characteris- 
tics of  the  Rajah  Saheb  and  these  have  marked  him  out 
as  one  of  the  most  outstanding  personalities  of  our  times 
and  his  life  serves  as  a  pre-eminent  model  for  the  younger 
generation  to  emulate  and  profit  by.  I  wish  the  Rajah 
Saheb  many  many  more  returns  of  this  happy  day  and 
pray  that  he  may  be  spared  to  us  for  many  a  long  year  to 
come  in  the  best  of  health,  wealth  and  prosperity. 

Chief  Judge,  Pudukottai. 

Of  the  various  foundations  that  are  being  laid  for  the 
New  India  of  our  vision  and  hope  the  surest  and  the  most 
enduring  one  is  that  of  knowledge.  The  universities 
are  among  the  most  powerful  engines  of  National  recon- 
struction in  as  much  as  they  create  leaders  who  are  to  take 
the  nation  into  the  land  of  promise. 

Sir  Annamalai,  a  prince  among  merchants  of  Nattuko- 
tai  Community,  has  set  an  example  for  a  new  consecration 
of  money  in  his  munificent  endowment  of  the  Annamalai 
University.  Year  after  year,  hundreds  of  young  men  and 
women  carry  torches  of  light  into  the  world  and  as  they 
lighten  the  darkness  around,  look  back  on  the  university 
as  the  mother  who  nursed  them  in  the  ideals  of  service  and 
on  the  Rajah  as  the  great  donor  who  founded  it.  As  I 
believe  that  the  higher  education  of  the  universities  is  the 
keystone  of  national  progress,  I  regard  Sir  Annamalai  a 
great  benefactor  whom  the  country  will  praise  and  cherish. 

On  the  happy  occasion  of  Shasti-purti,  I  join  the  great 
company  of  his  friends  in  wishing  him  long  life  and  pros- 



The  Prince  of  Arcot. 

I  have  great  pleasure  in  associating  myself  with  the 
61st  Birthday  celebrations  of  Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai 
Chettiar  of  Chettinad.  The  Rajah  Saheb  of  Chettinad  is 
one  of  the  ablest  and  most  successful  men  of  Southern 
India.  He  is  a  good  friend  and  possesses  charming  manners. 
There  are  many  charitable  institutions  which  are  benefited 
by  his  munificence.  He  has  done  a  great  service  to  the 
cause  of  education  in  Southern  India  by  founding  a  Univer- 
sity which  is  named  after  him. 

I  wish  Rajah  Snhib  long  life,  full  of  prosperity  and 


Mayor  of  Madras. 

On  the  61st  Birthday  of  the  Hon'ble  Dr.  Rajah  Sir 
Annamalai  Chettiar  of  Chettinad  I  rejoice  to  convey  to  him 
my  humble  congratulations.  I  feel  glad  to  contemplate  that 
his  life  has  been  one  full  of  years  and  full  of  honours  and 
glory.  If  ever  any  person  was  the  architect  of  his  own 
fortunes,  the  Rajah  of  Chettinad  was  pre-eminently  one 
such.  He  battled  with  life  and  wrested  from  it  wealth, 
power  and  glory.  Nor  were  these  obtained  without  anxiety, 
labour  or  shocks.  Endowed  with  a  prodigious  memory  and 
a  giant  intellect  he  could  plan  elaborately  and  with  preci- 
sion, organise  with  great  thoroughness  and  succeed  with 
comparative  ease.  Those  who  witness  only  his  triumphs 
hardly  know  the  travail  behind  these. 

And  now,  after  the  completion  of  his  sixtieth  year  he 
can  look  back  on  his  work  and  achievements  with  justi- 
fiable and  nardonable  pride.  By  his  simplicity,  condescen- 
sion and  geniality  he  has  endeared  himself  to  one  and  all. 
He  is  considered  as  a  patriarch  in  his  own  community  and 


one  whose  word  is  almost  law  to  its  members.  He  loves 
them  and  cares  for  their  welfare  as  much  as  he  loves  and 
cares  for  his  own  children.  His  piety  has  led  him  into 
charities  which  few  have  excelled.  His  discriminative 
endowments  have  won  for  him  a  name  and  a  fame  which 
will  last  as  long  as  India  lasts.  The  Annamalai  University 
alone,  not  to  speak  of  other  charities,  will  stand  as  a  monu- 
ment to  the  greatness  of  his  heart  and  the  regality  of  his 
munificence.  Shrewd  and  far-seeing,  he  made  a  departure 
from  the  time-honoured  courses  of  the  charities  of  Indians 
and  has  made  an  endowment  which  has  an  universal  appeal. 
His  gifts  to  his  University  have  not  ceased.  Yearly  contribu- 
tions and  endowments  go  to  swell  a  benefaction  already 
large.  He  is  guiding  its  destinies  with  a  sure  hand  and 
will  soon  put  it  beyond  all  vicissitudes. 

Sixty  years  are  not  much  in  a  land  noted  for  the  longe- 
vity of  its  inhabitants.  May  God  spare  this  great  philan- 
thropist and  benefactor  for  many  a  decade  to  come,  so  that 
he  may  enrich  his  life  of  usefulness  and  service  by  further 
deeds  which  v/ill  add  greater  lustre  to  his  name. 

Judge,  Madras  High  Court. 

It  is  with  great  pleasure  that  I  respond  to  your  invita- 
tion to  send  a  message  on  the  occasion  of  the  Shastiabdha- 
poorthi  celebration  of  the  Founder,  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai 
Chettiar  of  Chettinad. 

My  memory  goes  back  to  the  time  when  years  ago  I 
was  a  member  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  of  Sri  Meenakshi 
College,  the  nucleus  of  the  great  University  which  now 
bears  his  name  and  I  recall  how  untiringly  and  enthusiasti- 
cally he  used  to  work  for  the  institution  in  those  days.  It 
was  named  after  his  beloved  mother  and  his  attachment 
to  it  was  marked  by  an  almost  filial  devotion.  How  that 
institution  later  developed  into  the  only  residential  Uni- 


versity  in  South  India  and  how  the  scrub  jungle  east  of  the 
Railway  line  in  Chidambaram  was  transformed  by  the 
vision,  faith  and  bounty  of  the  Founder  into  the  magni- 
ficent Halls  of  Learning  and  Research  over  which  you  now 
preside  forms  a  romantic  and  glorious  chapter  in  the  his- 
tory of  the  educational  progress  of  this  Province. 

It  must  be  a  matter  of  legitimate  pride  and  satisfaction 
for  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  to  have  lived  such  a  useful  and 
successful  life  for  sixty  years.  "He  lives  who  helps  many 
to  live"  says  a  Sanskrit  adage.  Hundreds  have  found  their 
living  in  his  beneficent  activities,  and  his  indeed  must  be 
counted  a  purposeful  life. 

Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  is  in  many  respects  a  re- 
markable man.  Keen  business  acumen,  tireless  energy, 
unwearying  attention  to  detail  and  a  discriminating  readi- 
ness to  take  risks  have  combined  in  his  case  to  produce  a 
fortune  which  many  a  prince  may  well  envy.  Withal,  his 
personal  habits  and  tastes  are  of  the  simplest,  and  he  avoids 
the  usual  extravagance  of  wealth.  But  if  he  is  frugal  so 
far  as  his  own  personal  needs  are  concerned,  he  is  lavish  in 
his  contributions  to  charities.  Perhaps  there  is  no  philan- 
throphist  in  this  part  of  the  country,  who  has  made 
larger  contributions  to  charities,  both  institutional  and 
private,  than  he.  And  their  end  is  by  no  means  in  sight. 
In  short,  his  own  favourite  motto  "Strive,  save  and  serve" 
may  well  be  regarded  as  his  autobiographical  memoirs;  for, 
he  has  striven  mightily,  saved  thriftily  and  served  nobly. 

I  wish  your  celebration  all  success,  and  the  Founder, 
many  happy  returns  of  the  day. 


Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar,  whilst  upholding  all  the 
admirable  traditions  of  the  great  Chettiar  clan  in  the 
South,  has  made  this  most  welcome  departure,  that  instead 
of  spending  his  charitable  endowments  exclusively  on 


temples  and  other  extra-conservative  forms  of  charity,  he 
has  set  the  example  of  spending  after  more  practical  and 
up-to-date  needs  of  his  generation  in  his  Province  in  many 
ways.  The  Annamalai  University  is  a  striking  proof  of 
this,  and  it  is  very  much  to  be  hoped  that  the  example  set 
by  the  Rajah  of  Chettinad  will  be  taken  up  by  all  similarly 
placed  in  India.  I  wish  the  Rajah  of  Chettinad  and  the 
Chettinad  family  continued  prosperity  to  follow  up  this 
most  welcome  innovation  in  their  dispensation  of  charitable 
funds.  India  cannot  have  too  many  of  such  innovations. 
I  look  forward  to  the  Kumararajah  of  Chettinad's  whole- 
hearted support  to  his  illustrious  father's  noble  example. 


Sheriff  of  Madras. 

Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  of  Chettinad,  whose 
friendship  I  have  enjoyed  for  over  two  decades  enters  on 
the  Sixty-first  birthday  on  the  28th  of  September,  1941. 
Let  me  send  my  hearty  felicitations  on  that  occasion.  This 
great  business  magnate  is  1he  foremost  merchant  prince, 
not  only  in  this  country,  but  also  in  Ceylon,  Malaya,  Burma, 
the  Strait  Settlements  and  Indo-China.  He  has  been  con- 
nected with  the  Reserve  Bank  of  India  ever  since  its  incep- 
tion and  is  the  Director  of  several  other  banks  of  this  Pre- 
sidency. If  he  is  a  great  busmess  man  making  a  great  for- 
tune by  his  farsightedness,  he  is  a  greater  philanthropist 
giving  most  generously  to  all  noble  causes.  The  Annamalai 
University  is  a  standing  monument  to  his  princely  munifi- 
cence. He  has  filled  with  honour  and  distinction  many  posi- 
tions of  responsibility  and  served  the  country  in  manifold 
ways.  May  the  Lord  Almighty  be  pleased  to  confer  on  him 
its  choicest  gifts  and  give  him  a  long  and  unclouded  life  of 
happiness  and  public  service. 


Judge,  Madras  High  Court. 

The  traditions  of  Hinduism  enjoin  various  charities  and 
of  these  the  most  valued  is  the  gift  of  knowledge.  Anna- 
dhanam  for  the  poor  is  also  counted  as  a  great  virtue  but 
the  gift  of  knowledge  is  counted  greater  still.  Gratitude 
prescribes  that  we  should  remember  those  who  have  not 
only  furnished  the  means  for  relief  of  the  poor  of  the  coun- 
try but  also  those  who  have  planted  beacon  lights  in  the 
shape  of  Universities  in  our  midst.  On  this  auspicious  occa- 
sion our  country  will  thank  God  for  raising  a  great  donor 
in  the  person  of  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  in  South 
India  for  the  promotion  of  learning. 

An  English  writer  writing  on  great  men  remarked 
thus  :  "  Nor  is  power  alone  a  sufficient  title  to  greatness.  It 
must  be  power  governed  by  purpose,  by  a  philosophy,  good 
or  bad,  of  human  life,  not  by  mere  spasms  of  emotion  or  an 
itch  for  adventure."  Sir  Annamalai  has  utilised  the  power 
which  wealth  has  conferred  on  him  for  really  useful  pur- 
poses. The  motto  of  Sir  Annamalai's  house  "  Strive,  Save, 
Serve"  has  received  a  glorious  exemplification  in  the  en- 
dowment of  the  Annamalai  University.  The  merchant 
princes  of  the  Nattukottai  Chetti  community  have  rebuilt 
temples  in  various  places.  But  Sir  Annamalai  has  given  a 
new  turn  to  the  traditional  modes  of  charity  by  endowing  a 
temple  of  knowledge.  The  Annamalai  University  will  be 
an  enduring  monument  perpetuating  his  name  among 
generations  of  students  that  go  out  from  its  portals. 

The  value  of  and  the  beneficial  influence  which  univer- 
sities are  capable  of  exercising  in  this  country  and  especi- 
ally in  the  regeneration  of  India  in  the  present  turmoil  and 
conflict  which  is  confronting  the  world  are  immense  and  in- 
calculable. In  the  course  of  my  Convocation  Address  to  the 
students  of  the  Andhra  University  last  December,  I  observ- 

ed  that  the  true  and  abiding  basis  for  Indian  unity  lies  in 
the  creation  of  Indian  culture  which  forges  communal  cul- 
tures into  one  living  whole  in  art  and  literature  and  society 
and  politics  and  the  universities  are  the  competent  agencies 
for  inspiring  our  youth  with  a  passion  for  unity  evoking  in 
them  a  lifelong  devotion  to  the  promotion  of  a  single  unified 
Indian  culture  and  the  synthesis  of  cultures  is  a  special  need 
of  India.  From  the  note  which  has  been  sent  to  me  by  my 
esteemed  friend  Dr.  Sir  K.  V.  Reddi  I  find  that  the  Anna- 
malai  University  has  realised  this  need  and  has  this  object 
in  view. 

Shastipurthi  is  a  landmark  in  life  celebrated  with  joy 
and  thankfulness  but  the  joy  of  the  celebration  must  be 
great  indeed  for  Sir  Annamalai  when  it  takes  place  in  the 
temple  of  knowledge  he  has  built.  May  Sir  Annamalai 
reach  the  coveted  age  of  hundred  years  and  may  the  country 
continue  to  be  the  recipient  of  his  benefactions. 

K.  VENKATASWAM1  NAIDU,  B.;A.,  B.L.,  M.L.C ., 

Ex-Mayor  of  Madras. 
Deputy  President  Madras  Legislative  Council, 

On  the  occasion  of  Sastiabdha  Purthi  of  Sri  Rajah  Sir 
Annamalai  Chettiar  of  Chettinad  let  me  join  in  the  chorus 
of  appreciation  showered  on  him.  Next  to  Pachaiyappas, 
Rajah  Saheb  will  live  for  ever  as  one  of  the  greatest  Edu- 
cationists of  South  India.  His  Annamalai  University  will 
be  a  standing  monument  of  his  love  of  service  and  culture. 
By  renovating  the  famous  temple  of  Sri  Govindaraja  at 
Chidambaram,  he  has  become  God's  favourite.  His 
pleasing  manners,  princely  hospitality  and  an  attitude  of 
helpfulness  at  all  times  have  earned  for  him  the  love  and 
regard  of  everyone.  May  he  live  long  and  continue  his 
beneficent  acts. 



More  than  twelve  years  ago  the  Annamalai  University 
was  started,  thanks  to  the  generosity  and  public  spirit  of 
Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  of  Chettinad  whose  name  it 
bears.  Its  aims  and  ideals  are  similar  to  those  of  the  other 
Universities  in  South  India,  but  it  differs  from  most  of  them 
in  being  both  a  teaching  and  a  residential  University. 
It  differs  from  them  in  another  respect  also.  It  owes 
its  existence  to  the  munificence  'and  generosity  of 
an  eminent  citizen  of  our  motherland.  His  princely  gift 
for  the  cause  of  higher  education  has  no  parallel  in  the 
history  of  this  presidency. 

Since  the  publication  of  the  report  of  the  Sadler  Com- 
mission, the  trend  of  best  educational  opinion  in  the  country 
has  been  in  favour  of  a  unitary,  teaching  and  residential 
University  as  it  makes  for  efficiency  and  economy  in 
higher  academic  work  and  provides  ample  facilities  for  the 
moulding  of  character  and  the  development  of  a  corporate 
spirit.  Early  in  1928  the  committee  appointed  by  the  Gov- 
ernment of  Madras  to  examine  the  need  for  establishing  a 
university  for  the  Tamil  districts,  wrote  in  their  report  that 
it  was  desirable  to  have  unitary  teaching  Universities  and 
as  many  of  them  as  the  country  could  afford  but  that  the 
immediate  realisation  of  this  desire  was  not  to  be  expected 
as  the  financial  resources  even  for  one  such  University 
could  not  be  indicated  with  any  degree  of  assurance.  But 


even  while  these  words  were  being  written,  the  Rajah 
Saheb  of  Chettinad  was  in  consultation  with  the  Government 
of  Madras  regarding  a  scheme  for  the  creation  of  a  teaching 
University  at  Chidambaram.  With  princely  generosity  he 
offered  to  hand  over  to  the  proposed  University  the  three 
collegiate  institutions  for  higher  instruction  in  English,  Tamil 
and  Sanskrit  studies  founded  by  him  at  Chidambaram 
and  their  assets  together  with  twenty  lakhs  of  rupees  in 
cash.  The  Government  recognising  the  unique  nature 
of  the  benefaction,  came  to  the  conclusion  that  they  should 
not  miss  this  opportunity  of  encouraging  private  effort  in  the 
cause  of  public  instruction  and  establishing  a  new  Univer- 
sity of  a  type,  which  was  admittedly  the  best,  though  un- 
known in  the  Presidency  of  Madras. 

On  the  27th  June,  1928,  the  Government  published  a 
communique  promising  twenty  lakhs  of  rupees  towards  the 
endowment  fund  which  was  later  raised  to  twenty-seven 
lakhs  and  a  recurring  grant  of  a  lakh  and  a  half  per  annum. 
A  bill  to  establish  and  incorporate  a  teaching  and  residential 
University  was  published  in  a  Gazette  Extraordinary  on  the 
24th  August,  1928.  It  was  introduced  into  the  Madras 
Legislative  Council  on  the  8th  September  1928,  and 
referred  to  a  Select  Committee  of  25  members  of  the  Legis- 
lative Council.  On  the  12th  October,  1928,  the  bill  was 
passed  into  law.  The  Act  received  the  assent  of  the  Gov- 
ernor on  the  3rd  November,  1928  and  that  of  the  Governor- 
General  on  the  llth  December,  1928.  The  assent  of  the 
Governor-General  was  published  in  the  Fort  St.  George 
Gazette  on  the  1st  January,  1929.  The  Government  in  G.O. 
No.  1  dated  1st  January,  1929,  brought  into  force  the 
several  sections  of  the  Act  from  1st  January,  1929.  Thus 
this  unique  University  in  South  India  came  into  being.  The 


Chancellor,  the  Pro-Chancellor,  the  Vice-Chancellor,  the 
Senate,  the  Academic  Council  and  the  Syndicate  constitute 
the  body  corporate  of  the  University.  The  Governor- 
General  is  the  Visitor  of  the  University;  the  Governor  of 
Madras  is  the  Chancellor;  the  Founder  of  the  University  is 
the  Pro-Chancellor;  the  Vice-Chancellor  is  a  whole-time 
officer,  to  whom  a  salary  may  be  paid,  who  holds  office  for 
a  period  of  three  years  and  is  appointed  by  the  Chancellor 
from  among  three  persons  recommended  by  the  Founder. 
At  present  we  have  in  our  midst  as  our  Vice-Chancellor, 
Sir  Kurma  Venkata  Reddi  Naidu,  K.C.I.E.,  D.Litt.  M.L.C. 

The  authorities  of  the  University  under  the  Act  are; 
(1)  the  Senate;  (2)  the  Academic  Council;  (3)  the  Facul- 
ties; (4)  the  Boards  of  Studies;  (5)  the  Syndicate;  (6) 
the  Finance  Committee  (for  a  period  of  ten  years  from 
15th  May  1929)  and  (7)  the  Board  of  Selection. 

About  150  miles  from  Madras  a  stone's  throw  to  the 
east  of  Chidambaram  Railway  Station  lies  the  University 
Colony  named  Annamalainagar.  The  Colony  is  540  acres  in 
extent,  and  the  lecture  hails,  hostels,  administrative  build- 
ings and  residential  quarters  stand  in  this  area.  It  is  ideally 
situated  in  the  midst  of  green  fields  far  from  the  bustle  of 
town  life;  and  yet  it  has  every  amenity  that  most  progres- 
sive towns  enjoy.  During  these  12  years  magnificent  build- 
ings, costing  more  than  20  lakhs,  have  come  up  and  great 
progress  has  been  made  in  various  directions.  This  is  in  no 
small  measure  due  to  the  tireless  efforts  of  Dewan  Bahadur 
S.  E.  Runganadhan — at  present  Advisor  to  the  Secretary  of 
State  for  India  — who  was  Vice-Chancellor  of  the  Annamalai 
University  from  1929  to  1935,  and  of  the  Rt.  Hon'ble  V.  S. 
Srinivasa  Sastri,  who  was  Vice-Chancellor  for  five  years 


from  1935  and  of  our  present  Vice-Chancellor,  Sir  Kurma 
Venkata  Reddi  Naidu. 

In  this  University  nearly  a  thousand  students  are  pur- 
suing, to-day,  various  courses  of  study.  Instruction  is 
provided  and  facilities  for  study  offered  from  the  Inter- 
mediate course  up  to  the  Ph.D.,  M.Litt.  and  M.Sc.  degrees. 
This  University  is  the  only  one  which  offers  an  Honours 
course  in  Tamil.  Another  noteworthy  feature  is  its 
Department  of  Music  which  has  done  not  a  little  to  pro- 
mote the  study  of  Carnatic  Music. 

The  University  Library  is  one  of  the  best  of  its  kind 
and  is  just  a  few  yards  from  the  hostel.  It  affords  every 
facility  for  reading  and  contains  many  up-to-date  books 
and  periodicals.  More  than  15,000  rupees  are  spent  every 
year  on  new  books  and  journals.  The  study  of  current 
journals  and  periodicals  is  specially  encouraged  in  this  Uni- 
versity. The  total  number  of  books  in  the  general  and  sec- 
tional libraries  is  over  50,000.  The  library  receives  regular- 
ly 248  scientific  and  learned  periodicals.  Each  Department 
of  Study  has  its*own  seminar  library  for  the  use  of  Honours 
and  Research  students. 

The  residential  aspect  of  this  unitary  and  teaching  Uni- 
versity deserves  special  mention.  Students  and  teachers 
live  in  the  same  colony  and  there  are  many  opportunities  for 
fruitful  contact  of  mind  and  mind.  Every  opportunity  is 
given  to  develop  in  the  student  not  merely  a  keen  and  culti- 
vated intelligence  but  also  sound  character  and  a  sound 
physique.  The  students'  hostel  is  managed  by  a 
Warden  and  a  Sub- Warden  and  five  inspectors.  Students, 
too,  have  their  share  in  the  management  of  the  hostel.  The 
Warden  is  assisted  in  his  work  by  a  Students'  Representa- 



'k  -  %€ll^€^K.;SM 

H.  E.   LORD  ERSKINB    G.C.S.I, 

H.  E.   THE 

SIR  G.C.I.E.,   M.C, 


S,    E.  M.A.f   I.E.S. 

V.  S.  P.C.,  C.H..  LL.D, 


GARU,    K  C  I  E.,    D.LITT  ,    VICE-CHANCELLOR. 














?  -v   >  '; 





















)—  < 


























^m  m  w 
0  <  ffi 
?     20 

























1.  PROF.    K     M.    KHADYE,  1931    (May-August) 

2.  DR.   S.   N.   CHAKRAVARTI  1935   (May- June) 

3      MR     T     R     VENKATARAMA      SASTRIAR      (December 

1936   to  January   1937;   1939  January) 
4.     DR.    B.    V.   NARAYANASWAMY  NAIDU  1939 


tive  Council.  Living  in  close  proximity  to  the  lecture  halls 
and  the  huge  University  Library  a  student  in  this  Univer- 
sity can  consult  without  the  least  trouble  any  of  his  teachers 
about  the  books  he  should  read,  get  his  doubts  cleared  and 
receive  instruction  in  any  other  matter  in  which  he  is  inte- 
rested. He  need  not  travel  long  distances  to  meet  his  tea- 
chers; they  are  at  his  door  ready  to  be  consulted  whenever 
any  doubt  or  difficulty  arises. 

The  women  students  have  a  well-equipped  hostel  of 
their  own  under  a  resident  lady  Warden.  In  recent  years 
more  and  more  women  students  have  joined  the  University 
especially  for  the  study  of  Music.  Some  have  taken  up 
advanced  courses  of  study  in  Arts  and  Science. 

The  capacity  for  organisation  and  leadership  finds  play 
in  the  largely  self-governing  University  Union  and  in  various 
other  Sectional  Societies.  A  Union  Hall  has  been  built 
at  a  cost  of  Rs.  15,000.  The  University  has  also  a  Dramatic 
Club,  a  Boating  Club  and  a  Students'  Co-operative  Society. 

The  University  possesses  one  of  the  most  extensive  play 
grounds  in  South  India  and  provision  is  made  for  all  types 
of  games  and  sports.  In  this  University,  Physical  Training  is 
compulsory  for  all  students  and  no  one  can  take  a  Univer- 
sity Examination  without  producing  a  Certificate  of  Physical 
training  from  the  University  Director  of  Physical  Educa- 
tion. Particular  care  is  taken  of  the  health  of  the  stu- 
dents. There  is  a  Resident  Medical  Officer  who  periodically 
examines  the  students.  A  well-equipped  hospital  with  up- 
to-date  arrangements  has  also  been  provided. 

Ever  since  its  inception  the  University  has  emphasised 
teaching  as  well  as  research.  In  addition  to  the  Research 

Journal,  published  three  times  every  year,  the  University 


has  to  its  credit  a  large  number  of  learned  publications. 
Studentships  and  fellowships  have  also  been  instituted  for 
the  promotion  of  advanced  research.  The  departments 
of  study  are  organized  not  merely  for  teaching  but  also 
for  advanced  research.  Advantage  has  been  taken  of  these 
facilities  by  students  and  by  members  of  the  teaching  staff 
who  have  contributed  many  papers  to  learned  journals, 

Grants-in-Aid  of  research  work  are  also  awarded 
under  certain  conditions.  With  a  view  to  providing  for  the 
advancement  of  learning  in  Tamil  a  special  research  depart- 
ment is  working  under  the  guidance  of  the  Head  of  the 
Department  of  Tamil.  With  a  view  to  the  ultimate  adop- 
tion of  Tamil  as  the  medium  of  instruction  in  the  University 
the  syndicate  instituted  prizes  for  text-books  in  Tamil  on 
various  subjects.  So  far  books  in  Tamil  on  Logic,  Physics 
and  Chemistry  have  been  published.  A  Tamil  work  on 
Music  selected  for  the  award  of  a  prize  of  Rs.  750  will  be 
published  shortly.  The  Heads  of  Departments  of  studies 
in  History,  Economics,  Mathematics,  Botany  and  Zoology 
have  been  requested  to  arrange  for  getting  ready  Tamil 
text-books  in  the  several  optional  subjects  suitable  for 
use  in  the  Intermediate  classes.  These  are  expected  to  be 
published  by  the  end  of  the  year  1941. 

Any  casual  visitor  to  Annamalainagar  will  be  struck  by 
the  pulsating  life  of  this  centre  of  cultural  activity.  Any 
day  of  the  week  he  will  see  in  the  evening  hundreds  of  young 
men  lustily  playing  in  the  open  air  Cricket,  Tennis  or 
Hockey  or  any  one  of  the  games  popular  with  the  youth  of 
this  country.  Or  he  may  see  them  sitting  and  silently  pour- 
ing over  books  or  periodicals  in  the  spacious  Reading  Rooms 
of  the  University  Library.  Yet  again  he  may  see  a  scholar 
reading  a  learned  paper  before  an  advanced  Study  Circle  of 


kindred  spirits;  or  see  him  going  out  Scouting  or  on  Social 
Service  work.  Perhaps  he  may  light  upon  a  Music  perform- 
ance given  by  one  of  the  foremost  exponents  of  Carnatic 
Music;  or  listen  in  to  the  Radio  or  spend  a  few  minutes  read- 
ing a  daily  newspaper  or  current  weekly.  If  he  is  more 
lucky  he  may  see  the  whole  University  professors,  lecturers, 
students  and  townsmen  gathered  in  the  Srinivasa  Sastri 
Hall  listening  to  a  learned  discourse  on  some  topic  of 

Barring  the  Travancore  University,  the  Annamalai  Uni- 
versity is  the  youngest  in  the  Indian  Empire.  During  the 
first  decade  of  its  existence  it  has  served  South  India  as  a 
true  centre  of  Indian  culture  and  as  an  ideal  training 
ground  for  the  young  men  and  women  of  this  land.  We 
cannot  be  sufficiently  grateful  to  the  Rajah  of  Chettinad  for 
founding  this  magnificent  institution  which  is  unique  in 
our  country. 

We  cannot  all  found  Universities;  but  every  one  of  us 
can  do  our  bit  to  strengthen  and  encourage  centres  of  learn- 
ing like  the  Annamalai  University. 



1929.     The  Rt  Hon'ble  Viscount  Goschen  of  Hawk- 
hurst,  G.C.S.L,  G.C.I.E.,  C.B.E. 

1929.     July  to  December— The  Hon'ble  Sir  Norman 

Edward  Marjoribanks,  C.B.E.,  G.C.LE. 
The  Rt.  Hon'ble  Sir  George  Frederic  Stanley, 

P.C.,  G.C.S.L,  G.S.I.K,  C.M.G. 
1934.     May  to  August— The  Hon'ble  Sir  Muhammad 

Usman,  K.C.I.E.,  B.A. 
His  Excellency  Lord  Erskine,  G.C.S  J. 


1936.    June— The    Hon'ble    Sir    K.    V.    Reddy    Kt., 

B.A.,  B.L. 

His  Excellency  Lord  Erskine,  G.C.S.I. 
1939.     The  Hon'ble  Sir  Arthur  Oswald  James  Hope, 
G.C.I.E.,  M.C. 


1929.    Dr.  Rajah  Sir  S.  Rm.  M.  Annamalai  Chettiar  of 
Chettinad,  LL.D. 


1929.     The  Rt.  Hon'ble  V.  S.  Srinivasa  Sastriar,  P.C. 

C.H.,  LL.D. 

1929.     Diwan  Bahadur  S.  E.  Runganadhan,  M.A.,  I.E.S. 
1931.    May-Aug.— K.  M.  Khadye,  Esq.,  M.A.,  (Bomb.), 

B.A.  (Cantab),  Officiating. 

1931.     Diwan  Bahadur  S.  E.  Runganadhan,  M.A.,  I.E.S. 
1935.    May-June— Dr.     S.     N.     Chakravarti,     M.Sc., 

D.Phil.,  (Oxon) ,  Officiating. 

1935.  The  Rt.  Hon'ble  V.  S.  Srinivasa  Sastriar,  P.C., 

C.H.,  LL.D. 

1936.  Dec.   tc   Feb.    1937— Sri   T.   R.   Venkatarama 

Sastriar,  C.I.E.,  B.A.,  B.L.,  Officiating. 

1937.  The  Rt.  Hon'ble  V.  S.  Srinivasa  Sastriar,  P.C., 

C.H.,  LL.D. 

1939.  March- April — Dr.  B.  V.  Narayanaswami  Nayudu, 

M.A.,  Ph.D.,  B.Com.,  Bar-at-Law,  Officiating. 

The  Rt.  Hon'ble  V.  S.  Srinivasa  Sastriar,  P.C., 
C.H.,  LL.D. 

1940.  Rai   Bahadur   Dr.    Sir  Kurma  Venkata  Reddy 

Nayudu  Garu,  K.C.I.E.,  D.Litt,  M.L.C. 



1931.  Diwan  Bahadur  S.  E.  Runganadhan,  M.A.,  I.E.S. 

1932.  R.  Littlehailes,  Esq.,  M.A.,  C.I.E. 

1933.  Diwan    Bahadur    Sir    T.    Desikachariar,    Kt., 

B.A.,  B.L. 

1934.  Diwan  Bahadur  R.  V.  Krishna  Ayyar,  B.A.,  B.L. 

1935.  Sir  Mirza  Ismail,  Kt. 

1936.  Sir  Phiroze  C.  Sethna,  Kt. 

1937.  The  Rt.  Hon'ble  V.  S.  Srinivasa  Sastriar  P.C., 

C.H.,  LL.D. 

1938.  Sri  K.  Natarajan,  B.A. 

1939.  H.  C.  Papworth,  Esq.,  M.A.,  I.E.S. 

1940.  The  Hon'ble  Sir  Lionel  Leach,  Kt. 



Vice-Chancellor,  Allahabad  University. 

Both  on  personal  and  public  grounds  I  am  glad  to  send 
these  few  lines,  as  a  I  am  hereby  enabled  to  pay  my  tribute 
to  an  old  friend  of  my  father's,  whose  benefactions,  magni- 
ficent alike  in  magnitude  and  in  piety,  make  him  one  of  the 
outstanding  figures  in  modern  India.  Believing  in  the  essen- 
tial unity  of  Indian  culture,  I  propose  to  translate  some 
verses  of  a  Hindi  poet  of  the  seventeenth  century — short 
flights  of  fancy,  pretty  vignettes,  which,  because  of  the  one- 
ness of  Indian  tradition,  will  not  be  difficult  of  appreciation 
even  by  readers  in  the  South. 

Traditionally,  Bihari  wrote  a  Satsai,  a  collection  of  seven 
hundred  verses.  They  are  divided  into  four  sections, 
Nayaka-nayikavarnana  (Description  of  the  Hero  and  the 
Heroine) ;  Shringaravarnana  (Description  of  the  Erotic 
Sentiment) ;  Shikha-nakha-ritu-varnana  (Description  of  the 
Figure  of  the  Heroine  and  of  the  Seasons); 
and  Anyokti-Navarasa-Nripastuti-Varnana  (Description  of 
the  Nine  Sentiments  and  of  the  Monarch) .  The  classifica- 
tion follows  in  the  main  the  lines  prescribed  in  the  Sanskrit 
works,  Dasharupa  and  Sahityadarpana.  The  verses  centre 
round  the  eternally  young  and  fresh  figures  of  Radha  and 
Krishna,  but  they  are  capable  of  universal  application. 

The  Doha  is  a  couplet  and  there  is  the  same  epigram- 
matic effect  in  it  as  in  the  heroic  couplet  in  English.  It  de- 



mands  compression  and  brevity.  It  forces  the  poet  to  eschew 
unnecessary  decoration.  Each  couplet  is  complete  in  itself 
and  yet  through  hundreds  of  them  there  is  a  continuity  of 
thought  and  harmony  of  atmosphere.  Moods  vary  and  emo- 
tions alter;  but  the  underlying  unity  is  not  disturbed. 

(263)  My  eyes  are  no  more  in  my  power:  I  am  tired  of  ex- 
plaining matters  to  them.  They  laugh  at  me,  having 
obtained  control  over  my  mind  ;and  body.  How, 
then,  can  I  have  power  over  them  ? 

(267)  Himself  full  of  beauty,  from  top  to  toe,  he  yet  solicits 
me,  smiling;  truly,  the  covetous  never  abandon  their 

(268)  "Fie,  you  care  not  for  your  reputation.    Why  do  you 
keep  gazing  at  Krishna/"*? 

"But  what  can  I  cL  to  these  covetous  eyes  of  mine? 
What  can  I  do  to  get  rid  of  them  ?  " 

(270)  The  Creator  has  not  destined  any  happiness  for 
these  wretched  eyes  of  mine.  They  dare  not  look  at 
Krishna,  because  others  are  looking  on,  and  they  are 
restless  without  looking  at  him. 

(276)  How  can  one  dwell,  how  can  one  exist  in  the  domain 
of  Love?    There  is  no  justice  there:   the  eyes  come 
into  clash,  but  it  is  the  heart  that  is  taken  prisoner. 

(277)  Fierce  is  the  intoxication  of  beauty;  terror  does  not 
drive  it  away  ;  it  permits  no  sleep  ;  the  passage  of 
time  does  not  diminish  it ;  it  is  not  followed  by  the 
recovery  of  consciousness. 

(278)  Krishna's  eyes  rob  me  of  my  heart  and  of  all  my 
possessions.    They  waylay  the  wary  and  steal  from 
those  who  are  awake. 


(280)  I  have  made  countless  attempts;  I  have  tried  again 
and  again,  but  I  cannot  extricate  myself  from 
Krishna's  charms.  My  mind  is  mingled  with  his 
beauty,  as  completely  as  salt  with  water. 

(284)  The  new  love  on  the  one  side  and  consideration  for 
the  good  name  of  her  family  on  the  other — between 
the  two  she  was  torn,  and  perplexed,  and  her  mind 
is  like  the  windmill. 

(285)  She  ascends  to  the    roof  of  the  house  and    quickly 
comes  down  from  it;  she  keep  doing  this  without  feel- 
ing exhausted  in  the  least;  she  has  become  like  unto 
a  juggler's  box. 

(286)  To  and  fro,  and  to  and  fro,  she  keeps  moving,  stop- 
ping nowhere  even    for  a  while;  she  keeps    flitting 
backwards  and  forwards  like  the  chakai  bird. 

(287)  "My  mind  is  engrossed  with  thoughts  of  him  who 
has  stolen  my  heart,  and  I  have  at  the  same  time  in- 
tense regard  for  my  elders.    I  go  on  doing  my  house- 
hold work,  but  my  heart  is  as  though  on  a  swing." 


DR.  S.  V.  ANANTAKRISHNAN,  M.A.,  PH.D.  (LOND).,  A.i.C. 

The  origin  of  Science  may  be  traced  to  that  instinct  in 
man  that  led  to  his  acquisition  of  knowledge  about  Nature 
in  order  to  survive.  The  need  for  food  and  the  warding  off 
of  the  attacks  of  animals  led  to  the  developments  of  primi- 
tive agriculture  and  primitive  tools  and  weapons.  From 
these  beginnings  to  the  scientific  achievements  of  the 
twentieth  century  is  a  far  cry  and  it  is  not  our  purpose 
here  to  trace  historically  this  development. 

One  of  the  catchwords  among  politicians,  especially  in 
this  country — and  we  hear  their  cry  in  our  academic 
bodies  too — is  that  research  workers  should  devote  their 
attention  to  problems  in  "applied  science"  rather  than  to 
'pure  science."  The  fundamental  mistakes  made  by  these 
are  the  assumption  that  the  two  regions  are  water-tight 
compartments  and  the  failure  to  realise  that  many  of  the 
socalled  "applied  science' '  problems  arise  only  in  the  actual 
working  of  industries.  A  careful  examination  of  the  so- 
called  applied  sciences  shows  the  extent  of  their  depend- 
ence on  the  theoretical  side.  At  the  end  of  a  Friday  even- 
ing discourse  at  the  Royal  Institution,  an  old  lady  asked 
the  lecturer  Faraday  as  to  the  use  of  electricity  and  the 
scientist  retorted  "of  what  use,  madam,  is  the  new-born 
babe."  Scientific  outlook  has  not  materially  altered  since 

Scientific  research  may  be  broadly  classified  on  the 
basis  of  the  motives  behind  the  work.  To  one  class  the  dis- 


covery  and  acquisition  of  new  knowledge  is  the  end  while 
the  other  centres  round  utility.  The  transition  from  one 
to  the  other,  however,  is  not  a  forbidden  one.  A  large 
volume  of  scientific  knowledge  is  useful  though  only  a  small 
fraction  of  it  may  be  essential. 

The  close  interrelationship  between  pure  and  applied 
science,  between  scientific  discovery  and  invention,  may  be 
seen  from  an  examination  of  a  few  select  instances.  Achieve- 
ments in  the  latter  field  arc  often,  however,  a  result  of  the 
exercise  of  mechanical  ingenuity  rather  than  a  spirit  of 
inquiry  which  should  form  the  background  of  scientific 

When  Sir  William  Crookes  uttered  his  warning  on  the 
possible  shortage  of  nitrogenous  fertilisers,  several  workers 
set  on  the  problem  but  the  final  result  of  a  successful  fixa- 
tion of  atmospheric  nitrogen  could  be  achieved  only  when 
the  theoretical  side  of  each  reaction  was  thoroughy  work- 
ed out.  The  Birkeland  Eyde  process  is  a  result  of  the 
thermodynamic  and  kinetic  studies  on  the  Nitrogen-oxygen 
reaction,  while  the  Haber  process  of  ammonia  manufacture 
was  preceded  by  a  systematic  investigation  on  heterogene- 
ous catalysis  and  the  nitrogen-hydrogen  reaction.  It  is  again 
the  investigations  of  G-  N.  Lewis  on  the  thermodynamics 
of  the  Ammonium  Carbamate-urea  equilibrium  arising 
from  the  free  energy  change  studies  on  the  reaction 

CO>  +  2NHa  < >  CO(NHii)i>  +  2H20  that  has  led  to  the 

manufacture  of  urea  which  is  now  gradually  displacing 
other  nitrogenous  fertilisers. 

The  chemistry  of  colloids  also  reveals  how  the  two 
aspects  of  scientific  research  cannot  be  dissociated.  The 
present  state  of  the  petroleum  industry,  the  textile  industry 
and  paint  and  varnish  industry,  is  to  be  traced  to  the  theo- 


retical  investigations  01  Larouieis,  Uancroit,  Lianginuir, 
Gardner  in  America,  of  Clayton,  Donnan,  McBain  eoc.,  in 
England  and  of  ifreundlicJi,  Mark,  Zsigmondy  etc.  in 

The  dehumanizing  aspect  01  applied  researcli  is  seen 
best  in  modern  wariare.  bciieeie  uncovered  ciiiorme  m  i  H  4 
and  Uavy  escaohsiiea  its  elementary  nature  some  Inirty 
years  iaier.  'ihe  use  01  us  bleacning  properties  as  well  as 
tiiu  inaniuaclure  oi  bieaciiing  powaer  is  now  known  for 
nearly  a  century  and  a  iiaii  DUL  its  use  as  an  anUiiuman 
weapon  in  Uie  lorrn  01  poison  gas  is  recent  mstory.  An- 
ouier  01  bciieeie  s  aiscoveries  ,  giyceroi,  tens  a  similar  story. 
It  was  a  laooralory  curiosuy  until  AUrea  i\oDei  s  discovery 
oi  niiro-giycerine  in  ibbo.  me  explosive  properties  and 
wartime  use  oi  thijj  compounu  are  too  well-known  to  need, 
any  special  mention. 

Every  one  is  iamiiiar  witn  radio-communication  and 
broadcasting  out  lew  realise  trie  beginning  of  these  modern 
"necessities."  uaraaay  discovered  the  principles  relating 
to  the  nature  and  inliueace  01  tne  electromagnetic  held  and 
ClerK  Maxwells  equations  based  on  these  enabled  the 
prooi  that  waves  originating  from  conducting  wires  travel 
with  the  same  velocity  as  lignt.  The  work  of  Fitzgerald, 
Oliver,  Lodge  and  Hertz  were  the  logical  outcome  of  these 
purely  mathematical  conceptions  and  gave  them  a  physi- 
cal reality. 

Another  development  in  pure  science  has,  however,  to 
precede  the  use  of  these  electromagnetic  waves  for  long  dis- 
tance transmission.  The  researches  on  "thermionic  emis- 
sion" form  a  necessary  link  in  the  chain.  The  "  Edison 
Effect ",  the  two  electrode  valve  of  Fleming,  the  Diodes  and 
pentodes  of  a  later  period  and  the  theory  and  use  of  those 


for  generating  and  detecting  continuous  electric  waves 
represent  an  important  stage  in  the  development  of  broad- 
casting. The  promotion  of  natural  knowledge  has  given 
place  to  purposeful  invention.  Here,  too,  we  see  the  de- 
humanizing application  of  scientific  research  in  some  of  the 
methods  adopted  in  present  day  warfare. 

Turning  to  another  common  industry,  the  electric 
lamp,  we  are  faced  again  with  an  inter-woven  texture  of 
discovery  and  invention.  These  have  become  so  common 
that  one  is  apt  to  forget  the  early  history  as  an  outcome  of 
purely  scientific  search.  The  observation  that  the  pass- 
age of  a  current  through  a  conductor  raises  its  temperature 
sufficiently  to  even  enable  it  to  glow  led  to  the  carbon 
filament  lamp  but  the  peculiar  property  of  carbon,  viz.,  a 
decreased  resistance  with  increasing  temperature,  set  limi- 
tations that  necessitated  the  search  for  a  substitute.  As 
is  well  known,  a  rise  of  temperature  tends  to  increase  the 
speed  of  a  chemical  reaction  and  the  high  temperatures 
necessary  for  light  emission  restricted  the  choice  to  metals 
of  high  melting  point  and  to  an  inert  atmosphere  for  the 
filament.  The  vacuum  lamp  with  a  platinum  filament  is 
a  result  of  investigations  on  high  vacua  and  the  chemistry 
of  the  platinum  group  of  metals. 

It  is  a  far  cry  from  the  discovery  of  tungstic  acid  and 
tungsten  by  Scheele  to  the  thoriated  tungsten,  coiled  coil 
gas  filled  lamp  of  the  present  day.  The  properties  of 
tungsten  apart  from  its  high  melting  point  were  against 
its  wide  use  in  the  beginning.  The  discovery  of  ductile 
tungsten  was  of  highly  scientific  importance  and  proved  to 
be  an  equally  important  scientific  invention.  The  theore- 
tical investigations  of  Langmuir  on  heterogeneous  cataly- 
sis and  black  body  radiation,  his  extension  of  phase  rule 
to  non-equilibrium  systems  and  his  work  on  thermionic 


emission  paved  the  way  for  the  development  of  the  thori- 
ated  tungsten  and  the  coiled  coil  lamps. 

Accurate  gas  density  determinations  by  Lord  Ray- 
leigh  and  the  work  of  Dewar  on  heat  transmission  that  led 
to  the  familiar  Dewar  flask  enabled  Ramsay  to  discover 
the  inert  gases.  This  discovery  was  of  considerable 
theoretical  interest  and  the  post  war  period  was  to  show 
its  industrial  import.  The  inert  nature  of  the  gases  led 
to  the  choice  of  argon  and  krypton  as  suitable  atmospheres 
for  the  gas  filled  lamp  and  in  Neon  provided  advertisers 
with  a  means  for  a  striking  coloured  sign.  The  invention 
of  the  electric  discharge  lamp  and  the  production  of  these 
multi-coloured  signs  have  their  origin  in  the  theoretical 
investigations  of  Crookes,  J.  J.  Thomson  and  others  on  the 
discharge  of  electricity  through  gases  and  the  more  recent 
investigations  on  the  phenomena  of  fluorescence  and 

Another  modern  necessity,  the  refrigerator,  also 
illustrates  the  transition  from  discovery  to  invention.  It 
is  in  the  investigations  of  Amagat,  and  Van  der  Waats  on 
the  pressure  volume  relationship  and  critical  state  of  gases 
and  vapours  and  in  the  classical  "  porous-plug "  experi- 
ment of  Thomson  that  one  has  to  look  for  the  beginnings 
of  refrigeration.  The  foundation  for  the  liquefaction  of 
gases  was  laid  by  Faraday  and  the  application  of  the  Joule- 
Thomson  effect  enabled  the  development  and  use  of 
liquefied  gases. 

When  considering  applied  science,  one  cannot  lose 
sight  of  work  in  the  "  border  "  sciences  where  investiga- 
tions in  several  sciences  find  common  ground.  Reference 
may  be  made  here  to  medicine,  and  its  adjuncts.  The  work 
of  Louis  Pasteur  on  optical  activity  led  him  to  a  study  of 


fermentation  phenomena  and  bacteriology  that  has 
immortalized  his  name  all  over  the  world  by  the  work 
associated  with  Pasteur  Institutes.  It  is  no  exaggeration 
to  state  that  every  outstanding  discovery  in  the  field  of 
biochemistry  and  medicine  has  its  origin  in  the  quest  for 
truth  by  disinterested  workers.  One  has  only  to  look  into 
the  history  of  X-ray  therapy,  radium  therapy,  chemo- 
therapy and  of  studies  on  nutrition  to  see  the  close  corre- 
lation of  pure  and  applied  science.  The  discovery  and 
identification  of  the  vitamins  and  the  synthesis  of  some 
of  them  constitute  a  triumph  in  the  search  of  new  know- 
ledge as  much  as  in  their  practical  applications. 

The  preceding  paragraphs  would  have  given  sufficient 
indication  that  the  political  propaganda  against  work  in 
pure  science  is  baseless.  One  has  only  to  glance  through 
the  publications  of  research  laboratories  of  large  industrial 
concerns  to  know  the  extent  of  fundamental  work  that  is 
being  carried  on  there  in  addition  to  work  directly  connec- 
ted with  the  industry.  In  the  ideal  state,  research  may  be 
carried  on  without  any  objective  reward  but  the  normal 
work  is  not  so  absolutely  selfless.  The  seeker  after 
knowledge  aims  at  honour  and  academic  distinctions  while 
the  inventor  looks  for  a  financial  return  for  his  labour  and 
ingenuity.  This  leads  us  to  the  question  of  the  existence 
and  maintenance  of  research  laboratories.  A  modern 
laboratory  cannot  exist  or  survive  without  an  adequate 
subsidy.  Most  laboratories  now  functioning  are  either 
maintained  by  Governments  or  are  subsidized  by  indus- 
trial combines.  The  financial  interests,  however,  often 
tend  to  cramp  the  research  workers'  activities  and  free- 
dom of  thought.  The  extent  to  which  vested  interests 
thwart  the  spirit  of  inquiry  varies  with  the  country  and 
the  Institution.  While  not  forgetting  their  objective,  the 



Bureau  of  Standards  in  Washington  and  the  D.S.I.R.  in  its 
Teddington  Laboratories  carry  on  a  lot  of  fundamental 
work  but  in  this  country  we  have  to  tell  a  different  story. 
Industrial  laboratories  maintained  by  leading  concerns 
view  fundamental  research  with  disfavour.  While 
increased  industrialization  is  a  necessary  development,  it  is 
a  short-sighted  policy  to  decry  those  workers  who  do  not 
happen  to  carry  on  utilitarian  research.  They  also  serve 
a  purpose  in  extending  the  bounds  of  knowledge.  Under- 
standing Nature  is  at  least  as  important  as  using  Nature 
and  life  may  not  be  worth  living  if  man  had  to  deal  with 
only  useful  things. 


M.Sc.  (LOND.),  PH.D., 

Professor  of  Economics,  Osmania  University. 

A  system  of  education  must  be  suited  to  the  people 
for  whom  it  is  intended  and  there  should  be  some  conside- 
ration of  the  social  and  economic  back-ground  on  which 
our  system  of  education  is  to  work.  Unfortunately  these 
two  most  fundamental  concepts  have  been  violently 
ignored  in  the  present  educational  system  of  this  country. 
In  any  scheme  of  educational  reconstruction  in  this  country 
the  first  and  the  most  fundamental  consideration  should 
be  that  our  educational  institutions  should  have  national 
outlook.  In  order  to  create  this  outlook  the  system  of 
training  should  provide  courses  of  instruction  in  that  lite- 
rature which  contains  the  ideals  of  its  race  and  all  the  nice 
proofs  and  subtle  inspirations  of  the  character,  spirit  and 
thoughts  of  the  nation  which  it  serves ;  and,  besides  that, 
instruction  in  the  history  and  leading  conceptions  of  those 
institutions  which  play  an  important  role  in  the  life  of  the 
nation.  In  order  to  achieve  this  important  ideal  special 
stress  should  be  laid  on  the  study  of  Indian  culture  and 
Indian  History.  The  history  books  that  are  taught  in  our 
schools  and  universities  give  most  misleading  and  hopeless 
accounts  of  events  and  leading  character  of  our  nation. 
They  have  already  created  enough  mischief  and  without 
the  least  possible  delay  all  efforts  must  be  devoted  to  eradi- 
cate this  evil  and  suitable  text  books  should  be  prepared 


to  give  an  honest  and  sympathetic  account  of  our  past  cul- 
ture and  heritage.  Our  universities  could  and  should  do 
a  good  deal  to  achieve  this  end.  It  is  the  object  of  learning 
not  only  to  satisfy  the  curiosity  and  to  perfect  the  spirit  of 
individual  men  but  also  to  advance  civilization  ;  and,  if  it 
be  true,  that  each  nation  plays  its  special  part  in  further- 
ing the  common  advancement  then  every  people  should  use 
its  universities  to  perfect  it  in  its  proper  role. 

Woodrow  Wilson  has  rightly  remarked  that,  "  Every 
man  sent  out  from  a  university  should  be  a  man  of  his 
nation  as  well  as  a  man  of  his  time."  In  any  scheme  of 
reorganisation  of  education  of  this  country  this  ideal 
should  occupy  a  very  important  place. 

Primary  Education  : — To  begin  from  the  very  begin- 
ning our  schools  must  be  organised  on  sound  modern  lines 
to  provide  real  education  not  only  to  the  classes  but  to  the 
masses  as  well.  It  should  be  the  first  obligation  on  the 
State  to  provide  every  citizen  male  and  female  with  free 
primary  education.  The  expenditure  required  for  provid- 
ing free  universal  education  must  be  the  first  charge  on 
our  national  exchequer.  In  this  connection  I  would  like  to 
explain  what  I  mean  by  free  primary  education.  A  good 
deal  of  nonsense, and  loose-talk  has  been  going  on  in  this 
country  about  the  primary  education  and  it  is  debated 
whether  it  should  be  a  four  years  course  or  a  five  years 
course.  Even  if  we  accept  a  five  years  course  it  means  that 
a  child  going  to  school  at  the  age  of  five  will  finish  with 
his  free  education  at  the  age  of  ten.  To  my  mind  the  idea 
of  a  free  universal  education  finishing  at  the  tender  age  of 
ten  is  most  absurd  and  fantastic.  In  no  country  of  the 
world  such  an  absurd  idea  has  ever  been  entertained.  The 
average  minimum  age  up  to  which  free  education  is  given 
in  most  countries  is  fourteen  years  which  in  itself  is  con- 


sidered  very  inadequate.  All  money  that  will  be  spent  on 
free  compulsory  education  based  on  a  course  of  five  years 
will  be  absolute  waste.  Even  in  the  interest  of  economy 
itself  it  is  highly  desirable  that  in  no  scheme  of  free  pri- 
mary education  in  India  the  course  of  instruction  should  be 
less  than  eight  years. 

Broadcasting  and  Education  :  — The  development  of 
broadcasting  in  India  has  opened  many  new  possibilities 
for  educational  reconstruction.  Broadcasting  is  still  in  its 
infancy  in  this  country  but  still  the  possibilities 
of  fully  developing  it  are  immense.  Some  stations  in 
India  have  already  started  this  experiment  and  many  of 
their  broadcasts  for  schools  have  been  well  deviced  and  of 
great  interest  and  use.  I  propose  that  a  separate  depart- 
ment of  education  should  be  created  by  the  All-India  Radio 
and  increasing  use  should  be  made  of  this  modern  educa- 
tional instrument  especially  for  the  education  of  adults. 

Cinema  and  Education  :  — The  development  of  tele- 
vision is  likely  to  provide  still  further  facilities  for 
the  increasing  use  of  the  radio  for  educational  purposes 
but  until  its  further  development  increasing  use  should  be 
made  of  Cinemas.  Educational  films  should  be  prepared 
especially  for  teaching  Geography  and  other  allied 

Vocational  Education  :  — The  second  most  important 
problem  to  be  considered  in  any  scheme  of  educational  re- 
construction is  the  need  for  the  expansion  of  vocation- 
al education.  India  is  rapidly  developing  into  a  vast  indus- 
trial country  and  there  is  increasing  need  of  skilled  and 
trained  labour.  No  country  can  develop  its  trade  and 
industry  without  skilled  artizans,  therefore,  the  need  for 
vocational  education  in  all  its  aspects  is  most  urgent. 


Effective  machinery  should  be  established  for  securing 
close  regular  co-operation  between  industry  and  commerce, 
on  the  one  hand  and  education  on  the  other. 

Vocational  Guidance:— In  any  system  of  mass  edu- 
cation vocational  guidance  must  assume  special  impor- 
tance. A  swiftly  changing  economic  and  social  world  has 
made  demand  upon  educational  procedures  for  adjust- 
ment to  the  needs  of  the  individual.  Education 
through  the  discovery  and  development  of  individual  abi- 
lity prepares  him  for  his  life ;  and  the  child's  vocational 
guidance  prepares  him  for  living  well ;  and  both  yield  him 
the  maximum  of  satisfaction.  Vocational  guidance  should 
assist  the  individual  to  choose  an  occupation,  prepare  for 
it,  enter  upon  it  and  progress  in  it.  As  preparation  for  an 
occupation  involves  decisions  in  the  choice  of  studies, 
choice  of  curriculums,  JUid  the  choice  of  schools  and 
colleges,  it  becomes  evident  that  vocational  guidance  can- 
not be  separated  from  educational  guidance.  Since  work 
occupies  one  half  of  the  working  time  of  most  individuals, 
it  should  represent  the  active  expression  of  the  whole  per- 
sonality. In  view  of  this  important  function,  careful  study 
must  be  made  of  all  the  problems  involved  in  vocational 
activity.  Proper  vocational  adjustment  for  each  citizen  not 
only  means  individual  happiness  but  avoids  social  and 
economic  waste.  The  underlined  principles  which  should 
govern  vocational  guidance  activities  should  be  based  upon 
the  recognition  of  individual  preferences,  of  the  complexity 
of  modern  educational  life,  of  the  right  of  the  individual 
to  make  his  own  choices,  and  upon  the  realization  that  the 
adjustment  of  an  individual  to  his  occupation  is  an  ever 
changing  situation. 

Effects  oj  Economic  Depression  on  Education  :  — What- 
ever hardships  and  privations  the  last  Great  Depression 


may  have  caused  all  the  world  over,  it  has  done  one  good 
service,  and  that  is,  it  has  made  us  all  to  face  and  examine 
critically  the  various  important  problems  which  were  pre- 
viously ipso  facto  taken  for  granted.  One  of  these  pro- 
blems is  the  problem  of  university  education.  Until  the 
economic  depression  set  in,  and  the  large  number  of 
graduates  which  our  universities  were  minting  rapidly 
found  themselves  without  jobs,  and  the  problem  of  un- 
employment among  educated  classes  took  a  serious  turn, 
little  attention  was  devoted  in  India  to  the  universities  and 
their  problems.  All  that  mattered  in  the  pre-depression 
period  was,  that  the  number  of  universities  should  be  in- 
creased, and  considering  that  the  number  of  universities 
jumped  from  five  in  1916  to  sixteen  in  1927,  an  increase 
of  three  hundred  per  cent,  in  the  course  of  eleven  years, 
the  record  of  progress  seems  to  be  very  satisfactory  indeed. 
The  universities  that  were  established  before  1916  were 
mainly  based  on  the  model  of  the  London  University,  and 
were  only  examining  bodies.  The  Calcutta  University 
Commission  of  1916  recommended  strongly  the  desirability 
of  starting  unitary  and  residential  universities  and  as  a  result, 
the  majority  of  universities  that  have  been  founded  since 
that  date  are  residential  and  teaching  universities.  The 
establishment  of  so  many  residential  universities  on  the 
model  of  the  Oxford  and  Cambridge  universities  satisfied 
the  Indian  critics  who  had  previously  been  dissatisfied  by 
the  older  examining  universities.  It  was  considered  that 
the  establishment  of  residential  universities  had  almost 
solved  the  fundamental. problems  of  Indian  education  and 
all  that  was  necessary  was  to  improve  the  quality  of 
teaching  and  emphasise  the  importance  of  tutorial  work 
and  to  increase  the  contact  of  the  students  with  the 
teachers.  It  was  considered  that  in  due  course  of  time 
when  the  effects  of  these  important  improvements  become 


pronounced  our  problems  will  be  solved.  But  during  the 
past  few  years  the  ship  of  Indian  education  has  not  sailed 
as  smoothly  as  it  was  expected  and  many  critics  have 
begun  to  doubt  if  the  very  structure  of  the  ship  itself  was 
strong  enough  to  stand  the  stormy  seas  of  world  events. 
The  tremendous  rise  in  the  number  of  unemployed  young 
persons  has  led  to  the  policy  of  despair  and  many  super- 
ficial critics  hold  that  the  universities  are  responsible  for 
many  of  the  country's  troubles.  It  is  not  realised  that  the 
universities  are  in  no  way  responsible  for  unemployment 
which,  on  the  other  hand,  is  due  to  causes  far  beyond 
their  control.  Moreover,  it  is  not  the  function  of  the  uni- 
versities to  create  avenues  for  employment.  It  is  a  very 
narrow  view  to  take  that  if  the  number  of  people  admitted 
to  universities  is  drastically  curtailed  the  possibilities  of 
employing  this  restricted  number  will  increase.  The  fun- 
damental function  of  universities  is  not  to  act  as  an 
employment  bureau  but  as  a  trainer  of  the  mind  and  in- 
tellect of  the  future  citizens  and  to  bring  out  their  latent 
faculties  which  may  be  used  in  any  walk  of  life.  It  is  an 
unfortunate  fact  that  our  universities  are  not  centres  for 
intellectual  training,  culture  and  enlightenment  as  they 
ought  to  be.  Have  our  universities  succeeded  in  mental 
development  of  students  ?  It  is  on  the  answer  to  this 
question  that  our  universities  stand  or  fall.  Unfortunately 
they  are  places  for  cramming  and  smattering,  and  there 
has  been  a  serious  maladjustment  in  the  university  life. 
Too  much  importance  is  attached  to  the  literary  and  acade- 
mic side  and  very  little  to  the  intellectual  and  cultural  side. 
Much  time  is  wasted  by  the  professors  on  lecturing 
to  students  and  by  the  students  in  cramming  and  digesting 
the  contents  of  those  lectures.  We  find  that  even  in  the 
field  of  knowledge  an  Indian  student  does  not  fare  favour- 
ably with  students  of  other  universities.  Why,  in  spite 


of  so  much  teaching  by  professors,  and  cramming  by 
students  do  our  students  do  so  unfavourably  ?  Surely 
there  must  be  something  wrong  in  our  system  of  teaching 
which  shows  such  poor  results.  I  think  the  fundamental 
difficulty  and  defect  in  our  system  of  university  education 
is  that  we  impart  teaching  through  a  foreign  medium,  which 
acts  as  a  great  deterrent  to  any  substantial  progress.  It  is 
gratifying  to  note  that  educational  experts  in  the  country 
have  begun  to  realise  this  great  defect  which  exists  to-day 
in  our  universities;  the  only  exception  to  which  is  the 
Osmania  University  established  in  1919.  It  is  the  first  uni- 
versity of  its  kind  in  India  where  all  lecturing  work  is  car- 
ried on  through  the  medium  of  the  primary  vernacular  of 
the  country.  Twenty  years  ago  when  Mr.  Akbar  Haydri 
as  he  then  was  (Sir  Akbar  Haydri,  Newab  Hayder  Newaz 
Jung  Bahadur,  President  of  His  Exalted  Highness  the 
Nizam's  Executive  Council,  and  the  present  Chancellor  of 
the  university) ,  submitted  a  memorandum  in  which  he  pro- 
pounded this  great  scheme  of  starting  a  university  with  the 
primary  object  of  teaching  through  Urdu,  there  were  not 
many  experts  in  the  country  who  received  this  idea  with 
any  great  favour.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  some  of  the  greatest 
experts  considered  it  rather  fantastic  and  altogether  un- 
workable. It  must  be  said  to  the  credit  of  Sir  Akbar  that  all 
these  heavy  showers  of  criticism  that  poured  from  all  quar- 
ters did  not  affect  him,  and  with  great  courage,  foresight 
and  enthusiasm  he  launched  this  great  experiment  which 
today  is  an  accomplished  fact,  and  all  experts  in  the  coun- 
try are  now  looking  to  this  university  for  guidance.  It 
will  not  be  considered  here  out  of  place  to  reproduce  briefly 
some  of  the  remarks  which  the  Vice-Chancellor  of  Andhra 
University  made  in  his  recent  convocation  address  :  "  In 
pride  and  fullness  of  heart  as  an  educationist,  I  congratu- 
late the  sovereign  and  his  Government  on  the  success 



achieved  by  the  Osmania  University.  The  band  of  young, 
accomplished  and  enthusiastic  teachers  composing  the 
different  faculties  are  a  team  which  the  greatest  education- 
ists in  India  would  be  proud  to  captain.  The  researches 
accomplished  and  still  in  progress  and  the  investigation  in 
the  theoretical  and  applied  fields  of  Science  including  Zoo- 
logy, Physics,  Chemistry,  Civil  Engineering  and  History 
augur  not  merely  an  All  India  but  an  international  future 
for  the  Osmania  University.  To  be  the  first  to  recognise  an 
Indian  language  as  a  fit  medium  for  university  culture  and 
to  have  made  the  university  founded  on  the  principle  a 
centre  of  modern  research  are  accomplishments  for  which 
India  must  be  eternally  grateful  to  the  Nizam's  Dominions/' 

The  primary  function  of  the  University,  as  I  have  al- 
ready remarked,  is  to  train  the  mind,  but  the  training  of 
mind  can  never  be  thorough  if  it  has  to  employ  a  foreign 
vehicle  of  thought.  English  is  not  only  a  foreign  language 
to  most  of  us  in  India  but  is  also  "alien."  By  "alien"  I  mean 
that  it  has  no  connection  with  the  tradition,  culture  and 
life  of  the  East,  and  except  in  the  big  cities  it  is  seldom 
spoken.  A  great  deal  of  saving  in  time  and  improvement 
in  the  quality  of  the  work  can  be  effected  if  the  teaching 
work  in  the  Indian  Universities  is  carried  on  through  the 
medium  of  vernacular.  One  naturally  asks  through  which 
vernacular,  as  there  are  so  many  languages  in  the  country. 
The  Indian  National  Congress  has  decided  to  adapt  Hindus- 
tani as  the  lingua  franca  of  the  country,  and  I  think  if  we 
rise  above  petty  regional  and  provincial  jealousies  it  will 
not  be  difficult  for  the  country  as  a  whole  to  adopt  Hindus- 
tani as  the  chief  medium  of  instruction  in  all  our  universi- 
ties. I  should  not  be  misunderstood  to  belittle  the  import- 
ance of  English  in  our  universities.  I  firmly  believe  that 
a  sound  knowledge  of  English  is  absolutely  essential  if  we 


are  to  benefit  from  the  very  valuable  treasures  of  know- 
ledge and  learning  of  the  West.  It  is  with  this  idea  in  view 
that  English  has  been  made  a  compulsory  second  language 
and  no  student  is  awarded  a  degree  unless  he  passes  an  exa- 
mination of  fairly  high  standard  in  English. 

Medium  of  Instruction 

Now  I  come  to  the  most  pertinent  part  of  my  paper, 
viz.,  the  possibility  of  teaching  in  Urdu.  Still  there  are 
many  people  who  seriously  doubt  the  possibility  or  at  least 
the  practicability  of  such  a  proposition.  Before  I  proceed 
further  to  explain  this  matter,  I  would  like  to  mention  a  few 
facts.  Perhaps  it  may  be  recalled  that  it  is  not  very  long 
ago  that  History  and  Geography  were  taught  in  English  in 
the  Punjab  schools  and  the  matric  students  had  to  answer 
these  papers  in  English.  It  is  fortunate  that  wise  council 
prevailed  and  the  Punjab  University  decided  to  give  option 
to  the  Matric  students  to  answer  questions  in  these 
two  papers  either  in  English  or  in  any  of  the  vernacu- 
lars. To  some  it  appeared  a  very  retrograde  step.  I  feel 
no  hesitation  whatsoever  in  congratulating  the  authorities 
of  the  Punjab  University  for  their  very  wise  decision.  We 
find  to-day  the  standard  of  these  answers  has  increased  con- 
siderably and  more  than  90%  of  the  students  answer  their 
questions  in  vernacular.  What  the  Punjab  University  has 
done  for  History  and  Geography  for  the  Matriculation,  the 
Osmania  University  has  done  for  all  other  classes.  Now, 
some  may  say  that  there  is  a  limit  to  everything.  And  the 
likely  limit  to  most  people  seems  the  matriculation.  They 
would  say  so  far  and  no  more.  This  is  the  attitude  of  Cal- 
cutta and  Madras  Universities.  The  Agra  University  has  gone 
a  step  further  and  would  like  to  try  up  to  the  intermedi- 
ate. In  the  Allahabad  University  candidates  appearing  for 
the  M.A.  examination  in  Economics  have  to  write  their 


essays  in  easy  Hindi  or  Urdu.  I  have  given  these  examples 
just  to  show  you  the  changing  trend  of  opinion.  What  the 
Punjab  University  did  for  the  Matriculation  about  twenty 
years  ago,  the  Calcutta  University  is  going  to  do  now.  The 
objections  raised  against  the  option  in  the  Punjab  Univer- 
sity twenty  years  ago  were  repeated  in  the  Calcutta  Uni- 

It  is  said  that  adequate  literature  is  not  available  in  the 
vernaculars.  Also  there  will  be  immense  difficulties  regard- 
ing the  technical  terms,  so  on  and  so  forth.  I  quite  admit 
the  force  of  the  arguments.  But  something  has  to  be  done. 
We  cannot  afford  to  be  mere  spectators  and  watch  our  own 
intellectual  ruin.  Why  is  the  intellectual  standard  of  ordi- 
nary Indian  graduate  so  low  ?  In  my  opinion  the  real 
answer  to  this  question  is  that  he  does  not  properly  under- 
stand what  he  reads.  He  only  crams  and  passes  the  exa- 
minations. Although  I  have  admitted  above  that  there  are 
real  difficulties  regarding  the  availability  of  literature  and 
the  coining  of  terms  yet  these  difficulties  are  vastly  exag- 
gerated. Take,  for  example,  the  teaching  of  classical  langua- 
ges. Why  on  earth  a  student  has  to  translate  these  in 
English  ?  I  personally  know  the  cases  where  students  had 
passed  the  highest  examination  of  the  Punjab  University 
in  the  classical  languages  but  failed  in  the  intermediate  in 
the  language  paper,  simply  because  their  English  was  so 
weak  that  they  could  not  translate  the  classical  text  into 

When  the  Ostnania  University  broke  new  ground  and 
declared  to  base  its  teaching  on  Urdu,  it  was  regarded  as 
a  most  fantastic  idea.  But.  today  we  have  showed  the  world 
how  it  could  be  done.  The  teaching  and  examining  in  all 
subjects  from  the  intermediate  to  the  Ph.D.  standard  is 
done  in  Urdu.  The  standard  of  answers  of  students  is  far 
higher  as  compared  with  the  students  of  other  universities. 


I  am  firmly  of  the  opinion  that  if  teaching  in  Indian 
Universities  is  to  improve  it  must  be  done  in  the  verna- 
culars. In  the  course  of  twenty  years  we  have  coined  thou- 
sands of  terms  and  several  hundred  standard  books  have 
been  translated  into  Urdu.  If  our  example  is  followed  by 
all  other  universities  a  tremendous  amount  of  literature 
will  be  forthcoming  in  a  short  time.  What  Osmania  has 
done,  other  universities  too  can  do. 


lus,  Sophocles,  and  Euripedes,  wrote  tragedies  (Eleusinian 
dramas)  which  were  of  a  secret  nature,  because  they  were 
religious  in  plots.  It  is  even  said  that  on  one  occasion 
Aeschylus  was  accused  of  having  let  out  an  Eleusinian  sec- 
ret, and  was  released  only  on  the  intervention  of  his  brother, 
who  was  a  great  warrior.  Thus  we  see  that  the  drama  pro- 
per had  its  origin  in  religion  in  Greece. 

In  India,  which  justly  claims  to  have  an  independent 
origin  of  the  drama,  we  hear  of  the  songs,  some  of  which 
were  accompanied  with  dances,  in  the  most  ancient  times. 
Apart  from  the  divine  origin  of  music,  dance  and  drama,  we 
have  the  rhythmical  hymns  in  the  Vedas  (e.g.  Samaveda); 
and  mention  is  made  of  the  lasya  or  gentle  dance  of  Parvati, 
the  tandava  or  vehement  dance  of  Rudra,  etc.  Dances 
formed  a  part  of  the  celebrations  in  the  most  ancient  sacri- 
fices,— human,  horse,  goat, — one  yielding  its  place  to  the 
next.  Moreover,  the  Bharatanatya-sastra  which  is  said  to 
have  been  written  in  the  fifth  century  B.C.,  contains  a  sys- 
tematic record  of  canons  on  music,  poetry,  art,  dance,  and 
drama.  Bhasa,  one  of  the  earliest  dramatists  as  we  have 
known,  has  selected  most  of  his  themes  from  the  Rama- 
yana  and  the  Mahabharata.  Kalidasa,  (who  lived  between 
the  first  century  B.C.,  and  the  fifth  century  A.D.)  writes  in 
his  Malavikagnimitra. 

W  TO  ^3  ^IF  " 

(Sages  say  that  the  drama  is  a  sacrifice  to  the  gods,  which 
is  pleasing  to  the  eye).  This  indicates  that  in  those  days, 
the  Naramedha,  the  Asvamedha,  and  such  other  sacrifices 
were  not  considered  to  be  pleasing  to  the  eye  ;  but  that  the 
drama,  which  is  also  a  sacrifice  (action)  gives  not  only 
pleasure  to  the  eye,  but  also  pacification  to  the  gods.  We 
see  here  the  religious  origin  of  the  drama  in  India. 


India  and  Greece  are  the  only  two  countries  which  are 
bestowed  with  the  fortunes  of  having  brought  forth  their 
native  dramatic  faculities,  even  in  the  most  ancient  times. 

China  is  said  to  have  had  her  alphabet  even  before  the 
twentieth  century  B.C.  The  Chinese  are  noted  for  their 
excellence  in  the  imitative  faculty.  They  take  pride  in 
their  "  Book  of  Oods  "  which  proves  the  existence  of  music 
and  poetry  prior  to  the  twelfth  century  B.C.  The  Chinese 
are  famous  for  their  taste  and  native  talents  in  music,  but 
they  had  no  regular  dramas  till  the  sixth  century  A.D.  But, 
even  in  those  days  when  they  had  dramas  not  known  to  the 
historian,  the  Chinese  are  said  to  have  celebrated  every 
function  with  a  dramatic  performance — functions  such  as 
the  promotion  in  the  salary  of  an  officer,  the  marriage  of  a 
middle  class  man,  and  the  birth  of  a  child. 

In  Italy,  we  hear  about  the  songs  and  dances  of  the 
Talics  in  the  eighth  century  B.C.,  at  a  time  when  Greece 
was  enjoying  her  Mystic  dramas,  and  India  her  Sacrificial 
performances.  All  these  performances  had  for  their  ulti- 
mate object,  the  elevation  of  the  soul  and  consequent  sub- 
limity. Again  we  see  the  religious  aim  in  the  ancient  drama.> 
After  the  Punic  Wars  which  were  fought  in  the  third  cen- 
tury B.C.  Italy  came  into  close  contact  with  Greece  ;  by 
which  the  influence  of  the  Greek  drama  spread  on  to  Italy. 
The  Greek  prisoners  in  Italy  were  given  privileges  to  exhi- 
bit their  talents  in  dramatic  action,  and  it  is  also  known  that 
some  of  those  who  fascinated  the  public  by  such  talents 
were  released,  and  were  allowed  to  enjoy  free-citizenship. 

France,  Spain,  and  Great  Britain  have  their  records  of 
their  dramas  from  the  eleventh  century  A.D.,  but  even 
before  that  time,  there  were,  no  doubt,  folk  songs  in  France 
and  Spain,  and  Saxon  dances  in  Britain.  It  is  only  after 



the  influence  of  Latin  literature  over  Britain  that  she  began 
to  have  her  regular  dramas.  The  other  countries  of  Europe 
had  their  languages  perfected  even  at  a  later  date.  The 
eleventh  and  the  twelfth  centuries  brought  manifold 
changes  in  the  history  of  many  countries  in  the  world. 
Every  country  had  her  dialect  perfected,  her  government 
systematised,  and  her  art  and  culture  dignified. 

It  is  now  seen  clearly  that  the  origin  of  the  earliest 
drama  was  only  religious  as  far  as  the  theme  is  concerned, 
with  very  few  exceptions,  of  which  the  Mricchakatika  is 
one.  After  the  twelfth  century  A.D.  the  drama  took  differ- 
ent shapes  by  takirig  in  themes  from  the  social,  political 
and  historical  fields. 




Government  College,  Coimbatore. 

For  the  elucidation  of  the  history  of  the  Kerala  coun- 
try just  before  and  during  the  three  centuries  of  the  Chris- 
tian era,  we  have  no  epigraphical,  archaeological  or  even 
literary  evidences  in  Malayalam.  The  '  Keralotpatti '  is 
regarded  as  the  oldest  available  account  of  Kerala,  but  this 
belongs  to  the  17th  century  A.D.,  and  is  further,  as  Logan 
observes,  "a  farrago  of  legendary  nonsense  which  had  for 
its  aim  the  exaltation  of  the  Brahman  caste  and  influence/' 
The  late  lamented1  K.  G.  Sesha  Aiyar  similarly  observes 
that  "to  gleam  history  from  this  work  is  as  hopeless  as  to 
seek  for  a  needle  in  a  hay-stack."  The  Keralotpatti  says 
that  Kerala  arose  at  Parasurama's  Command  from  the  seas. 
This  means  that,  as  P.  Padmanabha  Menon2  suggests,  the 
country  covered  by  Malabar,  Travancore  and  Cochin,  was 
formed  by  volcanic  agencies  on  this  coast  centuries  ago; 
"that  there  was  once  a  subsidence,  probably  sudden,  at 
Gokarnam  ;  and  secondly  that  there  was  afterwards  a  per- 
ceptible uprising,  most  probably  in  this  case  gradual,  of  at 
least  some  portion  if  not  nearly  all  the  coast  between  Gokar- 
nam and  the  Cape."  This  view  has  received  confirmation 
from  the  investigations  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  India.3 

1.  'Chera  Kings  of  the  Sangam  Period/  p.  78. 

2.  'History  of  Kerala/  Vol.  1,  pp.  19  and  20  of  the  notes. 

3.  Memoirs  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  India,  Vol.  XXIV, 
part  HI,  p.  35. 


Mr.  Philip  Lake  shows  that  South  Malabar  between  Bey- 
pore  and  Ponnani  rivers  was  the  result  of  such  upheaval. 

The  chronicle  then  gives  some  traditions  which  are  too 
hazy  to  be  taken  as  History.  According  to  it  a  period  of 
indigenous  kings,  who  were  generally  incompetent  was 
followed  by  a  period  of  kings  selected  from  the  neighbouring 
countries  on  the  understanding  that  each  was  to  rule  for 
twelve  years.  The  earliest  of  them  is  said  to  be  one  Keya 
Perumal,  and  after  him  were  brought  a  succession  of  Chola, 
'Pandi,'  Kerala,  Tulubha'  Indra  and  Arya  Perumals,  ^and 
others.  Historians  can  see  in  this  only  this  much,  that  "the 
author  has  heard  of  invasions  of  Kerala  by  some  Pandya, 
Chola4  and  other  neighbouring  kings  or  chiefs  who  probably 
retired  to  their  territories  after  their  raid  and  from  that  he 
wove  his  fanciful  list  of  Perumals  brought  by  the  people 
into  Kerala." 

There  is  another  work  called  the  "Kerala-mahatmyam" 
which  is  in  Sanskrit  and  which  is  allied  to  the  work  men- 
tioned above.  But  it  is  even  later,  and,  as  pointed  out  by 
C.  Achyuta  Menon5  and  C.  A.  Innes,6  so  full  of  inconsisten- 
cies, anachronisms  and  absurdities  that  it  is  difficult  to  sepa- 
rate from  the  chaff  what  few  grains  of  truth  they  contain. 

In  the  absence  of  epigraphic  and  archaeological  eviden- 
ces, we  are  lucky  in  having  literary  sources  of  information 
in  regard  to  this  period  of  Malayalam  History.  These  con- 
sist of  (1)  the  Tamil  classics  of  the  Sangam  period,  and 
(2)  the  Greek  and  Roman  writers  like  Ptolemy,  Pliny  and 
the  author  of  the  Periplus  of  the  Erithrean  Seas. 

4.  See  1. 

5.  'Cochin  State  Manual,'  Ch.  II,  p.  29. 

6.  Malabar  District  Gazetter,  Vol.  II. 


The  Tamils,  of  all  the  Dravidian  nations,  cultivated  and 
preserved  the  earliest  literature  of  continuous  development 
and  unique  historical  value.  Among  these  works  we  find 
three  distinct  classes,  viz.,  the  naturalistic,  ethical  and  reli- 
gious. The  value  of  the  first  type,  in  particular,  cannot  be 
over-estimated,  though  even  here  much  caution  is  neces- 
sary in  sifting  and  arranging  the  available  material.  On 
the  whole,  we  have  in  them  faithful  records  of  the  political, 
social,  literary  and  religious  conditions  of  Malabar  during 
the  Sangam  Period.  Previous  to  the  era  of  dated  inscrip- 
tions, they  are  the  earliest  sources  for  the  construction  of 
South  Indian  History.  The  most  important  works  among 
the  Tamil  classics  that  throw  light  on  ancient  Kerala  are 
the  Purananuru,  the  Padirrupattu,  and  the  Silappadikaram, 
besides  a  few  lyrics  of  the  Agananuru  and  the  Narrinai. 
We  understand  that  the  land,  bounded  on  the  east  by  the 
Western  Ghats  and  the  west  by  the  sea,  was  called  in  the 
early  Tamil  works,  the  Cera-nadu  (Co^jr/5/r©),  and  the 
kings  of  the  country  Ceran,  Ceraman  or  Ceralan  (G^jEr^, 
G^LD/reir,  (S&jre»&r}.  From  very  early  times,  Tamilakam 
was  ruled  by  the  three  crowned  kings?  ((jp^-mew*—  /xsjr^/r) 
Cera,  Cola  and  Pandiya.  The  Tolkappiyam  the  famous 
Tamil  grammar  and  the  oldest  extant  Tamil  work,  refers, 
in  one  of  its7  Sutrams,  to  the  Tamil  country  as  one  belong- 
ing to  'the  famous  three  within  the  four  boundaries/  The 
Commentator  Perasiriyar  enumerates  the  four  boundaries 
as  Venkadam  (Tirupati  hills)  in  the  north,  Kumari  on  the 
south,  and  the  seas  on  the  east  and  the  west.  The  Kumari 
mentioned  here,  it  must  be  known,  is  not  the  present  Cape 
Comorin,  but  the  name  of  a  river  of  the  same  name  in  the 
southern  Tamil  continent,  the  Kumarikandam,  which  was 
known  to  the  early  Tamil  works  and  which  was  submerged 

7.    Tolkappiyam,  Poruladikaram,   Seyyuliyal,  No.   79. 


later  on.  Panambaranar,  the  class-mate  of  Tolkappiyar,  has 
written  a  preface  to  the  Tolkappiyam,  wherein  he  refers  to 
the  northern  and  southern  boundaries  of  Tamilakam.  The 
commentator8  Nachchinarkkiniyar  explains  the  absence  of 
the  mention  of  the  boundaries  on  the  east  and  west  on  the 
ground  that  they  were  the  seas.  In  those  early  days  Cera 
country  was  part  and  parcel  of  Tamilakam.  Tradition 
handed  over  from  ancient  days  says  that  the  Cera-Cola- 
Pandiyar  were  the  rulers  of  the  land  from  time  immemo- 
rial. The  famous  commentator  of  the  Tirukkural  explain- 
ing the  phrase  Palankudi  (upon  @if)  ancient  family,  occur- 

ing  in  the  chapter  entitled  Kudimai  ((5f  ^^  says  that 
it  was  as  old  and  great  even  as  the  three  royal  families  of 
Cera,  Cola  and  Pandiya,  which  could  be  traced  to  the 

beginning  of  creation 

6H(j5^«i>).     Evidently  the  phrase    cc  U<SV>I—ULJG 

is  an  exaggeration.      We  may  take  it  to  mean  from  very 

early  times.     To  quote  some  more  instances  to  prove  that 

Tamil     was     prevalent     up     to     the     west     coast,     we 

may   refer   to    the    two    following    Sutrams    of    Sikandi- 

yar    and    Kakkaipadiniyar    respectively. 

1.      i:  QQKEJ&L^LD 


pktEKGX   Q<£®)'fo) 

These  Sutrams  refer  to  the  east  and  the  west  boundaries 
of  Tamilakam  as  ^Qu&iMLb'  Or  the  sea.  It  is  interesting 
to  note  that  the  Cera9  author  of  the  Silappadikaram  too, 

8.  Tolkappiyam,    Eluttatikaram,    Naccinarkkiniyar    commen- 
tary, p.  8.    S.I.S.S.W.P.  Society  edition. 

9.  Silappadikaram,  VIII,  11.  1-2. 


while  enumerating  the  boundaries  of  Tamilakam,  leaves  out 
the  west  and  the  east  for  the  same  reason  pointed  out  by 
the  commentator  of  Tolkappiyam. 

The  ancient  Cera  country  is  referred  to  in  Sanskrit 
works  as  Kerala,  and  that  seems  to  be  the  name  by  which 
the  Malayalis  love  to  call  their  native  land.  P.  T.  Srini- 
vasa  Aiyangar10  says  that  the  name  of  this  country  occurs 
in  the  original  form  of  Cera  itself  in  the  Taittiriya  Aran- 
yaka  as  Cera-padah,  and  he  cites  the  authority  of  Prof.  A. 
B.  Keith  for  constructing  the  expression  to  the  Ceras.  But 
this  is  doubtful,  as  Sayana  takes  Cera  to  mean  snake. 

Katyayana  (first  half  of  the  4th  century  B.C.)  and 
Patanjali  (B.C.  150)  make  mention  of  Cera,  though  Panini 
(7th  century  B.C.  if  not  earlier)  does  not.  The  Maha- 
bharata,  the  Ramayana,  the  Vayu-purana,  the  Matsya  and 
Markandeyapuranas  mention  Kerala  and  Gokarnam.  The 
second  and  13th  edicts  of  the  great  Buddhist  emperor  Asoka 
refer  to  the  ruler  of  Kerala  as  Keralaputra  and  class  this 
country  as  one  of  the  border-lands  (Pratyantas)  of  his 

Since  the  Cera  country  formed  the  western  portion  of 
Tamilakam,  the  Cera  king  is  described  in  the  Tamil  classics 
as  the  ruler  of  the  western  country.  The  epithet,  "  Kuda- 
pulam  kaval  " — maruman  literally  meaning  "  one  who  came 
in  the  line  of  kings  protecting  the  western  country," 
(@L-L/a)/i  *ireu&)ij>(TijLcirttr}  is  used  for  the  Cera  king  by  the 
author  of  the  Sirupanarruppadai,  a  Sangam  work  ;  and  he 
describes  the  Pandya  and  Chola  respectively  as  the  kings 
of  the  southern  and  eastern  countries.  Since  the  western 

10.    History  of  the  Tamils,  p.  29. 


country  is  mountainous,  the  Chera  king  was  also  known  as 
Malaiyan    ( 

Apart  from  the  big  geographical  divisions,  Tamila- 
kam  was  divided  into  two  divisions  from  the  view-point  of 
the  purity  of  the  language  spoken  therein.  The  one  was 
Sen  Tamil  Nadu  (area  where  good  Tamil  was  spoken),  and 
the  other  Kodun-Tamil  Nadu  (tract  where  bad  Tamil 
was  spoken)  .  Madura,  which  was  the  seat  of  the  Third 
Tamil  Sangam,  and  its  surrounding  parts  were  the  Sen- 
Tamil-Nadu,  and  under  the  Kodun-Tamil  Nadu  are  includ- 
ed twelve  districts,  which  Senavarayar  and  Nachchinark- 
kiniyar,  commentators  of  the  Tolkappiyam,  name  in  the 
following  order  from  the  south-east  to  the  north  east  of 
Sentamil  Nadu  —  Ponkar,  Oli,  Tenpandi,  Kuttam,  Kudam, 
Panri,  Karka,  Sitam,  Puli,  Malaiyamanadu,  Aruva  and 
Aruva  —  Vadatalai. 

The  commentator  of  the  Yapparunkalam  gives  the 
same  list  with  this  difference,  that  instead  of  Ponkar  and 
Oli,  he  has  Ven  and  Punal.  Kanakasabhai  Pillai11  too 
accepts  this  view,  and  gives  a  map  setting  forth  the  four 
Koduntamil  Nadus  or  Provinces  bordering  on  the  Arabian 
Sea  in  the  following  order  from  north  to  south.  Puli  Nadu, 
Kuda  Nadu,  and  Venadu.  The  names  were  appropriately 
given  to  each  province,  as  they  noted  its  peculiarity.  'Puli' 
or  the  '  Sandy  tract  '  extended  most  probably  from  the 
banks  of  the  modern  Agalapula  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Ponnani  river.  The  soil  of  this  part  of  the  country  is  re- 
markably sandy.  Kudam  or  the  "  western  land  "  denoted 
apparently  the  region  between  the  mouth  of  Ponnani 
river  and  the  southernmost  mouth  of  the  Periyar  near 

11.    The  Tamils  1800  years  ago  facing,  p.  14. 


Ernakulam.  This  would  have  been  the  most  western  land 
to  the  first  immigrants  who  came  into  Malabar  by  the  Pal- 
ghat  Pass. 

Kuttam  or  the  land  of  lakes  comprised  the  territory 
around  the  modern  towns  of  Kottayam  and  Quilon,  which 
is  to-day  known  by  the  same  name  to  the  natives  of  the 
country.  The  river  Pali  or  Palai,  which  flows  through  this 
province  formed  at  its  mouth  several  islands  and  lakes,  and 
hence  this  tract  was  called  Kuttam12  or  "  the  land  of  lakes/' 
To  the  south  of  this  province,  lay  the  Venadu  which  com- 
prised the  major  portion  of  Travancore. 

Even  to-day  the  Maharajah  of  Travancore  is  known 
as  "  Venattadigal  Tiruvadigal."  The  low  hills  and  valleys 
in  this  region  were  covered  with  luxurous  forests  of 
bamboo,  and  therefore  it  was  aptly  called  Ven-Nadu  or  the 
"  bamboo  land."  The  Chera,  being  the  overlord  of  these 
provinces,  was  also  known  after  them,  Puliyan,  Kudavan 
and  Kuttuvan. 

The  above  mentioned  five  provinces  formed  the 
ancient  Chera  country,  the  capital  of  which  was  Vanji  or 
Karur.  It  was  situated  on  the  banks  of  the  Periyar. 
Adiyarkkunallar,  the  commentator  of  the  Silappadikaram, 
identifies  this  Karur  with  Tiruvanjaikkulam,12  but  Kanaka- 
sabhai  Pillai  identifies  it  with  Tirukarur  three  miles  from 
Kothaimangalam  and13  28  miles  east  by  north  of  Cochin, 
where  the  remains  of  an  old  temple  and  other  massive 
buildings  are  still  visible.14  Pandit  R.  Raghava  Aiyangar 

12.  Cera  Kings  of  the  Sangam  period,  chapter  VT. 

13.  The  Tamils  18  hundred  years  ago,  p.  15. 

14.  Journal  of  the  Asiatic  Society,  Vol.   II,  p.  336;   Sewell's 
lists  of  Antiquities,  Vol.  II,  p.  261. 



discusses  this  question  very  elaborately  in  his  "Vanjima- 
nagar,"  and  arrives  at  the  conclusion,  and  Pandit  M. 
Raghava  Aiyangar  in  his  "  Cheran  Senguttuvan  "  agrees 
with  him,  that  Vanji,  the  ancient  capital  of  the  Cheras,  is 
neither  of  these  places,  but  Karur  in  ancient  Kongu.  or 
modern  Trichinopoly  District. 

The  western  geographer  of  the  first  century  A.D., 
Pliny,  who  refers  to  the  ruler  of  Kerala  as  Calobotra,  men- 
tions Muziris,  which  has  been  identified  by  Dr.  Burnell  with 
the  modern  Cranganore,  as  the  first  emporium  of  trade  in 
India.  Tamil  Literature  too,  has  nothing  but  praise  for 
the  sea-borne  trade  that  passed  through  this  Chera  sea- 
port and  we  cannot  but  refer  to  two  famous  odes  from  the 
Agananuru  and  Purananuru,  referring  to  his  trade  at 
Muzuris,  and  the  articles  (like  pepper,  etc.),  obtained  from 
the  mountain  and  the  sea  exported  to  the  countries  of  the 
Yavanar,  i.e.,  Greeks,  in  exchange  for  gold.  The  songs 
are  :  — 


LC)  Q  LJ  ift  '  UU  IT  j$  £11 

nflQiufT®  Quuj(njLD 
QpSiflujiriru  Qu<ssr.  (^/sth.  148) 

G£iB,$  QUIT  /bur 


The  Periplus,  written  in  the  second  century  A.D.,  also 
refers  to  '  Kerobotras  '  and  the  lands  he  ruled  over.  It 
says  that  it  extended  from  Nouro  and  Tyndis  in  the  north 
to  Nelaynda  in  the  south.  Ptolemy  (second  century  A.D.) 


also  mentions  Karoura  as   the  capital   where   Kerobotras 

The  word  Kerala  will,  if  carefully  analysed,  ultimately 
lead  us  to  the  root  Chera.  Dr.  Caldwell  on  the  other  hand 
erroneously  conceived  *  'Kerala*  '  to  be  the  original  form  of 
the  word  from  which  according  to  him  Chera  is  derived. 
He  committed  the  same  mistake  with  regard  to  the  word 
'  Dravidian,'  but  the  mistake  has  been  exposed  by 
Dr.  Grierson  in  his  Linguistic  Survey  of  India.  In  the 
Purananuru  we  find  the  words  Cheralathan.  Manikka- 
vasagar's  Tiruvachakam  has  "Q^oarsw-a/oir,  G^^gar, 
G&  ir  pear"  and  in  Tirumukkhappasuram  given  to  Panapatra 

we  have, 

We  know  very  well  that  in  Canarese  roots  and  words 
beginning  with  the  palatal  consonant  C,  it  changes  into  the 
guttural  consonant  K,  we  give  the  following  examples  :  — 

Tamil.  Canarese. 

Cey  (to  do)  .  .  Key 

Cevi  (ear)  .  .  Kivi 

Ceri  (a  hamlet)  .  .  Keri 

Centamarai  (red  lotus)  .  .  Kendavara. 

Cennir  (red  water,  blood)  .  .  Kennir 

Thus  there  is  a  greater  possibility  for  the  word  ceral 
to  have  become  keral  and  the  country  of  Keral,  Keralam 

in  Canarese  than  for  'Cera'  to  come  out  of  Kerala  ew  and 
«o  interchange  easily  and  Keralam  (Q^JT^LD]  becomes 
easily  Keralam,  (Stf/roni).  It  is  this  form  that  has 
entered  Sanskrit  as  Kerala.  The  Sanskritists  might  have 
taken  the  word  from  Canarese  which  was  more  easily 


accessible  to  them  perhaps,  than  Tamil  which  was  spoken 
in  the  southern  most  part  in  India. 

Rev.  Foulkes*  contends  that  Chera  and  Kerala  denote 
the  same  country,  Kerala  being  but  the  Canarese  dialecti- 
cal form  of  the  word  Chera.  Dr.  Gundert  in  his  Malaya- 
lam  Dictionary  has,  under  the  word  Keram — "  Canarese 
pronunciation  of  Cheram  ",  "  Chera  =  Malabar  ;"  and 
under  the  word  Keralam  "  Cheram  =  the  country  between 
Gokarnam  and  Kumari."  While  agreeing  in  the  main  with 
the  learned  Doctor  that  the  word  Ceram  has  become  Kera- 
lam through  Canarese,  we  are  disposed  to  think  that  the 
word  may  have  originated  from  Ceral,  another  form  of  the 
word  Ceran.  Many  Cera  Kings  have  been  called  as  we 
know,  Ceralan  and  Ceral.  The  word  Ceral  is  used  in  the 
Silappadikaram  itself  while  denoting  the  author  of  the 
poem  as  "0*—  ^Sds/r^  (c&ireSlGrr/h]  (Q&rr&Ju^&LL(8j"» 

It  will  not  be  out  of  place  here  to  consider  the  terms 
"  Malabar  and  Malay alam  "  which  denote  the  country  and 
its  language  now.  We  do  not  know  for  certain  from  when 
this  word  has  come  into  existence  to  mean  the  language ; 
and  its  etymology  also  is  obscure.  The  word  properly 
denotes  the  territory  and  not  the  language.  It  is  composed 
of  two  words  malai  (mountain)  and  alam  (from  al 
to  possess,  to  use,  to  rule  and  not  to  be  confounded  with 
al,  depth)  which  means  a  territory  subject  to  the  domina- 
tion of  mountains.  It  is  noteworthy  that  the  word  Mala- 
yalam  does  not  occur  either  in  the  early  or  mediaeval  Tamil 
Literature.  As  we  have  pointed  out  before,  the  country 
where  Malayalam  is  now  spoken  was  called  Chera  Nadu 
and  the  people  called  themselves  Tamilar  and  in  the 

*Salem  District  Manual,  Vol.  I. 


Silappadikaram  and  other  ancient  Tamil  classics  the  Cera 
king  is  spoken  of  as  a  Tamil  king.  Malayalam  is  also  known 
as  Malayalma,  another  form  of  which  is  Malayama ;  but 
both  words  are  substantially  the  same.  The  appellative 
noun  corresponding  to  Malayalam  is  Malay ali  (a  man  of 
Malayalam) . 

The  origin  of  the  name  Malabar  has  given  scope  for 
much  speculation.  The  first  part  of  the  word  is  evidently 
the  Malayalam  word  for  mountain  as  in  the  word  Mala- 
yalam itself.  The  first  appearance  of  this  word  mala  with 
the  suffix  'bar'  is  in  1150,  and  from  the  time  of  its  appear- 
ance, the  first  part  of  the  word  is  frequently  found 
to  change.  Col.  Yule  gives  the  following  Arabian  forms 
— Malibar,  Manibar,  Mutibar,  and  Munibar.  The  following 
forms  are  used  by  early  European  travellers :  —Munibar, 
Milibar,  Melibar,  Minubar,  etc.  From  the  arrival  of  the 
Portuguese  in  India  it  seems  always  to  have  been  Malabar. 

It  has  been  difficult  to  ascertain  the  origin  and  mean- 
ing of  the  suffix  bar.  Lassen  explained  it  as  identical  with 
the  Sanskrit  vara  in  the  sense  of  a  region,  Malayavara 
meaning  the  region  of  Malaya,  the  western  ghats.  But  the 
term  Malayavara  is  fictitious,  neither  found  in  Sanskrit  nor 
used  by  the  people  of  the  Malabar  coast.  The  same  diffi- 
culty stands  in  the  way  of  Mala  Varam,  (Tamil,  Malaya- 
lam), the  foot  of  the  mountains.  Dr.  Grundert  suggested 
the  possibility  of  the  derivation  of  bar  from  the  Arabic, 
barr— continent  as  he  considered  it  probable  that  the  name 
of  Malabar  has  been  first  brought  into  use  by  Arabian 

Colonel  Yule  arrived  independently  at  a  similar  con- 
clusion, but  he  preferred  the  Persian  bar  to  the  Arabic 


barr,  and  Dr.  Caldwell*  agreed  with  Colonel  Yule  and 
thought  that  bar,  country,  may  have  been  added  to  'Male' 
to  distinguish  the  mainland  from  adjacent  islands,—  the 
Maldives  and  its  Laccadives, 

For  a  very  long  time  Tamil  was  known  to  European 
scholars  as  the  language  of  Malabar,  or  the  Malabar  langu- 
age. Fabricius,  who  composed  a  Tamil  Dictionary  in  the 
18th  Century,  styled  it  "  Dictionary  of  Malabar  and  English 
wherein  the  words  and  phrases  of  the  Tamilian  language 
commonly  called  by  the  Europeans,  the  Malabar  language, 
are  explained  in  English/'  It  was  only  in  the  latter  part 
of  the  19th  Century  that  this  mistake  was  corrected,  thanks 
to  the  writings  of  Beschi,  Dr.  G.  U.  Pope  and  other  orien- 

From  the  Silappadikaram  we  learn  that  the  Cera  king 
who  ruled  the  country  in  the  2nd  century  A.D.,  was  Sen- 
guttuvan.  The  author  of  this  epic  was  the  royal  ascetic 
and  younger  brother  of  the  king.  He  is  called  Illangovadi- 
gal  (the  royal  prince  ascetic).  Senguttuvan  is  the  best 
known  of  the  ancient  Chera  Kings.  He  is  also  the  hero 
of  the  fifth  decade  of  Padirruppattu  of  which  the  famous 
Paranar  was  the  author.  Being  a  great  warrior,  Sengut- 
tuvan is  said  to  have  conquered  extensive  jegions  from 
Cape  Comorin  in  the  south  to  the  Himalayas  in  the  north. 

Q  p  GST  63T  ,EJ   (2J/.r(fl    QoJ/T  L—ITuSlsMt  _    UJJT<P!T 
(Lp!T&-Stni  _  U    QlLJ(TF)^rf)&L£K    &55>pj(U    *ll  fT  IT 
Q&II  J\)LJoO   r6lTLL.€0)L-f&    QjBfTGti   &  <aQ  oW  I 
gyirSoOTLJ  Qu/T6\)/5f#/r/f<S   (^Ll 

^Comparative   Grammar     of  the   Dravidian     Languages,   III, 
2nd  Edn.,  p.  28. 

15.    Padirruppattu,  43. 


The  Vanjikkandam  or  the  3rd  Canto  of  the  Silappadi- 
karam  is  nothing  but  a  graphic  account  of  the  king's 
northern  expedition,  in  which  he  was  assisted  by  his  ally 
*  Nurruvar  Kannar  V6  On  that  occasion  he  fought  a 
battle  on  the  banks  of  the  Ganges,  in  which  the  combined 
troops  of  certain  "  Aryan "  princes  among  whom  Vijaya, 
the  son  of  a  Bala  Kumara,  Rudra  and  others  are  mentioned. 
After  defeating  them  he  returned  triumphantly  with 
a  fragment  of  stone  from  the  Himalaya,  for  fashioning  the 
image  of  Kannaki,  the  Pattini-Devi,  who  came  to  Malai- 
Nadu  after  burning  down  Madura,  where  her  husband  had 
been  illegally  sentenced  to  death  by  the  Pandiya  King. 
He  built  a  temple,  identified  with  that  of  modern  Cranga- 
nur  (Kodungalur)  and  consecrated  her  image  there.  From 
a  few  astronomical  details  available  in  the  Silappadikaram 
K.  G.  Sesha  Aiyar  arrives  at  171  A.D.  as  the  year  of  fire 
which  engulfed  Madura  at  the/  Pattini  Devi's  command. 
Further,  the  poem  says  that  at  the  consecration  ceremony 
of  the  image,  one  of  the  princes  present  was  King  Gajabahu 
of  Lanka,  surrounded  by  sea  (<SL_SO  (gy9«OE7g»««  asiusu/r^. 
From  this  synchronism  we  can  arrive  at  the  date  of 

Historians  are  of  the  view  that  Senguttuvan's  invasion 
was  feasible  in  the  disturbed  conditions  of  North  India  in 
the  latter  half  of  the  2nd  Century  A.D.17 

Space  does  not  permit  us  to  go  into  chronology  and 
detailed  history  of  the  early  Chera  Kings.  The  Padfirrup- 

16.  Kanakasabai  Pillai  has  correctly  identified  the  Nurruvar 
Kannar  with  the  great  Andhra  Satakarnis  of  the  times. 

17.  Cera  Kings  of  the  Sangam  period.     K.  G.   Sesha  Aiyar, 
ch.  VII,  Section  5. 


pattu,  moreover  is  not  completely  extent  now,  The  first 
and  the  last  tens  are  lost.  The  extant  eight  sections  deal 
with  the  achievements  of  these  eight  Chera  Kings  :  — 

1.  Imayavaramban  Nedun  Ceralatan. 

((j^LQiLjeujniuevr  QfiQgfj  G&jr<stirr,$6yr) 

2.  Palyanai-Selkelu-Kuttuvan 

6Vr  J. 

3.  Kalankaykkanni  Narmudicceral 

(<5E6YT/Ef<35/T{L/<95    dSS^TSffijf?  /57T/T  (Lp  U^&Q  &  &  6$  J. 

4.  Kadal-Pirakkottiya  Senkuttuvan 

(tft—  6tii3tD&  (StftrtLtq-U 

5.  Adukotpatfu-ceralatan 

6.  Selvakkadunko-Valiyatan 

(  0^^)617  <55:a5f?/E73«/r6If/r  L/9(U/T^63T.  ") 

7.  Takadur  erinta  Perunceral  irumporai 

(^<95(F/r  erpSiZp  Qu(r^^  Q&rrsv  ^ 

8.  Kudukko-ilanceral  irumporai 

The  fifth  decade,  it  will  be  noted,  deals  with  Senkut- 
tuvan of  the  Silappadikaram  fame.  For  the  names  of  the 
Cera  kings  celebrated  in  the  Purananuru  lyrics  we  have  to 
depend  on  the  colophon  appended  to  each  lyrics  of  that 
collection.  From  these  we  gather  the  names  of  the 
seventeen18  Cera  kings  ;  but  some  of  these  are  reduplica- 
tions. More  than  two  attempts  have  been  made  to  identify 
and  assign  chronological  order  for  these  cera  kings.  Full 

18.    Cera  Kings  of  the  Sangam  period,  K.  N.  Sivaraja  Filial, 


justice  cannot  be  done  to  the  discussion19  here,  and  the 
reader  is  directed  to  consult  the  special  works  on  the  sub- 
ject. Kanakasabai  Pillai  brings  the  Ceras  up  to  the 
middle  of  the  2nd  Century;  K.  N.  Sivaraja  Pillai  takes  them 
to  the  end  of  the  2nd  Century  ;  and  K.  G.  Sesha  Aiyer  takes 
them  still  further  to  the  end  of  the  3rd  Century  A.D. 

It  is  curious  that,  neither  in  the  Tamil  classics,  nor  in 
Sanskrit,  the  language  that  is  prevalent  now  in  this 
country,  is  said  to  have  been  prevalent  here  in  those  days. 
The  language  spoken  in  those  days  was  only  Tamil,  though 
it  was  Koduntamil  and  not  Sentamil.  Still  it  is  a  wonder 
that  it  is  from  this  part  of  the  country  that  the  Padirrup- 
pattu  and  Silappadikaram,  the  famous  Sentamil  Kaviyan 
which  poet  Bharathi  praises  as  capturing  our  mind  ( 
Lo  &<8*>uu$*tnrLb)  saw  the  light. 

The  Purapporul-Venba-malai,  the  Tamil  grammar 
assigned  to  the  7th  or  8th  Century  A.D.,  the  Perumal  Tiru- 
moli  of  Kulasekara  Alvar20  (Circa  600-800  A.D.)  ,  Sundara- 
murti  Nayanar's  Tevarappadikam  on  Lord  Siva  of  Tiru- 
vanjaikkalam,  and  his  friend  Ceraman  Perumal's  Ponvan* 
nattantati  and  Adi-ula  (Circa  9th  Century  A.D.)  sprang 
from  this  Cera  country.  This  shows  eloquently  that  the 
Cera  kings  were  ardent  patrons  of  Tamil,  and  that  many 
of  them  were  themselves  no  mean  poets. 

19.  1.  Chronology  of  the  Early  Tamils—  K.  N.  Sivaraja  Pillai 

2.  Cera  kings  of  the  Sangam  period—  K.  G.  Sesha  Aiyer. 

3.  Beginnings  of  South  Indian  History,  Dr.  S.  K.  Aiyangar. 

4.  The  Tamil  1800  years  ago—  Kanakasabai  Pillai. 

20.  1.  Early  History  of  South  Indian  Vaishnavism  in  South 

India,  S.  K.  Aiyangar. 
2.  Alvargal  Kalanilai,  M.  Raghava  Aiyangar,  pp.  157-72, 



Attention  may  now  be  drawn  to  the  very  interesting 
fact  that  the  names  of  many  villages  in  Malabar  and 
Travancore  which  terminate  in  words  like  ceri,  ur,  kodu, 
karai,  angadi,  etc.,  indicate  that  they  were  originally  occu- 
pied by  the  Tamils.  Again,  from  the  existence  of  the 
Tamil  words  kilakku  and  Merkku  in  the  Malayalam  lan- 
guage, Dr.  Caldwell  argues  that  the  Malayalam  country 
must  have  originally  been  colonised  by  the  Tamils.  The 
words  Kilakku  and  Merku  literally  mean  downward  and 
upward  respectively.  In  these  words  the  particle  ku  is  a 
termination  denoting  direction.  These  words  quite  aptly 
describe  the  East  and  the  West  of  the  Tamil  country.  They 
are  derived  from  the  roots  Kil  and  Mel  respectively,  both 
of  which  must  have  necessarily  originated  on  the  eastern 
side  of  the  Ghats  ;  for  it  is  to  the  west  of  eastern  plains  that 
this  lofty  range  of  mountains  rises  everywhere  with  the 
result  that  to  go  westward  is  to  go  upward,  while  to  go 
eastward  is  to  go  into  the  country  sloping  downwards  to 
the  sea.  But  the  configuration  of  the  Malayalam  country 
is  directly  reverse,  the  mountain  range  being  to  the  east- 
ward and  the  sea  westward.  Notwithstanding  this  fact, 
the  Malayalam  words  for  East  and  West  are  identical  with 
the  Tamil  words,  Dr.  Gundert  argues  that  there  is  an- 
other word  for  denoting  west  in  Malayalam,  namely, 
Padinnaru,  and  that  word  is  more  commonly  used  than  the 
word  merku.  It  may  be  true,  but  Padinnaru  is  also  a 
Tamil  word.  It  is  a  corruption  of  Padinayiru,  i.e.,  the 
direction,  where  the  sun  sets.  In  the  Purananuru,  stanza 
82,  the  word  occurs  in  the  form  of  Pattanayiru  (set  sun)\ 
According  to  Dr.  Caldwell  these  words  are  a  positive  proof 
of  the  early  colonisation  of  the  country  by  the  Tamils. 

Some  of  the  old  customs  and  manners  of  the  people 
are  still  lingering  in  the  country,  we  are  told,  though  the 


traces  of  the  very  early  occupation  of  the  country  by  the 
Tamils  are  almost  extinct  except  the  Tamil  element  in  the 
vocabulary  and  grammatical  structure  in  Malayalam  lan- 
guage, which  therefore  continues  to  be  understood  easily 
by  a  Tamil  stranger.  Among  the  ancient  lingering  Tamil 
customs,  we  venture  to  suggest  here  the  Sakkaiyar-kuttu 
— the  dance  of  the  Sakkaiyar,  of  which  Professor  P.  Sanka- 
ran  Nambiyar  of  the  Maharajah's  College,  Ernakulam, 
gives  a  valuable  account  and  estimate  in  the  1939  Special 
Cochin  Number  of  the  Madras  Mail  in  honour  of  His  High- 
ness the  Maharajah's  77th  Birthday  Celebrations. 

This  Kuttu,  which  is,  even  to-day,  very  popular  in 
Malabar,  is  said  to  have  been  performed  before  the  Cera 
king,  Senguttuvan,  and  on  that  particular  occasion  the 
Sakkaiyan  chose  to  exhibit  the  Kodu  kotticedam  or  adal  of 
Lord  Siva.  The  dress  and  make  up,  the  gestures  and 
abhinayams  pertaining  to  this  particular  Kuttu,  which  the 
Sakkiyar  selected  for  the  occasion,  are  minutely  described 
by  the  authors  of  Silappadikaram.  We  think  that  the 
"  movements  and  facial  expressions,  the  signs  and  gestures 
employed  by  the  actors  and  actresses  in  the  Kuttu  "  which 
Prof.  Nambiyar  says  "  are  said  to  approximate  most  closely 
to  the  principles  laid  down  in  the  authoritative  Sanskrit 
treatise  on  the  subject,  Bharata's  Natya  Sastra  "  are  echoed 
in  the  description21  mentioned  above. 

In  those  days  the  language  of  the  country  and  court 
was  Tamil.  The  famous  Tamil  poet  of  the  Sangam 
at  Madura,  Maduraikkulavanikan  Sattanar,  the  author  of 
Manimekalai,  was  a  great  friend  of  Senguttuvan,  and 
Illango.  He  spent  a  considerable  part  of  his  time  in  Vanji, 
and  he  was  responsible  for  supplying  him  the  material,  and 

21.    Silappadikaram,  XXVIII,  lines,  67-77. 


requesting  Illango  to  compose  the  Silappadikaram.  In  fact 
the  Silappadikaram  was  inaugurated  in  his  presence.22 
There  are  several  references  in  the  work  which  indicate  that 
the  kings  and  the  subjects  of  the  Cera  country  were  proved 
to  call  themselves  Tamils.  One  or  two  instances  will 
suffice.  The  Aryan  Princes,23  Kanaka  and  Vijaya,  offended 
the  Tamil  kings  in  a  banquet,  and  to  avenge  the  wrong 
committed  to  a  brother  Tamil  king  (Chola),  Senguttuvan 
wanted  to  invade  their  country  while  he  went  north  for 
bringing  a  slab  of  stone  for  the  consecration  of  Pattini 
Devi.24  Villavan  Kodai,  one  of  the  ministers,  while  refer- 
ring to  the  encounter  of  the  king's  army  with  the  "Aryas" 
of  the  north,  calls  the  army  a  'Tamil  one.' 

It  is  remarkable  that  the  proportion  of  Sanskrit  words 
in  the  early  Tamil  works  composed  in  the  Cera  country  is 
comparatively  small.  In  the  later  writings  of  Ceraman 
Perumal  and  Kulasekhara  the  proportion  is  much  higher 
owing  to  Sanskrit  influences.  There  is  a  tradition  that  the 
poet  Kamban  visited  the  country  and  lectured  on  his 
Ramayanam.  Even  to-day  his  great  Epic  is  highly  popular 
here.  Almost  the  first  work  in  the  early  Malayalam  lan- 
guage is  the  Rama  Charitam  which  is  closely  modelled  on 
Kamban's  great  work. 

Sanskrit  authors  even  up  to  the  end  of  the  7th  cen- 
tury A.D.,  refer  to  the  languages  of  South  India  only  as 
Telugu  and  Tamil.  Kumarila  Bhatta,  a  Brahmin  philolo- 
gist of  the  last  decades  of  the  7th  Century  A.D.,  refers  to 
the  "  Andhra  Dravida  Bhasha,"  the  Telugu  Tamil  langu- 

22.  Vide  Silappadikaram  padikam  and  XXV,  lines  65-92. 

23.  Ibid.,  XXVI,  lines  159460,  XXIX. 

24.  Ibid,  XXV,  line  158. 


age    or   perhaps,    the    "  language    of    the    Telugu    Tamil 

Canarese  was  probably  supposed  to  be  included  in 
Telugu,  and  Malayalam  in  Tamil,  and  yet  both  dialects,  to- 
gether with  any  sub-dialects  that  might  be  included 
in  them  were  evidently  regarded  as  forming  but 
one  bhasha.  Malayalam  therefore  was  not  yet  evol- 
ved as  a  separate  language.  Even  the  three  sasanas 
granted  to  the  Jews  are  in  old  Tamil  dialect,  and  they 
are  recorded  in  the  old  Tamil  script  called  Vatteluttu. 
These  deeds  of  Baskara  Ravi  Varma  have  excited  much  in- 
terest not  only  because  of  their  antiquity,  but  because  of 
the  curious  fact  that  by  them  the  ancient  Cera  kings  con- 
ferred on  the  Jewish  colonies  certain  privileges  which  they 
still  possess  to  some  extent.  The  Jews  appear  to  have 
visited  the  western  coast  in  the  early  centuries  of  the  Chris- 
tian Era.  They  have  a  tradition  that  a  large  number  of 
their  nation  came  and  settled  in  Malabar  soon  after  the  des- 
truction of  their  temple  at  Jerusalem25  in  68  A.D.  The 
charters  have  been  translated  more  than  once,  and  there 
has  been  much  diversity  gf  opinion  regarding  the  dates 
assigned  to  them.  While  the  learned  author  of  "  The  Tamils 
1800  Years  Ago  "  assigns  the  last  decade  of  the  2nd  Cen- 
tury A.D.  to  the  two  deeds  granted  to  Joseph  Rabban, 
Lord  of  Anjuvannams  and  to  his  posterity,  Dr.  Burnell  on 
palaeographic  grounds  assigned  these  to  the  8th  Century 
A.D.  Placing  the  first  deed  in  A.D.  774  as  the  only  year 
in  which  the  astronomical  details  of  the  date  furnished  by 
the  grant  would  be  satisfactory. 

25.    i.  Tamils  1800  years  ago,  p.  60. 

ii.  Malabar  Manual,  Vol.  II,  pp.  115-122. 
iii.  History  of  Kerala,  Vol.  II,  pages  507-512. 


Dr.  Kielhorn  says  that  A.D.  774-775  is  not  the  only 
year  possible,  and  points  out  two  dates — 10th  March  680 
and  llth  March  775  A.D.  Sir  Walter  Elliot  fixes  861  A.D. 
Whatever  the  date  may  be,  we  are  here  concerned  only 
with  the  language  of  it. 

The  State  Manual  of  Travancore,  which  is,  no  doubt, 
an  authoritative  history  of  the  State,  contains  a  few  obser- 
vations on  the  relationship  between  Tamil  and  Malayalam. 
It  states — uThe  earliest  phase  of  the  language  (Malaya- 
lam)  must  have  been  scarcely  distinguishable  from  that 
dialect  of  Tamil  which  is  called  Koduntamil  by  scholars. 
It  may  be  considered  that  Malayalam  sprang  from  Kodun- 
tamil. Separated  from  the  parent  stock  by  natural  bar- 
riers of  mountains,  the  off-shoot  of  Tamil  must  have  un- 
dergone gradual  changes  according  to  the  circumstances 
and  nature  of  the  soil.  Phonetic  decay,  differentiation  and 
other  agencies  which  are  ever  at  work  in  the  infancy  of  a 
language,  must  have  had  a  full  play  in  the  case  of  Mala- 
yalam until  the  advent  of  Sanskrit.  The  Sanskrit  langu- 
age affected  the  vocabulary  and  grammar  of  Malayalam. 
Poets  and  authors  indented  upon  Sanskrit  not  merely  for 
the  expression  of  abstract  ideas,  but  even  for  indicating 
ordinary  objects  and  things.  In  spite  of  this  tendency,  the 
literary  language  continued  for  a  long  time  to  follow  the 
old  Tamil  models.  The  oldest  poem  now  extant  is  Rama 
Charitam  written  in  the  13th  Century  A.D.  It  was  com- 
posed long  before  Sanskrit  learning  found  favour  in  the 
land.  It  exhibits  the  earliest  phase  of  the  Malayalam  lan- 
guage, and  savours  more  of  Tamil  than  Malayalam." 

The  mediaeval  period  of  Malayalam  is  marked  by  the 
writing  of  Kannasa  Panikker.  He  has  written  the  Rama- 
yana,  the  Bhagavata,  the  Bhagavad  Gi£a,  etc.  His  language 


shows  the  transition  stage  of  Malayalam  in  a  stage  in  whicH 
the  Malayalam  tries  to  throw  off  Tamil  inflexions  and 
grammatical  formations.  Panikkar  has  been  called  the 
"  Chaucer  of  Malayalam/' 

The  modern  period  commences  with  the  advent  of 
Tunjatta  Ramanuja  Ezuttacchan  of  the  middle  of  the  17th 
Century  A.D.  This  poet  set  himself  to  the  task  of  bring- 
ing the  treasures  of  Sanskrit  literature  within  the  reach 
of  ordinary  man.  He  found  that  Malayalam  as  it  existed 
then  was  not  a  fit  vehicle  for  conveying  refined  thoughts. 
He  therefore  strove  to  develop  the  latent  resources  of  his 
mother  tongue.  He  rejected  the  old  Tamil  Vatteluttu 
alphabet  (which  did  not  have  the  hard  aspirates,  sonants, 
sonant  aspirates,  sibilants  and  aspirates,  peculiar  to  San- 
skrit) as  defective,  and  adopted  instead  the  Arya  Elutu, 
better  known  as  the  Grantha  script.  He  invented  a  new 
literary  style  blending  Sanskrit  and  Malayalam  idioms,  and 
called  it  Manipravalam.  He  also  created  a  new  metre  in 
Malayalam  poetry  called  Kilippattu  which  has  a  peculiar 
melody  and  flow  of  its  own.  With  regard  to  the  modern 
Malayalam  Dr.  Caldwell  says  :  "  It  is  remarkable  that  the 
brahminisation  of  a  language  and  literature  has  now 
become  complete.  This  process  appears  to  have  been 
carried  on  systematically  only  during  the  last  two  or 
three  centuries.  The  proportion  of  Sanskrit  words  is 
least  in  Tamil  and  greatest  in  Malayalam.  The  modern 
Malayalam  character  seems  to  have  been  derived  in  the 
main  from  the  Grantha  script.  In  consequence  of  these 
things  the  difference  between  Malayalam  and  Tamil, 
though  originally  slight  has  progressively  increased,  so  that 
the  claim  of  Malayalam  as  it  now  stands  to  be  considered 
not  as  a  mere  dialect  of  Tamil  but  as  a  sister  language  can- 
not be  called  in  question.  Originally,  it  is  true,  I  consider 


it  to  have  been  not  as  a  sister  but  a  daughter.  "  Malayalam 
being  as  I  conceive  "  says  the  learned  bishop,  "  a  very 
ancient  off-shoot  of  Tamil  differing  from  it  chiefly  at  pre- 
sent by  its  disuse  of  the  personal  terminations  of  the  verbs 
and  the  larger  amount  of  Sanskrit  derivatives  it  has  avail- 
ed itself  of,  it  might  perhaps  be  regarded  as  a  dialect  of 
Tamil,  than  as  a  distinct  member  of  the  Dravidian  family." 
Dr.  Gundert  however  appears  to  be  unwilling  to  consider 
Malayalam  as  an  off-shoot  of  Tamil.26  He  says  :  — "  These 
two  languages  of  old  differed  rather  as  dialects  of  the  same 
member  of  the  Dravidian  family  than  as  separate  langu- 

M.  Srinivasa  Aiyangar,27  on  the  other  hand,  accuses 
Ezuttacchan  for  having  given  a  deathblow  to  Tamil,  his 
mother  tongue.  In  somewhat  severe  language  the  learned 
author  says  :  "  For  this  act  of  vandalism  he  (Ezuttachhan) 
is  admired  by  the  people  of  Malabar  as  the  father  of  Mala- 
yalam classical  literature." 

We  have  so  for  tried  to  trace  the  early  history  of  the 
country  and  language;  but  the  various  aspects  of  the  life 
of  the  people,  their  culture,  commerce,  arts  and  crafts, 
dress,  customs,  etc.,  which  can  be  culled  out  from  the  Tamil 
works  of  the  period,  are  not  furnished  here  for  lack 
of  space.28 

26.  Introduction  to  Dr.  Gundert's  Malayalam  Dictionary. 

27.  Tamil  studies,  The  Origin  of  Malayalam. 

28.  The  works,  of  Kanakasabai  Pillai  and  K.  G,  Sesha  Aiyar, 
the  Malabar  Manual  and  Gazetteer,  the  Cochin  Manual  and  the 
Travancore  Manual,  afford  information  on  culture.     R.  P.  Setu 
Pillai's  studies  in  Silappadikaram  in  Tamil,  Ch.  6,  gives  a  valu- 
able picture. 



PROF,  V.  K.  AYAPPAN  PILLAI,  M.A.,  (OxoN,), 
Professor  of  English,  Presidency  College,  Madras. 

The  invitation  kindly  extended  to  me  by  my  friend, 
Dr.  B.  V.  Narayanaswami  Naidu,  to  contribute  an  article 
to  the  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  Commemoration 
Volume  was  welcome,  as  I  have  always  been  convinced  that 
the  munificence  and  unexampled  generosity  of  the  Rajah 
which  provoked  the  Government  of  Madras  to  an  equally 
generous  expenditure  of  public  funds,  was  an  act  which 
deserved  our  warmest  praise  and  gratitude.  For  a 
moment's  reflection  should  convince  us  that,  although  our 
worship  of  Saraswati,  our  passion  for  education  and  learn- 
ing, have  always  been  high,  and  perhaps  genuine,  we  never 
regarded  that  endowment  for  educational  purposes  was  a 
sacred  duty  to  society  which  its  richer  members  owed  to  it. 
The  chorus  of  praise  with  which  the  few  exceptions  are 
received  is  testimony  to  their  rarity.  If  the  goddess  of 
wealth  has  blessed  the  Rajah's  endeavours,  the  goddess  of 
wisdom  has  endowed  him  with  the  vision  and  discernment 
to  realise  that  there  is  no  better  or  more  enduring  mode  of 
using  one's  wealth  than  in  giving  birth  to  an  institution 
where,  for  generations  to  come,  young  men  and  women  of 
the  country  could  receive  the  blessings  of  a  liberal  educa- 
tion. Both  in  itself,  therefore,  and  as  an  example  to  others 
equally  favoured,  the  Rajah's  gesture  has  been  full  of 



The  princely  gift  of  the  Rajah  of  Chettinad  which 
started  the  foundation  gives  to  the  Annamalai  University 
a  character  all  its  own  ;  but  there  is  another  circumstance 
of  equal  significance.  The  University  founded  in  Chidam- 
baram is  of  the  unitary  and  residential  type  of  which  there 
is  no  other  instance  in  the  South  and  but  a  few  in  all  India. 
It  is  well  known,  that  it  was  the  famous  despatch  of  Sir 
Charles  Wood  in  1854,  which  brought  the  question  of  the 
founding  of  Universities  in  India,  to  the  forefront.  We 
read  in  that  document  that  "  among  many  subjects  of 
importance  none  have  a  stronger  claim  to  our  attention 
than  that  of  education.  It  is  one  of  our  most  sacred  duties 
to  the  nation,  to  be  the  means,  as  far  as  in  us  lies,  of  con- 
ferring upon  the  natives  of  India  those  vast  moral  and 
material  blessings  which  flow  from  the  general  diffusion 
of  knowledge,  and  which  India  may  under  providence 
derive  from  her  connection  with  England."  When,  how- 
ever, in  pursuance  of  this  enlightened  policy,  which  is  un- 
doubtedly the  source  of  the  progress  which  the  country  has 
had  these  years,  the  universities  of  Calcutta,  Bombay  and 
Madras  were  founded  in  1857,  they  were  modelled  rather 
on  the  University  of  London  than  on  the  much  older  and 
greater  foundations,  the  residential  universities  of  Oxford 
and  Cambridge.  The  University  of  London,  it  need  hardly 
be  said,  has  a  great  reputation :  it  has  always  brought  to- 
gether many  eminent  men  in  their  spheres  of  knowledge 
and  it  has  always  striven  to  set  its  standards  high.  The 
nucleus  of  the  London  University  was  University  College, 
founded  "  by  a  group  of  enlightened  liberals  and  radicals 
for  the  purpose  of  giving  a  University  education  to  all 
qualified  students  '  irrespective  of  class  or  creed  V  To 
compete  with  what  was  regarded  as  this  "  godless  univer- 
sity/' the  Anglican  community  soon  brought  into  being 


King's  College.  In  the  meantime  various  educational 
institutions  had  sprung  up  all  over  the  country  and  the 
London  University  was  empowered  in  1858  "  to  examine 
for  a  degree  any  students  who  presented  themselves  regard- 
less of  how  or  where  they  had  studied."  This  is  the 
ground  of  the  one  serious  criticism  always  levelled  against 
the  University  of  London  :  in  the  words  of  Dr.  Flexner, 
"  if  a  university  is,  whatever  its  type  or  form,  a  highly 
vitalized  organism,  vitalised  not  by  administrative  means, 
but  by  ideas  and  ideals,  with  a  corporate  life,  I  confess  my- 
self unable  to  understand  in  what  sense  the  University  of 
London  is  a  University  at  all."  It  was,  however,  perhaps 
inevitable  that  when  in  1857  the  three  Presidency  Univer- 
sities were  founded  to  serve  the  needs  of  this  vast  conti- 
nent, anything  like  a  residential  university  of  the  unitary 
type  was  unthinkable.  The  colleges  founded  for  the  pur- 
pose were  to  impart  the  teaching  and  the  universities 
merely  to  examine  the  candidates  and  present  them  their 
degrees.  The  Universities  of  the  Punjab  and  of  Allaha- 
bad, founded  in  1882  and  1887  respectively,  in  order  to 
relieve  the  Calcutta  University  of  some  of  the  heavy  bur- 
den she  was  bearing,  were  also  of  the  same  type  as  those 
of  Madras,  Bombay  and  Calcutta.  Gradually,  however, 
it  was  recognised  that  Indian  Universities  should  aim  at 
being  not  merely  agencies  to  conduct  public  examinations, 
but  that  they  should  undertake  both  teaching  and  research, 
should  bring  both  teachers  and  pupils  together,  that,  in 
short,  the  type  of  university  organization  known  as  the  resi- 
dential should,  wherever  possible,  be  given  preference  to 
the  merely  affiliating  type  patterns  of  which  were  London 
and  the  new  Indian  universities.  The  findings  of  the  Cal- 
cutta University  Commission  which  was  presided  over  by 
Sir  Michael  Sadler,  and  which  included  among  its  members 


distinguished  educationists  like  Ramsay  Muir,  gave  a  great 
impetus  to  the  residential  ideal  which  was  strongly  advo- 
cated by  the  Commission.  It  was  in  this  atmosphere  that 
the  unitary  and  teaching  universities  of  the  residential  type, 
founded  in  Benares  and  Aligarh,  Allahabad,  Dacca  and 
Lucknow,  came  into  being.  The  Madras  University  Act  of 
1923  had  for  its  principal  object  the  reorganization  of  the 
University  "with  a  view  to  establishing  a  teaching  and 
residential  University  at  Madras,  but  neither  in  the  parent 
university  of  Madras,  nor  in  its  daughters  at  Mysore,  Wal- 
tair  and  Trivandrum  has  it  been  found  feasible  to  achieve 
the  residential  ideal.  The  Annamalai  'University,  how- 
ever, founded  in  1929  is  "  unitary,  teaching  and  residential 
in  character,  the  first  of  its  kind/'  with  little  or  no  chance 
of  being  followed  by  a  second,  "in  South  India."  It  will 
be  admitted  that  an  institution  which  is  unique  both 
because  it  is  a  monument  to  the  generosity  and  the  vision 
of  its  founder  and  because  of  its  character  as  a  unitary  and 
residential  university  deserves  the  warmest  and  discerning 
support  of  the  citizens  of  South  India. 

Is  there  any  special  virtue  in  this  residential  ideal 
which  deserves  our  sympathy  and  consideration  ?  It  is  no 
doubt  true  that  the  residential  idea  is  enshrined  in  the  older 
Universities  of  England,  and  these  are,  by  the  consensus  of 
world  opinion,  among  the  very  greatest  universities  of  the 
world.  But  are  they  not  "  semi-monastic  institutions 
"  which,  arising  in  the  Middle  Ages,  still  retain  in  their 
character  something  of  their  origin  ?  It  cannot  be  denied 
that  Oxford  and  Cambridge  are  the  only  residential  univer- 
sities that  do  exist.  The  newer  universities  of  England, 
those  of  London,  Sheffield,  Manchester  and  others,  the 
great  universities  of  Scotland,  are,  like  those  of  Germany, 
first  rate  organizations  for  purposes  of  learning  and 


research,  but  in  no  sense  residential.  Nor  are  the  great 
American  Universities  of  Harvard  and  Yale  residential. 
But  it  has  been  generally  recognised  that  the  ideals  which 
underlie  the  residential  system  as  embodied  at  Oxford  and 
Cambridge  are  ideals  of  singular  educational  value.  In  the 
residential  universities  students  who  assemble  together 
from  the  different  corners  of  the  country,  or  from  beyond 
its  borders,  students  differing  not  infrequently  in  their  race 
and  creed  and  their  social  upbringing,  live  together  for  a 
period.  This  common  living,  it  has  been  found,  affords 
unique  opportunities  for  that  free  social  intercourse  neces- 
sary for  the  development  of  the  maturing  mind  of  the 
student  who  as  a  human  animal  is  necessarily  a  social  being. 
It  is  not  the  contact  of  the  pupils  with  the  matured  minds 
of  their  teachers  only,  the  value  of  which  no  one  will  ques- 
tion, but  the  contact  of  the  pupils  with  their  own  fellows 
which  is  of  inestimable  educational  value.  The  opportu- 
nities of  a  residential  university  are  that  this  contact 
which  is  so  valuable  for  the  harmonious  development  of 
the  faculties  of  the  adolescent  pupil  is  made  possible  not 
merely  in  the  class  rooms  and  lecture  halls,  but  in  the 
common  rooms  of  students,  in  debating  societies,  in  reli- 
gious associations  and  in  games.  It  is  well  known  that 
what  is  known  as  the  tutorial  system  is  a  prominent  feature 
of  Oxford  and  Cambridge.  "  In  its  purest  form  it  is  tete-a 
tete  dialogue  between  tutor  and  pupil."  This  is,  of  course, 
nothing  strange  to  our  ideas  and  is  no  other  than  the 
method  followed  by  the  ancient  rishis  and  gurus,  the 
method  of  Sandipani  with  that  famous  pair  of  pupils, 
Krishna  and  Kuchela.  I  am  well  aware  that  the  tutorial 
system  has  its  difficulties,  often  insuperable,  in  modern 
conditions  and  has  been  abandoned  in  Indian  institutions, 
often  without  giving  it  any  serious  trial.  I  do  not  know 


if  Annamalainagar  ever  took  it  up  seriously  or  gave  it  the 
consideration  it  deserved.  But  it  seems  clear  that  Anna- 
malainagar, where  there  is,  fortunately,  only  a  single 
college  for  Arts  and  Science,  with  a  few  special  schools  of 
study  attached,  the  opportunities  for  carrying  out  the  resi- 
dential ideal  are  unique.  A  proper  recognition  of  the  uni- 
queness if  the  foundation  would  be  to  develop  to  its  utmost 
limits  the  residential  ideal  which  underlies  the  university. 

One  of  the  recommendations  of  the  Sadler  Commission 
has  been  that  Intermediate  education  should  be  separated 
from  that  of  the  University.  Only  a  few  universities  like 
Dacca  have  carried  out  the  recommendation  and  Annama- 
lai  University  has  left  it  severly  alone.  But  it  appears  to 
me  that,  rid  of  the  responsibilities  of  its  Intermediate  sec- 
tion, which  no  doubt  helps  to  swell  the  limited  income  of 
the  university,  the  Annamalai  University  which  is  already 
turning  out  excellent  work  in  several  of  its  branches 
should  be  in  a  position  to  grow  into  a  real  residential 
university,  concentrating  its  efforts  mainly  in  the  develop- 
ment of  such  branches  of  learning  and  research  as  are  not 
provided  elsewhere  but,  at  the  same  time,  are  of  immense 
value  for  the  conservation  and  enlargement  of  South  Indian 
culture.  A  University  which  sets  before  itself  the  highest 
ideals,  which  attracts  to  itself  men  of  scholarship  and 
character  devoted  to  the  single-souled  pursuit  of  learning 
and  culture,  untrammelled  by  the  interests  of  party  and 
of  narrow  and  petty  considerations,  and  offers  them  reason- 
able conditions  under  which  they  may  live  and  work,  a 
university  whose  jealous  care  is  the  maintenance  of  the 
highest  academic  standards,  has  nothing  to  fear.  It  fills 
an  essential  need  of  the  community  and  is  bound  to  live 
and  thrive.  May  we  not  hope  that  the  Annamalai  Univer- 
sity founded  by  the  Rajah  of  Chettinad,  whose  Shashti- 


abdapurti  the  University  rightly  proposes  to  celebrate  in 
a  fitting  manner,  will  develop  into  one  of  the  premier  insti- 
tutions of  South  India,  making  its  invaluable  contribution 
to  the  moral  and  intellectual  advancement  of  this  part  of 
our  great  country  ? 


Hon.  Secy.  Saiva  Siddhantha  Mahasamajam. 

Did  you  ever  hear  of  a  king  worshipping  his  own 
minister?  Has  the  mighty  ruler  of  a  vast  country  in  any 
system  of  civilisation  ever  spent  a  whole  year,  day  in  and 
day  out,  hearing  a  learned  disquisition  on  the  lives  of  saints 
who  belonged  to  the  hoary  past?  Could  a  monarch  ever 
afford  to  depute  his  prime  minister  for  twelve  months  on 
a  non-political  mission?  You  would  say  "no";  yet  all  these 
strange  things  did  happen  in  the  Tamil  country  in  the 
twelfth  century  of  the  Christian  era.  The  king  was  Kulot- 
tunga  Chola  the  Second  and  the  Minister,  Sekkilar. 

Literature  was  the  king's  hobby,  and  the  Jain  work 
Jeevaka  Chintamani  was  his  favourite  book.  The  shrewd 
minister  was  an  ardent  Saivite  and  could  not  contemplate 
with  equanimity,  the  rising  tide  of  Jain  influence  over  the 
young  king.  He  perceived  that  a  glowing  version  of  the 
selfless  lives  of  the  sixty  three  Saiva  saints  was  the  only 
means  to  retrieve  his  master.  In  his  afternoon  conversa- 
tions, he  narrated  to  the  king  seme  of  the  soul  stirring  inci- 
dents in  the  lives  of  these  saints.  The  king  was  so  fascinated 
that  he  begged  of  his  minister  to  reduce  the  lives  into  a  book. 
He  got  his  furlough,  went  to  Chidambaram,  gathered  a  band 
of  scholars  around  him  to  collate  all  the  available  material 
for  him,  and  produced  in  an  exact  year  the  "Periyapura- 



It  was  the  most  valuable  book  yet  produced  on 
Saiva  history.  Its  value  must  be  judged,  not  with 
reference  to  the  modern  scientific  methods  of  historical  re- 
search, but  with  due  regard  to  the  times  when  history  was 
still  in  its  infancy  in  most  countries  of  the  world.  The  way 
in  which  pieces  of  internal  evidence  to  be  found  in  the  songs 
of  the  three  great  Saiva  saints  were  put  together,  and  their 
biographies  shaped,  makes  one  wonder  how  the  author 
would  have  fared  if  better  and  ampler  material  had  been 
available.  The  book  was  not  merely  history  or  biography 
but  also  a  piece  of  literature  possessing  high  classical  value. 

The  king  was  so  much  impressed  with  the  excellence  of 
the  book,  which  was  in  verse,  that  he  requested  his  minister 
to  undertake  a  v^ry  detailed  expDoiuon  inereof.  The  minis- 
ter agreed.  A  daily  assembly  of  scholars  was  convened  by; 
the  king  for  a  year.  The  hall  chosen  was  the  grand  edifice 
with  a  thousand  pillars  in  the  northeast  corner  of  the 
Chidambaram  temple.  The  minister  explained  all  the 
niceties  and  subtleties  of  the  book  in  such  a  way  that  the 
entire  audience  was  entranced  and  spellbound.  Pindrop 
silence  prevailed  and  the  soul  was  lifted  far  above  the 
mundane  plane.  Tears  flowed  freely  when  the  sufferings 
and  privations  of  some  of  the  saints  were  narrated.  The 
king  and  his  subjects  felt  alike.  The  year  was  a  unique 
experience  in  the  life  of  everyone.  The  seed  for  a  true  uni- 
versity was  then  sown,  and  it  has  taken  eight  long  centu- 
ries for  it  to  sprout  out  and  shape  itself  into  the  temple  of 
learning,  ivhose  founder's  sixty-first  birthday  we  are  proud- 
ly celebrating  to-day. 

The  king  was  overpowered  with  emotion  and  fell  at 
his  minister's  feet.  He  mounted  the  minister  and  his  book 

on  the  state  elephant,  sat  behind  them,  and  waved  chamara 


with  both  his  hands,  and  went  in  procession  round  the  main 
streets.  His  subjects  stood  speechless  and  wonderstruck, 
watching  the  royal  procession.  Here  was  pen  mightier 
than  the  sword  in  the  noblest  sense. 

The  minister  was  so  sincere  in  practising  what  he  prea- 
ched that  he  preferred  retirement  to  the  glamour  of  state. 
The  king  gave  leave  with  a  heavy  heart  and  chose  the  minis- 
ter's brother  to  succeed  him.  The  minister  in  his  retire- 
ment was  provided  with  every  comfort  which  a  simple  and 
solitary  life  demanded.  He  spent  his  last  years  in  devout 
contemplation  of  his  Maker. 

Nowhere  has  history  recorded  events  of  this  kind  which 
lift  us  from  the  base  and  material  turmoils  of  earthly  exis- 
tence into  the  ethereal  region  of  spiritual  communion  with 
the  Infinite.  Such  events  did  truly  happen  at  Chidam- 
baram once.  Let  us  pray  for  their  repetition  in  a  suitable 
form  in  the  near  future  to  lift  us  back  to  catch  a  glimpse  of 
that  bliss. 



On  the  occasion  of  the  61st  birthday  of  the  Rajah 
of  Chettinad,  I  wish  to  join  the  chorus  of  tributes  offered 
to  him  for,  his  share  in  the  cause  of  promoting  culture  in 
larger  than  that  of  any  other  man  in  South  India.  The 
Annamalai  University  stands  out  as  a  towering  and  glori- 
ous monument  to  the  magnanimity  of  its  great  and  noble 
founder  and  demonstrates  his  wisdom  and  foresight,  for  it 
is  an  effective,  genuine  and  progressive  University  educa- 
tion that  can  supply  the  nation  with  the  creative  minds  of 
culture  and  with  youths  equipped  with  the  qualities  of 
leadership  which  it  so  much  needs.  There  is  a  tendency  in 
some  quarters  to  belittle  the  importance  of  the  establish- 
ment of  Universities  and  consider  efforts  at  the  expansion  of 
higher  education  to  be  a  superfluity,  but  at  the  present  stage 
of  India's  history  when  wise  planning  and  deep  thinking 
to  reconstruct  national  life  are  so  essential  in  order  to  ena- 
ble her  to  take  her  due  place  in  the  comity  of  nations,  we 
require  a  sufficient  number  of  men  and  women  endowed 
with  the  training  that  higher  education  imparts.  I  do  not 
believe  that  there  is  a  surfeit  of  such  men  and  women  in 
this  land  at  present  and  higher  education  cannot  be  said  to 
have  reached  saturation  point. 

In  this  article  I  wish  to  deal  with  the  fundamentals  of 
true  culture,  in  the  implanting  of  which  our  Universities 
are  primarily  engaged.  Culture  in  its  etymological  sense 
means  cultivation  and  has  many  connotations,  but  it  is 


usually  taken  to  be  synonymous  with  the  cultivation  of  the 
mind  through  the  medium  of  knowledge.  In  the  majority 
of  instances  education  is  an  indispensable  pre-requisite  of 
culture  for  knowledge  is  power;  it  is  knowledge  that  sup- 
plies us  with  facts,  ideas  and  ideals  that  make  up  life's 
kaleidoscope.  Facts  dominate  life  and  ideas  control  the 
world  and  these  have  their  basis  in  knowledge,  which  endows 
one  with  the  capacity  of  deciding  what  to  do.  Usually  it  is 
education  which  holds  the  key  that  unlocks  the  treasures  of 
culture.  Hence  the  very  essence  of  culture  must  be  art  and 
science  and  the  human  effort  concerned — ceaseless  effort  in 
the  sphere  of  study  and  in  the  domains  of  observation, 
reflection  and  contemplation. 

But  culture  is  not  simply  the  cultivation  of  the  mind. 
Mere  knowledge  which  satisfies  curiosity  and  the  crowding 
of  one's  memory  with  facts  is  not  culture;  rather  culture  is 
the  fine  fulfilment  of  the  knowledge  acquired.  How  is  this 
fulfilment  achieved?  By  activity  of  thought.  Knowledge 
becomes  active  thought  when  it  is  utilised  and  applied  to  the 
life  around.  But  though  knowledge  static  and  inert  is  not 
culture,  it  must  be  remembered  that  knowledge  in  motion, 
for  wrong  ends  is  the  mosc  terrible  force  in  nature  and  is  the 
very  negation  of  culture.  Totalitarian  Europe  offers  an 
example  of  this,  where,  despite  intellectual  progress  of  a 
high  order  and  the  onward  march  of  science,  the  elements 
of  culture  are  absolutely  wanting.  Thus  while  knowledge 
is  comparatively  useless  unless  put  into  application,  it  must 
be  not  utilised  and  related  to  the  affairs  of  life  as  will  satisfy 
human  needs  and  lead  to  human  amelioration.  Bacon  says, 
"Some  men  think  that  the  gratification  of  curiosity  is  the 
end  of  knowledge;  some  love  of  fame;  some  the  pleasure  of 
dispute;  some  the  necessity  of  supporting  themselves  by 
knowledge,  but  the  real  use  of  all  knowledge  is  this  that  we 


should  dedicate  our  reason  which  was  given  to  us  by  God  to 
the  use  and  advantage  of  man." 

The  application  of  one's  knowledge  for  human  needs 
being  the  real  import  of  culture,  we  find  that  it  is  not  merely 
in  the  centres  of  learning  that  culture  resides.  It  is  not  un- 
common to  discover  sometimes  even  an  uneducated  culti- 
vator, with  no  literary  education  at  all  but  who  has  learnt 
his  lessons  on  the  book  of  Life  and  on  the  lap  of  Nature,  to 
evince  greater  signs  of  culture  than  some  of  the  by-products 
of  our  Universities.  In  such  a  case,  though  the  range  of 
the  man's  knowledge  is  small,  that  knowledge  sparkles,  it  is 
alive;  though  his  ideas  are  few,  they  are  not  inert  and  dead 
matter  but  constantly  related  to  the  stream  of  events  that 
enter  his  life  and  the  lives  of  those  within  his  ken.  This 
fundamental  of  culture,  namely  that  the  mind  enriched  and 
humanized  should  be  a  running  brook  for  those  that  need 
to  quench  their  thirst  and  not  a  still  image  on  the  canvas  has 
to  be  grasped  by  those  who  are  engaged  in  the  pursuit  of 
higher  knowledge,  and  our  Universities  should  set  before 
themselves  the  task  of  evoking  the  interest  of  the  students 
in  putting  their  knowledge  to  use  and  throwing  it  into  all 
its  combinations  with  the  life  around.  Education  is  gene- 
rally undertaken  for  its  utility  as  a  means  of  livelihood  and 
also  as  a  mark  of  polish  and  refinement,  but  it  is  deprived 
of  its  real  significance  if  in  the  pursuit  of  narrow  personal 
ends  it  fails  to  arouse  in  the  minds  of  young  men  and  wo- 
men that  impulse  of  service,  which  is  the  essence  of  true 
culture.  An  education  that  does  not  rouse  one's  active 
sympathy  to  the  dumb  pangs  of  misery  and  unhappiness  of 
the  lives  submerged  in  the  shadows  is  one  that  is  devoid  of 
its  cultural  aspect. 

The  time  has  arrived  when  the  youths  of  this  land,  who 
are  the  future  moulders  of  the  nation's  destiny,  should  realize 


the  true  significance  of  culture  and  get  acquainted  with  the 
implications  of  Noblesse  Oblige.  A  sphere  wherein  they 
can  render  yeoman  service  is  that  of  the  liquidation  of  mass 
illiteracy.  The  problem  of  making  India's  population 
literate  is  one  of  stupendous  magnitude  and  of  urgent 
importance.  We  learn  in  history  that  in  the  reign  of  Asoka 
about  60  per  cent  of  the  inhabitants  of  this  land  were  literate. 
To-day,  however,  not  even  10  per  cent  are  literate.  And 
it  is  the  monster  Ignorance  that  has  been  devastating  the 
land  from  a  long  time  past  that  has  given  birth  to  the  evil 
conditions,  which  are  undermining  the  strength  and  sapping 
all  potentialities  for  good  inherent  in  the  nation.  India's 
appallingly  high  death-rate,  the  incidence  of  epidemic 
diseases,  the  existence  of  social  evils,  and  the  prevalence  of 
a  high  rate  of  crime  are  all  to  be  traced  to  the  ignorance  in 
which  people  are  steeped.  During  the  past  50  years,  every 
decennial  census  showed  an  increase  of  1  per  cent  literacy. 
If  the  present  rate  of  progress  of  literacy  is  not  accelerated, 
it  will  take  at  least  a  thousand  years  for  India  to  become 
literate.  Since  the  task  is  of  immense  magnitude  and  of  vital 
importance,  it  behoves  the  students  of  the  Universities  to 
contribute  their  quota  to  the  great  work  of  national  regenera- 
tion. China  has  awakened  from  her  opiate  slumber  of 
ages  by  the  efforts  of  her  students,  who  have  dedicated  a 
good  portion  of  their  holidays  to  imparting  knowledge  to 
the  adults.  Will  not  the  youths  of  India  answer  the 
sonorous  call  of  duty  when  the  clarion  is  sounded?  If  they 
have  imbibed  the  true  spirit  of  culture,  there  is  no  doubt 
that  they  will. 

While  service  constitutes  an  essential  element  of  culture, 
it  is  erroneous  to  assume  that  a  life  of  isolation  from  worldly 
affairs  is  a  necessary  pre-requisite,  for  a  cultured  man  is  pre- 
eminently one  who  does  not  ignore  the  practical  aspects  of 


existence.  As  has  been  pointed  out  by  Johnson,  "The  seeds 
of  culture  may  be  planted  in  solitude  but  must  be  cultivated 
in  public."  Culture  though  born  of  meditation,  through  the 
inward  travail  of  the  spirit,  thrives  most  in  contact  with  life 
and  draws  its  vitality  both  from  Nature  and  from  man  and 
is  never  inert  but  active. 

Culture  denotes  the  cultivation  of  a  higher  quality  of  life 
consequent  on  the  mental  training  received,  whether  through 
the  medium  of  books  or  otherwise.  While  objectively  it  re- 
quires an  intelligent  understanding  of  and  interest  in  some- 
thing tending  to  human  welfare  besides  one's  own  job  in  the 
workaday  world,  subjectively  it  calls  for  self-analysis,  self- 
control  and  self-reformation.  Culture  manifests  itself  in 
good  manners  and  a  catholicity  of  outlook  that  recoils  from 
arrogance  and  exclusiveness;  in  understanding  that  ignores 
not  charity;  in  a  spirit  of  compromise  and  accommodation 
that  realizes  the  need  to  co-operate  with  others  and  adopt  the 
principle  of  live  and  let  live;  and  above  all  in  sympathy  that 
knows  no  caste  and  creed.  Culture  awakens  the  sense  of 
fellowship  latent  in  all  men.  A  cultured  individual  realizes 
that  life  is  a  unity  and  man  is  part  of  that  life;  he  is  consci- 
ous of  the  fact  that  he  is  part  of  that  one  world  process  that 
is  at  work  about  him  as  in  him,  and  like  the  ancient  Roman 
Emperor  proclaims,  "I  do  not  regard  as  strange  and  foreign 
to  myself  anything  that  is  human  inasmuch  as  I  am  human/' 

Moreover,  a  cultured  man  not  merely  recognizes  diver- 
sity, which  is  Nature's  law,  but  respects  it,  since  variety 
yields  charm  and  colour  to  life.  In  a  ]and  like  India  inhabit- 
ed  by  members  of  different  castes  and  creeds,  the  most 
urgent  desideratum  of  to-day,  namely  unity,  can  come  about, 
paradoxically,  not  by  a  process  of  uniformity  but  by  respect- 
ing differences.  The  hall-mark  of  a  cultured  man  and 
woman  is  to  be  free  from  narrow  prejudices  and  to  be  able  to 


appreciate  the  good  and  beautiful  wherever  found.  No 
community  or  race  should  suffer  from  the  delusion  that  it 
alone  has  the  monopoly  of  truth,  of  virtues  and  of  the  fine 
arts,  for  of  all  dungeons  the  most  terrible  are  those  invisible 
ones  wherein  men's  souls  are  imprisoned  in  self-delusion 
bred  by  vanity.  The  environments,  the  requirements,  the 
temperaments  and  traditions  of  the  various  races  and  peoples 
have  been  responsible  for  different  ways  of  approach  to 
life's  problems,  but  the  divergences  of  the  paths  pursued 
should  not  befog  our  vision  to  the  soundness  of  many  of  the 
methods  and  maxims  of  those  different  from  ourselves. 
Kipling  rightly  says,  "There  are  nine  and  ninety  ways  of 
inditing  tribal  lays,  and  very  single  one  of  them  is  right." 
Culture  is  essentially  broad-based  in  its  outlook  and  its 
appeal  is  universal.  Hence  the  different  centres  of  learn- 
ing while  recognizing  and  utilising  diversity  should  admit 
interchange  and  exchange  and  each  University  should  esta- 
blish Chairs  for  the  fundamental  ideals  and  realities  within 
other  cultures  besides  developing  its  own  and  pulsate  with 
all  thoughts  that  are  high,  noble  and  great,  not  merely  in 
the  life  of  its  own  people  but  of  the  world  in  general.  In 
the  words  of  Lord  Morley.  "Let  there  be  preferences,  but 
let  there  be  no  exclusion/' 

India  remains  chaotic  because  the  mental  approach  of 
the  nation  is  defective.  The  problems  of  India  will  be  solv- 
ed when  the  educated  sons  and  daughters  of  her  land  will 
become  imbued  with  the  true  spirit  of  culture  and  will 
realize  that  despite  diversities,  the  adherents  of  different 
beliefs,  customs  and  traditions  and  the  products  of  varying 
environments  while  retaining  their  own  individuality  and 
living  their  own  lives  to  the  full  can  still  combine  together  as 
in  a  symphony  orchestra,  wherein  the  various  instruments, 
though  they  are  different  from  one  another,  yet  all  contri- 



bute  to  the  production  of  a  melodious  harmony.  Such 
combination  and  the  cultivation  of  the  true  choir  spirit, 
wherein  each  singer  is  giyen  full  scope  to  develop  the  best  in 
him  while  he,  on  the  other  hand,  gives  of  his  utmost  for  the 
success  of  the  choir,  should  be  one  of  the  ideals  towards 
which  our  seats  of  learning  should  strive. 

Mathew  Arnold  spoke  of  sweetness  and  light  as  the 
marks  of  true  culture.  The  Annamalai  University  has 
added  to  it  faith  and  courage — qualities  which  are  of  pro- 
found significance  at  the  present  juncture  of  world  history. 
One  of  the  most  threatening  features  of  life  to-day  is  the 
reaction  against  faith  and  reverence,  and  expert  designers 
who  are  planning  out  the  main  lines  of  a  new  and  better 
order  realize  that  their  edifice  will  never  stand  unless  steps 
are  taken  to  check  the  rising  tide  of  irreverence  and  lack  of 
faith.  Indeed,  without  faith  the  wheels  of  progress  will 
be  braked  and  civilization  is  bound  to  suffer  a  collapse. 
Courage  is  also  a  quality  whose  need  was  never  greater 
than  at  present— Courage  to  battle  against  the  forces  of 
evil,  courage  to  face  life's  problems  with  a  spirit  of  stern, 
persistent  determination  to  overcome  difficulties,  courage 
to  surrender  prejudices,  courage  to  resist  mass  thinking  and 
the  temptation  to  applaud  all  popular  sentiments  irrespective 
of  quality,  courage  to  act  up  to  one's  conviction  and  to  the 
new  vision  of  world  progress. 

In  short,  the  idea  of  refinement  appears  to  be  insepara- 
ble from  that  of  culture.  The  term  refinement  calls  up  to 
mind  the  picture  of  a  furnace  burning  the  dross  and  yield- 
ing the  gold  or  that  of  a  sieve  sifting  the  grain  from  the 
chaff.  Culture  imparts  a  finer  tone,  a  gentler  touch  and  a 
nobler  quality  to  an  individual  and  contributes  to  a  richer 
life  more  directly  than  health  contributes  to  wealth. 



Though  the  acquisition  of  culture  involves  unremitting 
effort  and  sacrifice,  the  satisfaction  obtained  therefrom  is 
immense,  for  while  the  pleasures  of  wealth  and  power  are 
fleeting,  the  ecstasy  derived  from  culture  is  perennial  in 
enjoyment  and  of  permanent  duration. 



Dr.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar,  the  first  Rajah  of 
Chettinad,  is  a  unique  personality.  And  his  diamond  Jubi- 
lee is  now  fittingly  commemorated  by  his  grateful  country- 
men whom  he  long  served  and  lavishly  benefited  by  his 
numerous  acts  of  Philanthropy  and  Patriotism.  Hailing 
from  the  most  talented  affluent  and  charitable  family  of 
hereditary  Bankers  in  Kanadukathan,  he  yet  easily  out-dis- 
tanced and  eclipsed  all  his  forbears  and  cousins  both  in 
making  colossal  wealth  and  what  is  rarer  still  in  wisely  and 
lavishly  spending  fabulous  fortunes  on  public  welfare. 

Many  are  celebrated  charities  that  redound  to  the  credit 
and  glory  of  his  family;  now  for  nearly  a  century,  starting 
from  1850.  Chidambaram  where  God  Nataraja  sarabands 
His  Eternal  Cosmic  dance  came  to  be  the  centre  of  their 
charitable  activities.  The  famous  Gold-domed  hold  fane  of 
God  naturally  received  their  first  attention.  The  Pagoda 
and  the  Towers  were  renovated  extensively  and  elaborately 
on  the  eve  of  this  century.  A  feeding  house  for  the  poor  and 
choultry  for  all  pilgrims  were  their  next  gifts  to  this  place 
of  perpetual  festivity.  The  Rajah  Sahib's  senior  brother, 
Diwan  Bahadur  Ramasamy  Chettiar,  the  first  Dewan  Baha- 
dur in  Chettinad,  earned  the  eternal  gratitude  of  this  holy 
place  by  his  invaluable  two-fold  gifts  of  a  well  equipped 
High  School  and  a  protected  water  supply  to  quench  the 
physical  and  mental  thirst  alike, 


Walking  in  his  brother's  wake,  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai 
Chettiar  first  founded  on  the  east  suburb  of  Chidambaram 
three  great  Colleges  successively,  all  in  the  name  of  his 
favourite  Goddess,  to  wit  Sree  Minakshi  Arts  College,  Sree 
Minakshi  Tamil  College  and  Sree  Minakshi  Sanskrit  Col- 
lege. To  these  he  soon  added  his  Sree  Minakshi  Oriental 
Training  College.  He  then  started  his  brilliant  career  by 
quietly  and  unostentatiously  minting  millions  with  his  un- 
rivalled business  talents  on  the  one  hand,  and 
on  the  other  by  lavish  gifts,  endowments  and 
benefactions  in  countless  ways  with  counting 
costs  all  over  Tamilaham  and  even  in  distant 
non-Tamil  countries  such  as,  Ceylon  and  Burma.  It 
is  no  exaggeration  to  say  that  there  is  not  any  great  institu- 
tion or  cause,  community  or  country  within  the  ambit  of  his 
enterprising  fellow  Nagarathar's  activities  that  was  not  en- 
riched or  benefited  by  the  inexhaustible  purse  and  philan- 
thropy of  this  modern  Croesus  and  Macalnas  rolled  in  to 
one.  The  Madura  College,  and  the  American  College  and 
Hostels  in  Madura  and  Pasumalai,  the  National  High  School 
at  Trichinopoly,  the  Mylapore  P.  S.  High  School,  the  Indian 
Public  School  at  Dehra  Dun,  the  Irwin  School  at  Delhi,  the 
Ramakrishna  Institution  at  Madras  and  Ootacamund  and 
several  educational  and  religious  institutions  in  Rangoon, 
Moulmein  Kanbe,  and  Colombo,  the  Y.M.C.A.  and  Red  Cross 
Society  are  only  some  of  the  many  institutions  which  were 
fertilized  by  his  munificence.  His  piety  which  is  non-sec- 
tarian, enthused  him  to  renovate  at  great  cost  Thillai- 
Govindar's  Shrine,  God  Pasupatheeswara's  Temples  in  Anna- 
malai and  Karur,  the  Hindu  Temple  in  Colombo,  besides  the 
abiding  upkeep  of  the  works,  and  maintenance  of  Kuttelais 
and  endowments  at  the  holy  shrine  of  Sree  Nataraja  in 


The  Crowning  glory  of  his  passion  for  services  to  his 
fellowmen  and  the  sweetest  fruits  of  his  native  patriotism 
is  the  latest  yet  the  first  and  only  Unitary,  Teaching  and 
Residential  University  in  South  India  appropriately  named 
after  him.  It  is  an  edifice  emerging  four-square  on  and  out 
of  the  four  Sree  Meenakshi  Colleges  which  he  previously 
founded  on  his  extensive  estates  in  the  eastern  environment 
of  Chidambaram.  The  imposing  new  University  buildings 
superbly  and  solidly  built  grudging  neither  cost  nor  care, 
stand  towering  above  and  overlooking,  extensive  grounds 
which  are  in  turn  enveloped  by  emerald  fields  and  green 
swards.  They  form  by  day  a  panoramic  perspective 
of  picturesque  piles,  as  a  rare  and  unique  blend  of 
Classic  Indian,  Saracenic  and  Romantic  styles.  By 
night  the  brilliantly  lighted  premises  of  the  Univer- 
sity present  a  tableau  of  celestial  charm  of  seraphic 
rest.  The  sanitary  water  supply,  perfect  drainage,  the 
swimming  pool,  and  boating  channels  each  at  an 
enormous  cost  the  extensive  and  up-to-date  play  grounds  and 
exquisite  sports  pavilion,  are  some  of  the  graceful  additions  to 
the  university,  each  and  every  one  of  which  indebted  more  or 
less  to  the  Rajah's  privy  purse.  The  new  guest  and  rest- 
house  and  the  staff-club  on  grand  style  are  also  indebted  to 
his  munificence.  The  magnificent  ladies'  club  which  is  a 
very  unique,  costly  and  fine  building,  with  extensive  well- 
laid  grounds  is  also  the  exclusive  gift  of  the  Rajah  Saheb 
to  the  University.  The  hostels  fri  general  and  the  new 
Women's  Hostel  in  particular  add  to  the  charm  of  the 
panorama.  In  short  the  buildings  alone  would  be  worth 
about  twenty-five  lakhs  of  rupees. 

Add  to  all  this,  his  lavish  contributions  to  the  Univer- 
sity endowment  fund,  and  the  several  auxiliary  and  addi- 
tional endowments  for  prizes,  medals,  studentships  to 


scholars  of  this  university  for  studies  both  in  the  university 
and  in  foreign  universities.  The  up-to-date  library  house 
in  the  superb  left  wing  of  the  new  Senate  House,  the 
science  laboratories,  and  the  charming  music  college  well- 
match  and  add  to  the  fascination  and  utility  of  the  Uni- 
versity. Great  endowments  to  educational  institutions  are 
not  rare  all  over  the  world.  But  a  well-equipped  and  en- 
dowed modern  university  owing  almost  its  all  from  its 
inception  to  private  enterprise  and  personal  philanthropy 
of  a  single  individual  is  not  heard  of  in  the  old  world, 
whereas  the  Rajah's  University  is  an  up-to-date  Modern 
University  second  to  none.  The  unparalleled  philanthropy 
of  this  modern  Croesus  of  South  India  attracted  the  atten- 
tion of  even  the  apathetic  alien  rulers.  The  Viceroy  on 
the  local  Government's  well  deserved  recommendations 
bestowed  on  him  the  hereditary  title,  style,  honour  and 
privileges  of  a  Rajah  in  recognition  and  acknowledgment  of 
his  great  philanthropy  and  genuine  patriotism,  in  addition 
to  the  many  other  titles  they  had  previously  honoured  him 
with  such  as  the  Knighthood,  Diwan  Bahadur,  etc. 

The  Rajah  is  a  real  Karma  Yogin,  and  his  admirable 
disciplined  life  most  rigorous  and  yet  most  restful,  is  the 
envy  of  businessmen  and  a  wonder  to  all.  With  a  zest  for 
work,  and  spleen-proof  placid  temper  an  admirable  abandon 
coupled  with  a  genius  for  infinite  industry  and  devotion  to 
details,  with  volcanic  energy  embalmed  in  sweetest  suavity, 
with  an  unbending  will  matched  by  innate  courtesy  and  in- 
stinctive devotion,  with  enthusiasm  in  enterprise  and  aver- 
sion to  lassitude,  he  is  easily  a  prince  among  men  as  he  is  a 
man  among  princes.  Rising  invariably  at  4  a.m.  he  finishes 
his  ablutions  and  devotional  regimen  and  urgent  personal 
business  correspondence  all  before  7  a.m.  He  is  then  ready 
to  attend  to  the  heavy  business  routine  entailed  by  the  in- 


numerable  business  organisations  and  branches  he  runs  in 
India,  Burma,  Malaya  and  Ceylon,  and  to  calls  and  appeals 
to  his  head  and  heart,  his  time  and  purse  alike.  His  unfail- 
ing method  and  admirable  system,  his  mastery  of  details,  his 
phenomenal  memory  and  ready  resources  are  some  of  his 
traits  rare  even  among  the  captains  of  Industry  and  multi- 
pliers of  millions  in  the  busy  west.  His  statesmanship,  his 
reserve  with  well  informed  and  diplomatic  talent,  his  deep 
knowledge  of  men  and  affairs  and  his  versatility  would 
easily  have  made  him  a  forefront  cabinet-minister,  Premier 
or  President  if  only  he  were  a  citizen  in  any  self  governing 
country.  As  it  is  he  stands  in  the  Indian  world  of  to-day 
as  a  striding  colossus  of  wealth,  a  power  for  benevolence  and 
a  tower  of  strength  to  his  weaker  countrymen.  His  delight 
is  his  silent  selfless  service,  and  his  strength  is  his  matchless 
character.  His  unrivalled  and  enviable  success  is  the  fruit 
of  his  manifold  virtues.  His  lofty  service  to  culture  and 
higher  education  earned  him  his  doctorate  honoris  causa 
from  the  Madras  University.  We,  his  grateful  compatriots 
and  admiring  countrymen  cordially  wish  him  on  the  happy 
completion  of  his  Sixtieth  Birthday  a  Methuselah's  longe- 
vity, Solomon's  happy  prosperity  and  Socrates'  wisdom.  May 
the  Almighty  God  shower  lavishly  all  His  choicest  blessings 
on  this  Modern  Kubera  and  inspire  him  to  continue  to  pro- 
mote the  progress  of  his  mother  country  and  the  welfare  of 
his  loving  but  less  fortunate  country.  May  he  live  long  for  the 
Glory  of  God  and  for  the  honour  and  success  of  persever- 
ance, patriotism  and  public  service,  as  an  example  to  his 
peers  now,  and  as  an  inspiration  to  all  in  future,  is  the 
prayer  that  goes  up  to  God  to-day  from  the  hearts  of  all  his 
well-wishing  fellow-countrymen. 



Since  the  French  Revolution,  the  states  of  Europe  and 
the  colonial  countries  of  the  world  have  grown  on  the  two 
principles  of  Nationality  and  Democracy  which  seemed  to 
sustain  and  fortify  each  other.  Nationalism  has  had  its  cri- 
tics ;  Lord  Acton  called  it  a  retrograde  step  in  history. 
Democracy  too  has  its  detractors  who  find  it  guilty  of  the 
grave  error  of  supposing  that  a  crowd  could  understand 
and  choose.  But,  in  the  midst  of  "  the  chaos  of  talk, 
of  argument,  of  opinion, "  men  must  find  some  excuse 
for  unity  and  build  a  state  for  their  secular  needs,  or 
be  drawn  into  the  political  orbit  of  a  stronger  com- 
munity. The  task  is  always  urgent  and  the  penalty 
of  failure  is  extinction.  A  common  loyalty  to  something 
outside  of  self  is  needed  to  make  a  community: 
the  nation  replaced  the  dynastic  ruler  as  the  object  of  such 
devotion.  Authority  is  needed  to  transform  the  community 
into  the  more  enduring  structure  which  is  the  State  ;  Demo- 
cratic theory  furnished  government  with  the  sovereign 
authority  of  the  General  Will.  Thus  there  is  nothing  for- 
tuitous in  the  close  association  of  nationalism  and  demo- 
cracy at  the  beginning  of  the  Nation-State.  If  people  come 
together,  they  do  so  only  because  they  all  recognize  certain 
values  distinct  from  the  values  of  other  people.  If  a  com- 
munity keeps  together,  it  can  do  so  only  under  a  govern- 
ment which  can  be  trusted  to  guarantee  these  values.  Yet 
it  would  not  be  right  to  describe  the  state  as  the  work  of 


free  will  and  reason  ;  for  in  the  world  of  reality  there  are 
no  absolutely  free  individuals  and  rational  choice  is  almost 
non-existent.  Nations  are  seldom  truly  "self-determined." 
Nationhood  is  sometimes  achieved  by  the  pressure  of  active 
groups  inside  the  community.  And  "small"  nations  are 
born  of  the  strategic  needs  of  great  powers.  National  unity 
may  be  fostered  by  similarity  of  culture,  race,  language, 
social  habits  and  historical  experience  among  the  people 
that  constitute  the  nation.  National  governments  may 
acquire  greater  power  by  closely  representing  the  national 
mind.  But  forces  inside  the  national  community  and  out- 
side should  be  favourably  disposed  if  a  Nation-State  is  to 
emerge  and  survive. 

In  whatever  way  a  Nation-State  may  be  founded,  it 
cannot  forever  be  immune  to  attack.  The  complex  of  hopes, 
aspirations  and  fears  that  made  it  soon  unmakes  it.  The 
cultural  values  of  the  ruling  group  are  repudiated  by  the 
generality  which  once  followed  the  elite.  Patriotism  tends 
to  find  a  smaller  and  more  intense  expression  as  regional- 
ism. Submerged  dialects  "come  up  again  and  divide  the 
nation.  Conservatives  and  radicals  split  the  community. 
Several  sectional  economic  interests  engage  in  strife.  When 
people  see  themselves  as  really  belonging  not  to  the  politi- 
cal community  of  the  nation  but  to  a  small  group  or  class, 
when  classes  within  the  state  appeal  to  or  sympathise  with 
similar  classes  in  other  states,  the  nation  has  ceased  to  be. 
When  nations  go  to  war  to  destroy  nations  the  ruin  is  com- 
plete. The  failure  of  the  principle  of  nationality  as  a  neces- 
sary and  sufficient  basis  of  political  union  is  manifest  today. 
But  in  the  absence  of  a  more  rational  or  popular  prin- 
ciple, nationality  with  all  its  dangers  and  inadequacies  must 
prevail.  Therefore  the  political  animal  instead  of  blaming 
nationalism  which  is  the  cause  of  his  present  agony  blames 


representative  democracy  and  turns  against  it.  It  is  not 
surprising  that  when  the  foundations  of  society  are  crumbl- 
ing, people  should  be  occupied  with  the  reform  of  mere 
government.  It  might  be  urged  against  the  critics  of  demo- 
cracy that  representative  democracy  is  only  a  mechanism 
for  the  expression  of  the  general  will  and  it  cannot  create 
a  general  will  where  no  such  will  is  to  be  found.  In  an 
entirely  rational  world  of  intellectuals  democracy  would  be 
acquitted  and  nationalism  banished.  Societies,  however, 
detect  the  scapegoat  by  a  sure  instinct  and  nations  in  dis- 
tress invariably  pervert  or  overthrow  their  democratic 
institutions.  Rid  of  a  machine  that  would  not  work  a 
miracle,  they  subside  into  an  artificial  unity  imposed  by 
a  dominant  group  which  has  cultivated  the  will  to  power 
and  seeks  to  encourage  in  its  subjects  the  will  to  believe. 
In  the  end,  new  political  myths  may  take  the  place  and 
even  the  name  of  democracy  and  nationality. 

In  colonial  countries  feelings  of  nationality  are  easily 
engendered.  Common  and  reluctant  subjection  to  a  foreign 
power  makes  a  nation  of  the  people  inhabiting  a  centrally 
administered  territory.  What  cost  much  to  free  peoples 
comes  gratis  to  their  subjects.  A  people  demanding  free- 
dom and  self-determination  cannot  imagine  a  native  gov- 
ernment that  is  not  from  the  outset  democratic.  So 
nationalism  and  democracy  are  intertwined  in  the  affections 
of  a  people  aspiring,  or  even  struggling  to  be  free.  But 
the  vicissitudes  of  democracy  and  nationalism  are  the  same 
all  the  world  over  ;  in  fact  transplanted  ideas  go  through 
the  natural  cycle  of  their  lives  with  sensational  rapidity. 

India  is  no  exception  to  the  rule,  though  patriots  of 
no  country  can  be  got  to  deny  the  uniqueness  of  their  land. 
When  India  came  under  British  rule,  it  was  inevitable  that 
her  political  structure  should  be  determined  by  Western 


ideas.  When  Macaulay  triumphed  over  the  Orientals,  it 
was  inevitable  that  the  educated  classes  should  seek  for 
their  home-land  the  institutions  they  had  been  taught  to 
love  and  admire.  Raja  Rammohan  Roy  complained  that 
India  was  "  a  country  into  which  the  notion  of  patriotism 
has  never  made  its  way."  A  century  later  Jawaharlal 
Nehru  could  write,  '  'Patriotism  is  not  enough,  we  want 
something  higher,  wider  and  nobler."  That  is  the  measure 
of  the  distance  travelled  by  the  intelligentzia  in  the  course 
of  a  hundred  years,  and  proof  of  the  success  of  western  edu- 
cation. It  is  a  popular  superstition,  impossible  to  eradicate, 
that  our  educational  system  was  devised  to  produce  and 
only  turned  out  inferior  employees  of  government  and  com- 
mercial offices.  On  the  contrary  it  has  produced  in  the  past, 
and  is  still  turning  out  in  large  numbers,  young  men  and 
women  equipped  to  meet  all  the  needs  of  a  healthy 
society.  But  in  the  strange  political  conditions  of  the  early 
days,  government  distrusted  the  educated  classes,  for  in  the 
words  of  Grant  Duff  they  were  'professional  malcontents  ; 
busy,  pushing  talkers  ;  intriguers  and  grumblers'.  Their 
patriotism  then  made  them  unpopular  with  the  rulers. 
They  were  also  soon  to  lose  the  regard  of  the  people  ;  for 
the  first  fruits  of  the  democratic  theory  they  preached  came 
to  be  a  contemptuous  rejection  of  the  values  they  had  learn- 
ed to  cherish.  Nevertheless  it  was  a  growing  class  educated 
on  western  lines  that  propagated  widely  and  planted  firmly 
the  notions  of  nationalism  and  democracy  in  this  country. 

The  intelligentzia  was  from  the  beginning  variously 
handicapped.  Most  of  the  educated  men  came  from  the 
poorer  sections  of  the  middle  class  and  therefore  lacked  the 
local  influence  that  would  have  made  them  an  example  to 
the  countryside.  They  could  not  function  as  a  leisure  class. 
Nor  could  they  obtain  any  position  of  power  and  real  res- 


ponsibility  in  the  government  of  the  country.  They  studied 
social  and  political  theories  out  of  textbooks  ;  they  scanned 
the  administrative  methods  of  the  British  Government ;  but 
of  real  politics  and  power  politics  they  were  altogether  inno- 
cent. The  ethical  teaching  they  had  absorbed  at  school  and 
their  native  love  of  peace  reconciled  them  to  their  lot. 
They  had  to  take  many  things  for  granted  and  among  them 
was  the  Government  of  India  which  was  a  gigantic  adminis- 
trative contrivance  working  so  smoothly  and  with  so  much 
of  Benthamite  efficiency  that  no  one  asked  where  it  got  its 
power  from.  They  saw  the  whole  of  India  made  one  by  a 
centralised  system  of  law  and  government  and  understood 
the  unifying  effect  of  education  in  the  English  tongue. 
They  could  imagine  a  gradual  Indianization  of  the 
personnel  of  government  and  a  gradual  association 
of  the  public  in  the  councils  of  government.  The 
language  of  the  educated  men  of  the  last  gene- 
ration shows  how  firmly  they  believed  in  the  supreme 
significance  of  the  administration  and  how  careless  they 
were  of  the  tremendous  but  obscure  processes  by  which 
nations  come  of  age  or  perish.  If  the  educated  classes  were 
unable  to  understand  or  control  the  political  climate  of  the 
country,  they  at  least  kept  alive  in  institutions  of  higher 
learning  respect  for  law  and  constitutionalism  and  the 
liberal  devotion  to  "fundamental  human  decencies." 

The  piety  of  the  educated  gave  us  the  political  vision 
of  a  united  Indian  nation  stretching  from  the  Himalayas  to 
the  Cape.  The  vision  was  to  be  realized  by  an  education 
fitting  the  people  to  the  service  of  a  constitutional  demo- 
cracy. And  the  Government  should  itself  undertake  the 
tuition  of  its  subjects  enabling  them  to  reach  in  time  the 
level  of  a  free,  united  and  democratic  nation.  And  this 
new  nation  was  not  to  remain  alone  and  friendless  in  a 


hostile  world  ;  it  would  be  a  member  of  a  great  Common- 
wealth of  Nations,  a  defensive  league  girdling  the  globe. 

But  when  the  first  instalment  of  political  power  was 
bestowed  on  the  natives  of  India,  these  noble  academic 
theories  had  to  retreat  before  the  scramble  which  a  coveted 
substance  excites.  Racial,  territorial,  economic,  religious 
and  linguistic  interests  manifested  themselves  and  had  to 
be  acknowledged  by  the  rulers  and  the  ruled  alike.  Political 
India  accepted  a  federal  organization  of  the  central  govern- 
ment with  its  implications  of  territorial  autonomy  for  seve- 
ral areas  within  the  country.  Nationalist  political  parties 
upheld  many  claims  of  language,  culture  and  economic 
interests,  in  order  to  win  a  large  following  against  the  estab- 
lished order.  Just  as  subject  people  get  nationalism  with- 
out tears,  sub-nationalities  acquire  effusive  recognition  of 
their  integrity  and  permanence  from  the  government  as 
well  as  from  the  rebels.  It  would  be  foolish  to  ignore  the 
natural  and  legitimate  expression  of  sectional  interests  ;  they 
represent  real  political  forces  which  cannot  be  dissipated 
by  assumed  indifference  or  by  vehement  invective.  Any 
one  of  them,  and  not  necessarily  the  largest,  may  yet  grow 
powerful  enough  to  make  and  lead  a  real  Indian  nation. 

Mr.  Ruthnaswamy  whose  knowledge  of  the  theory  and 
practice  of  Government  and  Politics  is  unrivalled  wrote  in 
1932,  "If  ever  there  was  a  country  that  was  made  for  unity 
it  was  India (But)  the  history  of  India  is  a  con- 
tinuous and  complete  denial  of  its  geography."  And  in  the 
epilogue  to  his  treatise  on  The  Making  of  the  State,  he  ex- 
pressed the  hope  that  "  the  State  that  has  at  last  been  made 
in  India  may  yet  be  the  making  of  India. "  The  duty  of 
making  the  nation  is  here  cast  upon  statesmen  and  adminis- 


trators  for  in  any  sane  order  responsibility  must  go  with 

The  late  S.  Srinivasa  lyengar  told  the  Kumbakonam 
Parliament,  "Let  us  firmly  and  ardently  believe  that,  to 
whatever  communities  we  belong,  we  Indians  are  all  of  one 
race  and  nationality  ;  on  that  conviction  of  racial  identity 
alone  depends  our  salvation  in  this  world,  in  the  present 
and  in  the  future."  Here  was  an  attempt  to  create  a  new 
myth  which  would  unite  all  the  citizens  of  India. 

It  is  unlikely  that  practical  politicians  and  busy  adminis- 
trators will  find  the  time  and  opportunity  to  devote 
themselves  to  the  service  of  Indian  nationalism.  It  is  even 
more  unlikely  that  any  one  will  persuade  the  Indian  masses 
to  see  themselves  as  one  race.  Meantime,  the  recrimina- 
tions of  sectional  leaders  separate  classes  and  groups  more 
definitely  from  one  another.  Indian  nationalism  has  nearly 
attained  the  status  of  a  lost  cause  and  the  right  to  asylum 
in  Universities. 

In  these  distracted  times  it  is  the  duty  of  schools  of 
social  studies  in  Indian  Universities  to  train  the  generations 
that  pass  through  them  to  look  on  the  political  scene  with 
eyes  of  compassion  and  not  of  revenge,  to  keep  the  channels 
of  understanding  open,  and  to  equip  every  cause  with  fair- 
minded  advocates  and  willing  servants.  Even  a  hostile  and 
uncomprehending  community  deserves  the  ministration  of 
trained  minds. 



DR.  K.  C.  CHAKKO,  B.A.,  D.Sc.,  (LOND.), 

A.M.I.E.,  (IND.),  I.E.S., 
Principal,  Engineering  College,  Madras 

The  lands  belonging  to  the  University  now  cover  an 
area  of  572  acres  of  which  100  acres  were  handed  down 
with  the  Sri  Minakshi  College  and  the  168  acres  were  a  gift 
by  the  Founder  direct  to  the  University  and  the  remainder 
were  acquired  by  the  University.  The  area  lies  to  the  East 
of  the  Railway  line  at  Chidambaram  and  is  bounded  on  the 
other  sides  by  the  Uppanar  and  Khan  Sahib  Canals. 

Owing  to  the  difficulty  felt  in  finding  accommodation 
for  the  staff  and  students  in  the  Town,  four  professor's  and 
four  lecturers'  quarters  and  hostel  accommodation  were 
already  built  as  part  of  the  Sri  Minakshi  College.  These, 
with  the  College  blocks,  coverd  a  plinth  area  of  71822  sq.  ft. 
and  cost  8  lakhs  of  rupees. 

The  establishment  of  the  University  as  a  Unitary 
Teaching  and  Residential  Institution  by  the  Act  of  1929 
not  only  made  the  existing  accommodation  utterly  inade- 
quate for  the  needs  of  a  University.  Accordingly,  a  pro- 
gramme of  buildings,  roads  and  other  works  was  commenced 
and  buildings  covering  an  area  of  273,361  sq.  ft.  and  costing 
12  lakhs  of  rupees  have  so  far  been  completed.  Though  a 
few  individuals  regarded  the  expenditure  as  a  waste  of 
money,  the  University  authorities  consistently  held  the  view 
that  a  reasonable  amount  of  expenditure  on  Buildings  and 


other  amenities  usually  associated  with  a  University  were 
absolutely  essential.  The  new  buildings  include  a  Convo- 
cation Hall,  Library  and  Administrative  Block,  an  Oriental 
Block,  four  new  Hostel  Blocks,  a  Union  Hall,  a  Music  Col- 
lege and  a  Guest  House.  There  are  now  quarters  provided 
for  100  members  of  staff  and  60  menials.  A  few  figures 
regarding  the  buildings  are  given  in  the  Appendix. 

The  growth  of  the  University  in  the  first  ten  years  of  its 
existence  has  been  so  rapid  that  the  Building  Schemes 
and  the  provision  of  amenities  could  not  keep  pace  with  the 
needs  of  the  expanding  University.  Thus  the  number  of 
students  rose  from  771  to  983  in  the  three  years  ending 
1940  and  by  the  construction  of  four  new  hostel  blocks,  the 
accommodation  was  sufficient  for  only  651  students. 

The  essential  needs  for  the  present  size  of  the  Uni- 
versity have  been  practically  supplied  excepting  the  Water 
Supply  and  drainage  schemes.  With  the  rapid  increase 
in  expenditure  consequent  on  the  constant  expansion  of 
the  University,  and  the  added  difficulties  caused  by  the 
present  war,  it  has  become  necessary  to  temporarily  stop 
the  expansion  and  begin  a  period  of  consolidation.  It  is 
hoped  that  before  long,  the  University  will  begin  to  grow 
again  with  renewed  vigour  until  it  attains  its  full  maturity. 

There  are  at  present  18449  feet  of  roads  as  against 
4480  feet  in  the  pre-University  days.  Of  these,  7466  feet 
have  been  tarred  and  it  is  proposed  to  tar  the  remaining 
portions  also  in  due  course. 

There  was  no  garden  worth  mentioning  before  the 
University  was  established.  Since  then  967,600  square 
feet  of  area,  i.e.,  nearly  22  acres,  have  been  converted  into 
gardens  and  playgrounds  and  this  area  is  being  gradually 


The  beginnings  of  a  protected  water  supply  scheme 
have  also  been  made.  Water  from  the  Usuppur  channel  is 
led  by  an  open  channel,  one  mile  long,  into  two  sedimenta- 
tion tanks  each  capable  of  holding  over  three  million  cubic 
feet  of  water.  From  these  the  water  is  pumped  through  a 
pressure  filter  to  an  overhead  tank  of  25,000  gallons  capa- 
city. The  hostel  and  24  of  the  lecturers'  quarters  are 
now  being  supplied  with  filtered  water.  The  water  will 
soon  be  distributed  to  the  areas  through  suitable  pipes. 

The  drainage  scheme  for  the  whole  area  has  not  been 
taken  up,  but  a  scheme  is  in  existence  for  the  hostel  and 
college  blocks  and  the  Hospital. 

These  works  were  in  some  cases  carried  out  depart- 
mentally  by  the  University  Engineers  but  the  more  import- 
ant buildings  were  constructed  by  experienced  contractors. 
The  plans  and  bills  were  scrutinised  by  distinguished  engi- 
neers, such  as  Dewan  Bahadur  A.  V.  Ramalinga  Aiyer  and 
Dewan  Bahadur  N.  Swaminatha  Iyer,  Retired  Chief  Engi- 
neers of  the  Madras  P.W.D.  and  Rao  Bahadur  K.  V.  Natesa 
Iyer,  Retired  Chief  Engineer,  Travancore  State.  The  admi- 
nistrative block  was  originally  designed  by  Mr.  L.  M.  Chitale 
but  during  execution  was  modified  by  Messrs.  Edwards  Reid 
and  Booth.  The  University  Engineers  in  chronological 
order  are  :— Mr.  K.  Yegnanarayana  Sastri,  Mr.  V.  R.  Sub- 
rahmania  Iyer,  Mr.  S.  Rangachariar,  Mr.  S.  P.  Raju  Aiyer 
and  Mr.  J.  Krishnamurthi  and  the  contractors  who  carried 
out  the  major  works  are  :  —Mr.  P.  Rajabather  Mudaliar, 
Mr.  V.  Subrahmania  Aiyer,  Mr.  Kolandaivelu  Mudaliar, 
Mr.  N.  Kandaswami  Pillai,  Rao  Saheb  S.  Sambasivam 
Pillai,  Ratna  Mudaliar  and  Santanam  Aiyar  and  Messrs. 
Gannon  and  Dunkerley.  The  Engineer  member  of  the 
Syndicate  gave  technical  advice  on  engineering  questions 



Although  the  standard  of  academic  work  carried  out 
by  the  University  may  be  regarded  as  an  important  cause 
for  the  prestige  of  the  University,  it  cannot  be  denied  that 
the  buildings,  roads,  gardens  and  other  amenities  have  also 
played  a  very  great  part  in  giving  the  University  the  impor- 
tance it  has  attained. 


Building.  Cost.  Date. 


1.  Library  and  Administrative 

Buildings  ..  3,77,098  1937 

2.  Guest  House  . .  64,496  1938 

3.  Union  Hall  . .  19,805  1937 

4.  Music  College  and  Music  Hostel  33,258  1937 

5.  Hostel  Blocks,  New  . .  3,83,939  37-39 

6.  Pandits'  Quarters  . .  68,810  38-40 

7.  Vice-Chancellor's  Quarters  . .  63,842  1930 

8.  Lecturers'  Quarters  . .  1,55,698  30-37 

9.  Garrages  &  Tiffin  Shed  . .  11,160  1939 

10.  Post  &  Telegraph  Office  . .  11,236  1938 

11.  Professors'  Quarters  . .  1,44,938  30-37 

12.  Ladies  Club  ..  15,000  1936 

13.  Hospital  &  an  Isolation  Ward  26,550  36-37 

14.  Women  Students'  Hostel  . .  32,160  1938 

15.  Menials'  Quarters  . .  33,892  1938 

16.  College  Buildings  . .  5,24,305       24, 26, 32 

17.  Clerks'  Quarters  . .  10,875  1933 




It  is  customary  in  the  Science  of  language  to  talk  of 
certain  languages  as  constituting  a  family.  By  this  meta- 
phorical usage  it  is  implied  that  certain  languages,  which  may 
be  called  sisters,  represent  so  many  local  developments  of 
one  language  which  may  be  regarded  as  their  common 
parent.  Pushing  the  figure  of  speech  further  one  will  find 
that  the  languages  which  stand  in  the  relation  of  sister  to 
each  other  are  daughters  of  the  assumed  mother.  The  idea 
is  that  in  the  course  of  the  development  of  a  language  it  has 
taken  upon  itself  several  shapes  through  the  working  of 
different  conditions  in  different  localities  and  has  consequent- 
ly received  several  names.  When  a  close  examination  of  a 
number  of  languages  indicates  that  they  participate  to  a  large 
extent  in  a  common  stock  of  words  or  root-elements  of  words, 
an  inference  is  ordinarily  made  that  the  languages  concerned 
may  be  descended  from  a  common  source.  A  comparison 
therefore  of  word-materials  of  languages  would  enable 
one  in  trying  to  determine  the  relationship  that  may  exist 
between  language  and  language.  Because  of  such  resem- 
blances as  can  be  explained  only  on  the  assumption  that  the 
languages  are  varied  forms  of  a  single  older  language,  a 
notion  is  naturally  formed  that  the  languages  in  question  may 
be  historically  related  to  each  other. 

Tamil,  Telugu,  Kannada,  Malayalam,  Tulu,  Kudagu, 
Tuda,  Kota,  Kurukh  or  Oraon,  Malto  or  Rajmahal,  Kui  or 
Khond,  Gond  and  Brahui  are  languages  which  appear  to 


have  belonged  to  the  same  stock,  viz.,  the  Dravidian. 
Though  the  term  "Dravidian"  is  ill-considered,  coming  as  it 
does  from  a  foreign  source,  it  has  gained  such  rich  currency 
and  wide-spread  usage  as  a  common  name  for  designating 
these  languages  that  it  is  prudent  now  not  to  quarrel  with 
the  usage  but  to  allow  it  to  continue. 

I  shall  make  a  short  attempt  in  this  paper  simply  to 
point  out  how  these  languages  deserve  to  be  brought  under 
one  family.  While  investigating  the  word-material  of  langu- 
ages with  a  view  to  arriving  at  a  relationship,  it  is  necessary 
to  take  such  words  only  as  express  familiar  and  ordinary 
things,  creatures,  operations  and  family  relations  and  such 
words  as  are  indicative  of  the  numerals  and  pronouns. 
Such  members  of  the  vocabulary  as  are  used  everywhere  by 
every  one  almost  every  day  are  ot  utmost  importance  from 
a  philological  point  of  view.  "The  language'  consists  to  the 
philologist",  as  Dr.  T.  G.  Tucker  Gays,  "of  what  is  habitually 
spoken  and  habitually  understood  by  the  people  at  large." 
Words  ordinarily  used  only  by  the  learned  classes  or  words 
of  exceptional  occurrence  such  as  the  strictly  technical  words 
of  the  arts  and  sciences  are  less  important  in  a  considera- 
tion of  the  question  of  ultimate  relationship,  for  these  are 
members  of  the  vocabulary  that  are  liable  to  be  borrowed 
from  foreign  sources  on  contact  with  the  foreigner. 

Space  would  permit  a  comparison  only  among  the  chief 
languages  and  therefore  Tamil,  Telugu,  Kannada  and  Mala- 
yalam  alone  would  be  taken  now  for  the  purpose.  As  words 
for  familiar  and  ordinary  things  the  following  are  found:  — 

ENGLISH     Tamil  Telugu  Kannada          Malayalam 

HOUSE          vi£u  vita 

manai  mane 

il,  illam         illu  illam 


































































It  could  be  shown  according  to  definite  rules  governing 
phonetic  changes  that  these  are  various  forms  of  the  same 
word  in  each  case.    A  iinai  "ai"  of  Tamil  ordinarily  changes 
into  a  final  "e"  in  Kamiada  as  in  the  words  "talai"  (—head) 
and  "Karai"   (—bank)   which  become  "tale"  and  "kare". 
Thus  the  change  from  umanai>;  to  olmane'1  is  explained.    UH" 
of  old  is  retained  in  Tamil  as  it  was,  whereas  it  has  become 
"illu"  in  Telugu;  this  can  be  explained  by  means  of  stating 
that  there  was  a  tendency  among  certain  speakers  to  affix 
a  vowel,  generally  u;  to  the  consonantal  ending  of  words  for 
the  sake  of  euphony.    Witness  for  instance  words  such  as 
kallu,  mannu,  alu  etc.  in  Telugu  standing  in  correspondence 
with  Tamil  kal,  man,  al  etc. 

Among  familiar  and  ordinary  things  must  be  included 
words  relating  to  the  parts  of  the  body  and  to  the  Five 













































































it  could  be  shown  here  too  that  in  eacn  case  the  change 
is  due  to  tne  operation  oi  certain  phonetic  principles,  i'or 
instance,  in  accordance  with  the  well-known  law  oi  palatali- 
sation a  primitive  "kevi"  nas  changed  into  "Chevi"  in  Tamil, 
while  Kannada  retains  a  lorm  (Kivi)  which  is  truer  to  the 
original.  Because  oi  the  ionauess  lor  aspiration  which  a 
certain  set  oi  speakers  developed,  "pal''  oi  old  became  "hai" 
(and  later  hailu)  even  as  words  such  as  pattu,  puii  and 
painou  have  changed  into  haitu,  huii  and  havu.  Due  to  the 
common  tendency  of  eliding  a  kV  sound  in  medial  places  as 
in  erumai  (— bulialo)  becoming  emme  in  Kannada,  Nerunal 
becoming  Ne^nal  in  Tamil  and  Mnna  in  i'eiugu-Kannada, 
iN[eruppu  has  been  changed  into  i^ippu  in  Telugu. 

Familiar  creatures  such  as  cow,  fish,  elephant  and  snake 
have  words  in  these  languages  which  have  similar  shapes.  A, 



mm,  Yanai  or  anai  and  pambu  are  found  in  one  shape  or  the 
other  in  these  languages  answering  to  the  names*  of  these 

Again,  such  common  actions  as  eating,  giving,  going  etc., 
are  expressed  almost  by  similar  words:  — 

































Among  words  indicating  family  relations  what  a  re- 

markable similarity  is  found! 




MOTHER      tay 


SISTER         akkai 





Kannada          Malayalam 







Numerals  and  pronouns,  which  are  generally  persistent 
and  which  therefore  are  sure  to  shed  much  light  on  deter- 
mining the  question  of  relationship,  are  also  found  to  have 
the  same  or  corresponding  shapes  in  these  languages. 




































































Each  one  of  the  changes  noticed  in  the  foregoing  sets 
of  words  can  be  phonologically  explained.  For  instance,  by 
means  of  what  is  known  as  the  principle  of  compensatory 
lengthening,  in  a  word  like  "avar"  which  stood  as  "avaru" 
by  receiving  an  euphonic  vowel  addition  at  the  end, 
the  initial  vowel  a  migrated  from  its  place  and  took  the 
place  of  the  succeeding  vowel  "a"  with  an  increase  in  quan- 
tity as  a  matter  of  compensation  for  what  it  had  lost.  Hence 
varu  of  Telugu  and  Avar  of  Tamil  are  ultimately  related. 

Though  words  of  the  class  mentioned  above  would  help 
one  in  determining  the  relationship,  they  alone  do  not  suffice 
to  prove  it.  If  this  evidence  is  corroborated  by  evidence  from 
grammatical  structure,  one  could  say  that  these  languages 
do  belong  to  the  same  family.  The  main  principle  underlying 
the  grammatical  structure  of  all  these  languages  is  what  is 
called  agglutination,  i.e.,  gluing  together  of  elements  that 
are  attachable  and  detachable  at  will.  This  then  helps  us 
in  establishing  that  the  languages  mentioned  before  are 


members  of  the  family  generally  known  as  the  Dravidian.  In 
order  to  show  how  these  languages  are  similar  in  grammati- 
cal structure  one  sentence  will  now  be  cited.  The  English 
sentence  "He  said,  o  father,  give  me  my  share  of  the  pro- 
perty" would  be  rendered  into  the  four  main  languages 
thus:  — 

Tamil — Tandaiye,  cottil  enakku  varavendiya  parikai 
enakku  taravendum  enran. 

Telugu — 6  tandrl,  astilo  naku  vachche  palu  Yimmani 

Kannada — Tandeye,  astiyalli  nanage  baratakka 
palannu  nanage  kodu  andaga. 

Malayalam — Appa,  Vastukkalil  enikku  Varendunna 
pahge  tarename  ennu  parannu. 

Tandaiye  of  Tamil  and  tandeye  of  Kannada  agree  in  ad- 
ding a  final  e  as  the  vocative.  Appa  of  Malayalam  is  exact- 
ly in  line  with  the  other  way  in  which  Tamil  would  form  its 
vocative,  namely,  by  dropping  the  final  "n"  in  such  places 
and  affixing  instead  a.  The  Telugu  tandrl  also  is  analogous 
to  the  formation  in  Tamil  by  elongating  the  final  short  "i" 
as  in  "  talaivi  "  from  "talaivi." 

Tamil  cottil=cottu+il  (the  sign  of  the  7th  case); 
Telugu  asti+lo  (Here  lo  is  but  an  inversion  of  ul,  another 
sign  of  the  locative  in  Tamil);  Kannada  asti+alli  (Here 
"alii"  is  a  morphological  element  derived  from  an  old  inde- 
pendent word  meaning  'that  place'  and  serves  very  well  to 
express  the  idea  of  the  locative) ;  Malayalam  Vastu+kal+il 
(Here  kal,  the  pluralising  particle  and  il,  the  locative  sign 
have  been  glued  on  to  the  root-word) . 



Tamil  enakku  and  Malayalam  enikku  are  but  phonetic 
variations  of  the  same  inflection.  It  is  significant  that  ku 
or  gu  or  ge  is  the  element  expressive  of  the  idea  of  the  4th 
case  in  all  these  languages.  While  Tamil  and  Malayalam 
have  formed  an  inflexional  base  "en"  by  shortening  the  root- 
vowel  in  Yan  or  nan  and  while  Kannada  has  formed  the 
base  nan  from  nan  by  shortening  the  vowel,  Telugu  has  re- 
tained the  included  vowel  intact.  So,  naku  from  Telugu  na, 
nanage  from  Kannada  nan,  enakku  an  enikku  from  Yan 
have  been  formed  as  the  dative  of  the  first  personal  singular 

Even  as  "ai"  in  Tamil  "parikai"  has  been  suffixed  to 
indicate  the  idea  of  the  accusative  or  the  second  case,  "e"  has 
been  affixed  in  the  Malayalam  word  as  "parige".  Pangu  and 
pal  are  identical  in  meaning.  While  Kannada  has  palannu 
from  pal+annu,  Telugu  generally  uses  palu  in  the  sense  of 
share  in  the  accusative  without  any  affix  therefor.  This  is 
in  accordance  with  the  usage  noticed  in  other  Dravidian 
languages  which  occasionally  prefer  not  to  affix  any  accusa- 
tive case-sign  to  neuter  nouns.  [E.g.  Tarn.  Undi  Koduttan 
~He  gave  food.]  Dr.  R.  Caldwell,  the  founder  of  Dravidian 
Philology,  remarks  "the  use  of  the  nominative  as  the  accusa- 
tive of  neuter  nouns  is  the  ordinary  and  almost  universal 
colloquial  usage  of  Tamil-Malayalam,  and  is  often  found 

even  in  classical  compositions In  Telugu  the  use  of  the 

nominative  for  the  accusative  is  confined  to  things  without 

life As   far   as   things   without   life   are   concerned, 

Telugu  adheres  to  the  ordinary  Dravidian  rules/' 

Comparisons  and  considerations  such  as  these  point  to 
the  conclusion  that  these  languages  are  in  the 
relation  of  sister  to  one  another  and  that  they  have 
sprung  from  the  same  mother,  which  may  be  designated  as 


the  Primitive  Dravidian.  Apart  from  the  fact  of  history 
according  to  which  there  was  a  Dravidian  race,  the  fact  that 
there  is  great  similarity  in  the  material  and  method  of  expres- 
sion in  these  languages  renders  the  existence  of  a  Dravidian 
family  certain.  As  the  pressing  necessity  of  space  compels 
me  to  draw  this  paper  to  a  close,  I  would  simply  conclude  by 
saying  that  the  subject  of  study  relating  to  the  Dravidian 
family  of  languages  deserves  further  and  greater  encourage- 
ment, for  it  is  sure  to  shed  a  flood  of  light  on  several  dark  cor- 
ners in  the  history  of  thought  relating  to  General  linguistics 
and  thai,  as  Dr.  W.  W.  Hunter  of  the  Bengal  Civil  Service 
said,  it  is  destined  to  open  the  door  to  the  vast  linguistic 
residue  and  to  furnish  the  basis  of  a  new  Science  of 


V.  L.  D'SouzA, 
Professor  of  Economics,  University  oj  Mysore. 

During  the  last  quarter  of  a  century  partly  under  the 
stress  of  the  Great  War  (1914-1918)  and  partly  under  the 
stress  of  the  Great  Depression  (1929-1935)  almost  every 
country  has  engaged  in  some  form  of  economic  effort  to 
promote  industrial  prosperity.  It  is  evident  that  a  good 
many  of  the  measures  have  been  in  response  to  temporary 
emergencies  while  others  have  come  to  stay.  It  is  worth  our 
while  to  review  the  whole  sphere  of  State  action  as  it  stood 
at  the  beginning  of  the  present  war  and  to  take  note  of  the 
various  possibilities  for  Government  intervention  in  the 
economic  life  of  India  that  such  a  survey  will  reveal. 

Economic  action  on  the  part  of  the  State  can  take  either 
of  two  main  forms.  In  one  the  Government  takes  charge 
of  the  whole  economic  process  and  operates  a  planned  eco- 
nomy. In  the  ether  Government  action  and  private  enter- 
prise go  hand  in  hand.  The  U.S.S.R.  falls  into  the  first  of 
these  categories.  The  remaining  countries,  about  65  in 
number  fall  into  the  second.  We  are  not  concerned  at  pre- 
sent with  planned  economic  systems.  Our  survey  deals 
with  the  methods  of  State  action  in  capitalistic  countries 
where  private  initiative  still  plays  the  major  part  in  the 
making  and  marketing  of  goods. 

Even  under  a  system  of  the  most  complete  laissez- 
faire  the  Government  has  a  certain  economic  role  to  play. 


It  is  the  extension  of  the  role  and  also  its  in- 
tensification that  makes  for  planned  capitalism.  There 
is  a  growing  belief  that  it  is  the  duty  of  the 
state  to  see  not  only  that  nobody  starves  but  to  en- 
sure that  the  economic  machinery  of  society  runs 
smoothly  and  efficiently  and  that  in  particular  it 
affords  adequate  employment  for  men  and  capital 
alike.  The  prevalent  notion  is  that  it  is  necessary  for  the 
state  to  take  over  a  large  measure  of  social  responsibility 
and  to  improve  the  standard  of  living  of  the  mass  of  the 
population.  State  action  in  the  industrial  sphere  has  won 
the  approval  of  the  Conservative  as  well  as  the  Liberal. 

It  is  difficult  to  cover  the  whole  ground  of  State  action 
within  the  limits  of  a  short  essay.  We  can  give  only  the 
barest  indications  of  the  multitudinous  forms  of  State  inter- 
vention. We  cannot  go  into  the  details  of  any  particular 
scheme  or  project  but  we  can  make  an  attempt  to  see  the 
movement  as  a  whole  or  to  vary  the  metaphor,  to  bring  the 
different  types  of  action  into  focus  simultaneously. 


Even  in  the  days  of  unadulterated  laissez-faire  the  state 
rendered  certain  indirect  aids  to  industry.  Technical  assis- 
tance such  as  the  provision  of  business  information,  experi- 
mental farms,  research  institutes  and  State  insurance  had 
become  a  recognized  part  of  official  activity.  During  recent 
years  financial  aid  to  industry  has  become  a  marked  feature. 
It  takes  various  forms  e.g.  Government  guarantee  of  the  in- 
terest on  loans  and  Government  participation  in  the  capital 
of  the  concerns.  As  extreme  form  is  the  Reconstruction 
Finance  Corporation  of  U.S.A.  which  has  made  loans  to  or 
brought  shares  in  industrial  corporations  and  has  thus  kept 
businesses  from  tottering  in  a  time  of  economic  depression. 


The  most  noteworthy  of  all  types  of  State  aid  is  the 
grant  of  bounties  or  subsidies.  Even  those  countries  where 
the  laissez-faire  doctrines  are  deeply  entrenched  have  made 
subsidies  quite  a  feature  of  their  budgets.  The 
Netherlands  makes  a  large  allocation  every  year  for  finan- 
cial assistance  to  market  gardeners,  bacon  producers  and 
exporters  of  dairy  produce.  Great  Britain  makes  a  grant 
of  £  3  millions  to  the  growers  of  sugar-beet  while  Japan 
subsidises  the  associations  of  small  producers.  In  addition 
there  are  a  great  many  disguised  or  veiled  forms  of  bounty: 
remission  of  taxation,  reduction  of  freight  charges  and 
special  rates  of  exchange. 


One  brought  up  in  the  school  or  orthodox  economics 
scarcely  realizes  the  extent  to  which  Governments  are  now 
taking  a  hand  in  the  making  and  marketing  of  goods.  The 
old  notion  that  there  is  no  middle  way  between  private  enter- 
prise and  state  ownership  has  been  superseded.  In  practi- 
cally every  country  private  undertakings  and  state  enter- 
prises are  found  side  by  side.  The  mixture  of  industrial 
activity  emanating  from  the  capitalist  and  the  Government 
constitutes  a  new  situation. 

State  intervention  in  economic  life  may  take  one  of 
many  forms.  It  may  amount  to  the  actual  manage- 
ment of  business  enterprises  by  a  Government 
agency.  Industries  of  key  importance  such  as  iron 
and  steel  in  Japan  and  public  utilities  such  as  elec- 
trical supply  in  Great  Britain  have  become  the  proper 
subjects  for  state  management.  Sweden  has  made  a  speci- 
ality of  State  purchase  of  wholesale  drug  and  medicine 
houses  while  the  Government  in  U.S.A.  has  created  a  net- 
work of  State  enterprises,  called  the  Tennessee  Valley 


Authority,  which  serves  as  a  yardstick  by  which  to  measure 
the  costs  in  similar  groups  of  industries  under  company 
management.  The  most  successful  method  of  State  manage- 
ment of  industry  has  been  the  "public  corporation"  under 
which  persons  directly  responsible  for  the  actual  administra- 
tion of  the  business  are  appointed  by  the  State  but  they, 
are  left  free  to  run  the  undertaking  in  their  own  way  within 
the  limits  prescribed  by  general  policy.  The  public  cor- 
poration type  of  State  management  is  likely  to  grow  in 
popularity  as  it  appears  to  be  a  happy  compromise  bet- 
ween economic  individualism  and  governmental  regimen- 


Stale  regulation  or  adjustment)  of  output  involves 
price  fixing  and  control  of  productive  capacity.  In  a  system 
where  private  enterprise  and  State  action  intermingle, 
the  adjustment  of  output  becomes  a  fairly  easy  problem. 
For  economic  equilibrium  the  various  kinds  of  goods — capi- 
tal goods  and  consumption  goods  should  be  produced  in 
the  right  proportions.  Whenever  there  is  persistent  dispro- 
portion in  the  production  of  particular  commodities  the  state 
has  to  make  the  necessary  adjustment. 

Adjustment  of  output  necessitates  direct  control  on  the 
part  of  Government  of  prices,  production  and  productive 
capacity.  The  control  of  prices  ranges  all  the  way  from 
general  price  control  over  practically  all  commodities  as  is 
the  case  in  Germany  to  State  action  calculated  to  mitigate 
seasonal  price  changes,  as  for  instance  of  wheat  in  Canada 
or  coffee  in  Brazil.  Apart  from  price  fixing  on  behalf  of  the 
consumers  with  which  we  are  not  at  present  concerned, 
price  determination  by  the  state  in  the  producers'  interests 
has  become  almost  a  normal  feature  of  some  administrations. 


A  characteristic  type  of  price  fixing  consists  in  the  setting  up 
of  a  price  at  which  the  Government  itself  guarantees  to  buy 
all  that  is  produced  as  for  instance  the  cereals  scheme  of 
Czecho-Slovakia.  Another  method  of  price  control  is  that 
the  producer  sells  at  the  market  price,  the  state  making  up 
the  difference  between  the  price  obtained  and  the  price 
guaranteed  e.g.  the  wheat  scheme  of  Great  Britain.  Yet 
another  method,  illustrated  by  the  butter  scheme  of  Australia, 
is  to  fix  a  high  price  for  the  home  market  and  subsidise  the 
exports  out  of  the  surplus  realized  from  the  domestic  con-* 

Government  control  of  output  has  also  been  success- 
fully attempted  in  recent  times.  We  have  to  bear  in  mind 
that  price  control  and  output  control  are  inseparably  con- 
nected. Whether  prices  are  fixed  and  the  output  is  left  to 
adjust  itself  to  the  situation  or  vice  versa  leads  more  or 
less  to  the  same  result,  namely  the  restriction  of  output, 
State  regulation  of  the  amount  produced  has  become  an 
important  device  though  at  times  it  assumes  fantastic 
shapes.  The  ploughing-in  of  over  10  million  acres  in  U.S.A. 
in  1933  thereby  carrying  out  a  partial  destruction  of  the  cot- 
ton crop,  the  burning  of  coffee  in  Brazil  to  an  amount  exceed- 
ing one  year's  total  world  consumption  and  the  slaughtering 
of  cattle  in  Argentina  and  Hungary  are  but  sorry  examples 
of  an  operation  whose  primary  object  ought  to  be  a  planned 
restriction  of  output. 

Even  more  important  than  the  control  of  prices  and  of 
output  is  the  State  regulation  of  productive  capacity.  Regu- 
lation in  practice  means  a  reduction  to  the  point  where  sup- 
ply can  meet  the  new  demand  conditions.  Thus  in  U.S.A.  the 
Government  gives  a  subsidy  for  the  restriction  of  wheat  and 
cotton  acreage  and  the  French  Government  does  the  same 
for  the  vineyards.  In  Bulgaria  and  Czecho-Slovakia  the  Gov- 


ernment  prohibits  the  establishment  of  new  factories  or  ex- 
tensions in  certain  industries.  A  number  of  the  industrial 
codes  under  the  New  Deal  prohibit  any  increase  in  capital 
equipment  until  demand  improves.  The  restrictionist  move- 
ment may  be  carried  to  great  lengths  as  in  Germany  where 
further  investment  in  some  thirty  important  branches  of  in- 
dustry was  forbidden,  as  it  was  thought  the  investment  had 
already  outrun  the  possible  demand. 

So  much  for  methods  of  direct  regulation.  Government 
also  exercises  indirect  control  over  prices,  output  and 
productive  capacity  and  this  kind  of  control  is  operated 
through  associations  of  producers.  The  state  as  in  Germany, 
might  compel  the  formation  of  cartels,  an  important  feature 
of  which  is  to  force  the  outsiders  to  join  so  as  to  obtain  unity 
of  management  and  economies  of  marketing.  Or  again  the 
state,  as  in  Poland,  might  promote  schemes  of  self-govern- 
ment in  industry  by  which  the  majority  of  producers  in  a 
given  industry  will  have  power  to  frame  decisions  binding  on 
the  whole  body. 

Government  control  creates  the  need  for  further  and 
further  measures  as  in  a  concentric  circle.  Control  is  con- 
tagious and  a  Government  which  sets  about  regulating  prices, 
output  and  productive  capacity  will  soon  discover  that  there 
are  hardly  any  frontiers  to  its  activity.  Thus  a  Government 
that  determines  the  price  of  one  product  will  be  called  upon, 
sooner  or  later,  to  determine  the  prices  of  connected  and 
complementary  goods.  An  intervention  at  any  single  seg- 
ment of  the  price  system  can  rarely  be  an  isolated  act  for,  its 
repercussions  spread  over  a  wide  area. 

Moreover  if  price  is  controlled  output  also  must  be 
controlled  and  restrictionism  tends  to  grow.  Thus  the 
Government  may  be  obliged  to  pass  a  measure  to  the  effect 
that  f  ?lds  taken  out  of  rice  or  wheat  cultivation  are  not  used 



to  grow  sugarcane  or  rye  and  thus  spoil  the  markets  for 
these.  Neither  should  the  manufacturers,  say  millers,  be 
ground  between  the  upper  stone  of  price-fixing  regulations 
in  favour  of  producers  of  wheat  and  the  nether  stone  of 
price-fixing  regulations  in  favour  of  consumers  of  bread. 
These  difficulties  do  not  dispense  with  the  idea  of  State 
action  but  they  call  for  caution  and  an  application  of 
economic  judgment  to  Government  intervention. 


An  analysis  of  the  Great  Depression  revealed  the 
existence  of  an  almost  infinite  capacity  to  produce  and 
despite  huge  populations,  an  insufficient  capacity  to 
consume.  In  other  words  production  was  running  ahead  of 
effective  demand  and  the  people  though  willing  to  buy  had 
not  the  purchasing  power.  The  best  remedy  for  the 
imbalance  between  output  and  consumption  seemed  to  be 
for  the  State  to  create  and  maintain  effective  demand. 

The  measures  proposed  to  keep  the  industrial  system 
on  an  even  keel  are  classified  as  either  contractionist  or 
expansionist.  The  contractionist  method  relies  upon  a 
reduction  in  prices  and  costs.  In  practice  it  amounts  to  a 
diminution  in  the  total  quantity  of  money  in  circulation, 
increased  taxation  to  balance  the  budget,  diminution  in  state 
expenditure,  reduction  of  interest  on  loans,  scaling  down  of 
farmers'  debts  and  wage-cutting  under  the  initiative  of  the 
Government.  Germany,  Italy  and  France  have  tried  Gov- 
ernment policies  tending  in  these  directions.  Their  object 
is  to  reduce  costs  to  the  level  of  effective  demand. 

The  expansionist  method  adopts  the  opposite  line.  It 
is  based  on  the  argument  that  if  more  and  more  purchasing 
power  were  placed  in  the  hands  of  potential  buyers  prices 
would  cover  costs,  surplus  stocks  would  be  sold,  the  unem- 


ployed  resources  would  be  brought  into  active  use.  The  de- 
mand would  become  effective  to  the  point  where  consumption 
would  be  equal  to  the  wealth  produced.  Under  the  influ- 
ence of  expansionist  ideas  Great  Britain  and  the  countries 
of  the  Sterling  Bloc  broke  off  from  the  gold  standard 
and  allowed  their  currency  to  depreciate  or  become 
cheap  in  terms  of  foreign  currencies,  while  the  Unit- 
ed States  without  actually  going  off  the  gold  standard 
reduced  the  gold  value  of  her  dollar.  The  expan- 
sionist process  has  been  followed  up  by  what  is  called  "open- 
market  operations",  that  is  to  say,  by  the  State  Bank  pur- 
chasing securities  with  a  view  to  inject  additional  purchasing 
power  into  the  monetary  system.  The  process  leads  on  to 
low  interest  rates  and  "cheap  money"  for  the  businessmen. 
The  Government  then  goes  a  step  further  and  borrows  a  part 
of  the  abundant  supply  of  purchasing  power  and  uses  the 
funds  for  public  works,  relief  schemes  and  social  services, 
thus  placing  new  money  in  the  hands  of  potential  buyers  of 
goods.  In  Germany  the  measures  for  increasing  effective 
demand  were  associated  with  a  rigid  system  of  price  control 
with  the  result  that  the  whole  of  the  expansionist  policy  was 
directed  towards  increased  activity.  The  expansionist 
ideas  are  tending  to  become  a  part  of  the  permanent  techni- 
que for  business  stabilisation. 


Government  interference  in  the  conduct  of  international 
trade  is  of  the  utmost  complexity.  It  takes  various 
forms  and  most  of  these  are  interconnected  with  the  various 
types  of  State  action  within  the  country  itself. 

The  oldest  and  by  far  the  most  important  method  of 
State  intervention  in  foreign  trade  is  the  regulation  of 
imports  and  exports.  On  the  imports  side  the  chief  motive 


of  action  appears  to  be  restriction  on  the  entry  of  foreign 
goods,  prompted  by  a  variety  of  considerations  such  as  the 
desire  to  protect  home  industry  from  foreign  competition, 
or  as  an  offset  against  currency  depreciation  and  dumping 
and  as  a  preventive  of  an  adverse  balance  of  payments.  The 
simple  device  of  the  tariff  is  now  supplemented  by  quotas, 
licenses,  prohibitions  and  blocked  accounts. 

In  contrast  to  the  restriction  of  imports  every  encour- 
agement is  given  to  the  exports  and  among  the  measures 
thereof  we  may  mention  export  subsidies,  State  credits  to 
exporters,  assumption  by  the  state  of  the  trading  risks  and 
the  setting  up  of  marketing  organization  under  State  direc- 
tion. While  in  theory  the  advantages  of  free  international 
exchange  are  conceded  by  all,  each  country  overcome  by 
fear  of  unemployment,  of  war  and  of  exchange  difficulties 
pursues  in  practice  a  policy  of  national  self-sufficiency. 
Imports  are  suspect  so  long  as  effective  demand  in  the  home 
market  is  not  sufficient  to  keep  capital  and  labour  reasonably 
fully  employed. 



A.D.  1821  AND  1859, 


P.  K.  GODE,  M.A, 
Curator,  B.O.R.,  Institute,  Poona. 

According  to  Satischandra  Vidyabhusana1  the  date  of 
Raghunatha  Sastri  Parvata  the  author  of  the  Nydyaratna  is 
"about  1815  A.D."  Aufrecht2  records  the  following  Mss  of 
this  commentary:  — 

"WTflrcrl"  a  commentary  on  the  Pancavddi  Section  of 
the  Gadadhaii  by  Raghunatha  Saslrin.  Hall  p.  32,  B.  4,  24, 
Ben.  198,  199,  205,  221.  NP.  I.  118,  124.  Poona  550.  Oppert. 
190,  653,  1270,  3156,  3267,  5437.  II,  7142,  7612,  8262. 
Rice.  112." 

T'\  a  commentary  on  Gadahara's  Pancavada  by 
Raghunatha  Parvata  (or  R.  Sastrin)  Hz.  978,  p.  84,  1311." 

1.  History  of  Indian  Logic,  Calcutta,  1921,  p.   487  — 
"92  Raghunatha  Sastri    (Parvata) 

(about  1815  A.D.) 

He  was  a  Maratha,  who  wrote  a  gloss  on  Gadddhari 
pancavdda,  while  residing  at  Poona  about  70  years  ago."  If 
Raghunatha  lived  70  years  ago  from  A.D.  1921  backwards  we 
must  suppose  that  he  was  living  in  A.D.  1850  or  so.  Dr.  Vidya- 
bhusana, however,  gives  fc  about  A.D.  1815*'  as  the  date  of 
Raghunatha.  These  two  dates  viz.,  A.D.  1815  and  1850  will  not 
contradict  each  other  if  we  presume  that  Raghunatha  lived,  say, 
between  1800  and  1850. 

2.  CC.  I,  309. 

3.  Aufrecht,  CC.  Ill,  66. 


In  the  above  entries  of  Aufrecht  no  reference  regard- 
ing the  date  of  the  author  has  been  recorded.      Fitzedward 

Hall,4  however,  while  describing  in  Ms  of  the  ?*TTOTr*T  refers 
to  its  author  as  '"Raghunatha  Sastrin  Parvatikara,  late  of 
the  Poona  College"  As  Hall's  Bibliography  was  published 
at  Calcutta  in  1859,  he  appears  to  have  had  some  know- 
ledge of  Raghimatha  Sastri  and  his  association  with  the 
Poona  College  earlier  than  A.D.  1859.  Hall  also  refers  to  a 
lithograph  copy  of  the  Nydyaratna  made  at  Bombay  in 
A.D.  1843.  It  appears  that  another  lithograph  copy5  was 

4.  Bibliography,    Calcutta,     1859  —  HP!!    was    "Inspector    of 
Public  Instruction  of  Saugor  and  Nerbudda  territories."     He  des- 
cribes  a  Ms   of  the  WTTTT?^    as   follows:    "Nvanaralna  —  A   Com- 
mentary on  the  PancavadT  Sub-section  of  No.  XLI  by  Raghunatha 
Sastri  Parvatikara,     late  of  the  Poona  College.     This     work     was 
lithographed  in  Bombay  in  the  Saka  year    1765    or  A.D.    1843; 
leaves  316  of  the  Ms.  form,  and  four  leaves  of  emendations," 

5.  This    copy  is   found    in   the   Visramba^    Collection    at   the 
B.O.R.    Institute     (Govt.    Mss.).     It    bears    the    number    550    of 
Visrdma  I  and  begins  as  follows  :  — 

4C  sftiruterw  ^JT:  ii    ^JTre^^fTT^r  TO*  \\ 

II  I  ll 

n  ^  n 


n  ^i 


made  at  Poona  from  this  Bombay  edition  of  A.D.  1843  in 
Saka  1772—  A.D.  1850  as  will  be  seen  from  the  colophon  of 
the  Poona  lithograph  edition.6  But  a  closer  study  of  this 

6.    Ms.  No.  550  of  Visrama  I  ends  as  follows:  —folio  330 

u  ^  li 
:  n  «  n 

II  ^  II 

n  ^  n 

«nraf  i  mto 

The  chronogram  fg  53^  ^j^5^  =  Saka  1772  =  >1.D.   1850  which  is 
the  year  of  this  Poona  (<joiqcft»|)  lithograph. 


colophon  shows  that  Raghunatha  composed  the  Nyaya- 
ratna  in  Saka  1765  represented  by  .the  chronogram 

"  3fr<JT,  Tf  ,  ^f?,  £f  "  in  verse  6  at  the  end  of  the  work. 
It  is  possible  therefore,  that  Hall  may  have  confused  the 
date  of  composition  of  the  Nydyaratna  viz.,  Saka  1765  or 
A.D.  1843  with  the  date  of  trie  lithograpii  copy.  At  any  rate 
we  have  to  believe  in  the  testimony  oi  the  author  who 
specifies  the  year  (Saka  1765)  called  "tiobtiakrt"  and  also 
the  month  (Bhddraka  or  Bhddrapada)  . 

In  view  of  the  above  date  of  composition  of  Raghu- 
natha' s  Nyayaralna,  viz.,  A.D.  1843,  we  find  it  impossible 
to  accept  the  date  of  Raghunatha's  death  given  by  Pt. 
Critrava  Sastri7  in  his  Caritrakosa  viz.,  "about  A.D.  1820." 

7.     Madkyayugma  Carilra-kosa,  Poona,   1937,  p.    675  —  a;racff$i 

STT^rt  q^cT—  (*$<<£  &•  ^H*  gut?:)  "—He  favoured  intermarriages 
between  the  bramnin  sub-castes,  viz.,  Deshasthds,  Kokanasthas 
and  Karhadas.  In  fact  he  married  girls  belonging  to  these  castes. 
He  took  sides  in  the  dispute  in  the  Husabinis  iamily  of  Poona, 
which  resulted  in  some  scuffle.  Raghunatha  was  prosecuted  and 
sentenced  to  simple  imprisonment  for  some  years.  During  his 
imprisonment  he  composed  a  work  called  "^T^cqrf  «rao|"  which 
is  a  commentary  on  the  Bhagavadyua.  'Ihis  work  has  been  pub- 
lished by  the  Anandashram,  Poona,  in  their  series.  He  wrote 
a  commentary  on  the  9Tf  !«rcfcqT3TT3-  He  wrote  also  a  work  called 

.   He  was  a  pupil  of  the  celebrated    *;TO3rei$  "       (trans- 
lation mine)  . 

The  editor  has  not  specified  the  source  of  the  above  informa- 
tion. He  appears  to  think  that  r^r^^is  different  from  TT?T*JRt- 
-  In  fact  ?qnrarc^r  is  the  name  of  this^^f.  Then  again 
is  different  from  the  Marathi  commentary  on  the 
Bhagavadglid  called  the  ^rfeffo  which  Mr.  B.  G.  Tilak  read 
out  to  his  father  during  the  latter's  illness  in  A.D.  1872,  in  which 
year  Mr.  Tilak  was  only  16  years  old  (Vide 


Hall's  remark  of  A.D.  1859  viz.,  "late  of  the  Poona  College," 
if  considered  along  with  (1)  A.D.  1843  the  date  of  composi- 
tion of  the  *mzK<a  and  (2)  A.D.  1850  the  date  of  the 

Poona  litho-copy  of  the  ssrW^T  made  at  the  (Vi6ra- 
mabag)  Pathasala,  leads  us  to  infer  that  the  literary 
activity  of  Raghunatha  may  have  commenced  about 
A.D.  1820,  the  year  about  which  Pt.  Chitrav  Sastri  states 
he  was  dead  .  Perhaps  Raghunatha  may  have  been  a  teacher 
in  the  Visrambag  Patha-Sala,  from  which  he  may  havfe 
retired  aboui  1859  A.D.  Apparently  Hall  knew  his  con- 
nection with  the  Poona  College  viz.,  the  Visrambag  Patha- 
sala before  A.D.  1859- 

In  the  Nydyaratna  (verse  4  at  the  beginning  and  colo- 
phon) Raghunatha  definitely  states  that  he  was  the  pupil  of 

^rasTTSTT^ft  who  is  called  "tftffar^S'TSIT^  "•  I  am 
inclined  to  identify  this  ^TSRT^Tqr  with  u 

who  was  appointed  by  the  Bombay  Government 
as  the  first  Principal  of  this  Sanskrit  College  at 
Vishrambag,  Poona  according  to  a  letter8  dated  6th  Octo- 
ber, 1821.  This  tiqqnm}1  issued  Rules  and  Regulations 
for  the  guidance  of  teachers  and  students  of  the  Sanskrit 

8.     Vide,  p.  45  of  Peshwa  Dajtar  Selections  (No.  42—1934). 

The  teachers  appointed  by  Government  for  the  Sanskrit 

College  were:-    (^    ftttVZ  Wtt    (%) 

qra;*r  (y)3?TOi^i^  (for  sr^rc,  ro^Fr)  ft)  *rsrarrat$  (for 

clause  10  of  this  letter  reads :— 



College  under  his  own  signature  in  a  document9  dated 
19th  July  1322.  In  another  document10  dated  17th  July  1837 
(along  with  ?*To5Tjft<tcT  m<|,  3?r*ir  wewta,  srr*ft<fa 

is  referred  to  as  advising  Maharaja  Pratapsinh  of 
Satara  to  confess  the  charges  brought  against  him. 
Messrs.  Natu,  Parasnis  and  Bandre  and  Raghavacarya 
were  pro-Government  persons  and  consequently  their 
advice  was  refused  by  the  Raja  of  Satara  who  was  not  pre- 
pared to  do  anything  against  his  conscience. 

I  am  inclined  to  suppose  that  Raghunatha  the  author  of 
the  «rm^  was  a  pupil  of  STsraTsrw  the  first  Principal 
of  the  Vishrambag  College  which  was  started  in  A.D.  1821. 
u  <ra*rrsiT^"  taught  ?3TT  in  this  College  and  produced  able 
pupils  like  our  Raghunatha  the  author  of  the  wrro*qr  and 
5Jfrc<JT3*rear.  The  chronology  of  the  guru  and  the  pupil 
may  now  be  represented  as  follows :  — 


1821— (6th  October)-  -Poona  Sanskrit  College  started 

by    Government    with        ^TsrapSTTsf  *  as    its 
Principal,  and  teacher  in    «TW. 

^jsprra   <T^  possibly   joined  at   this  time 
the  above  College  as  a  student  and  studied 


9.     P.  D.  No.  42   (p.  49ff),  Letter  No.  9  dated  19—7—1822 

srr%  ?m 
(P.  51) 

fir  n 

10.    Ibid.,  p.  106—  Letter  No.  56  dated  17-7-1837, 


1821—  (19th  July)—  *T5T*T*Tq'  issued  Rules  and  Regu- 
lations for  the  teachers  and  students  of.  the 

1837—  (17th  July)—  ^rasnsmT  advises  the  Raja 
Pratapsinh  to  confess  charges  against  him. 

1843—  (Month     of     Bhddrapada)—  ?^TO  nqft      the 

pupil    of      ?!R3r^Tsr    composed  his    «JFWW- 

1850—  A  litho-copy  of        ?gm*sT        is  prepared  at  the 

litho  press  of  the  College     " 

1859  —  Fitzedward  Hall  publishes  his  Bibliography  at 

Calcutta  in  which  he  refers  to 
as  "late  of  the  Poona  College". 

1872—  Lokamanya    B.    G.    Tilak    reads    out 

VTTTrfeffer   (commentary  on  Gita  in  Marathi) 
to  his  father  in  his  last  illness.11 

The  above  chronology  of  Raghunatha's  life  and  works 
is  reconstructed  on  the  basis  of  the  Nyayaratna,12  the  letters 

11,  Vide  infra,  foot-note  14. 

12.  In  verse  3  at  the  beginning  of       ^TPTT^1       our    author 
refers  to  S^uttjgft    -     Again  in  verse  3  at  the  end  of  this  work  we 
find  this  work  referred  to  as  '^Tttrrflgft'1    This  work  is  a  gloss  on 
TT^TO^  called     ^ratf*»ffar  by  f;s<Tm£  STlf,  a  Maratha  residing 
at  Benares.     This  gloss  has  been  printed  in  Telugu  characters. 

S.  Vidyabhusana  states  that  fjtoivr^1  died  about  150  years  ago," 
i.e.,  about  A.D.  1770.  (See  p.  486  of  His.  of  Ind.  Logic).  If 
this  d?te  is  correct  Raghunatha's  reference  to  ^TT^nrVT^t  *n 
A.D.  1843  appears  to  have  been  made  after  about  133  years  from 

the  death  of  $t 


in  the  Peshwa  Daftar  and  Fitzedward  Hall's  remarks.  We 
must  now  see  what  evidence  is  furnished  by  another  work 

of  Raghunatha  viz.,  ST^FTCTT^nn  represented  by  some 
Mss  in  the  Catalogus  Catalogorum  of  Aufrecht13  and  by  the 
printed  edition  of  the  work  in  the  Anandashrama  Sanskrit 
Series.  It  appears  that  Raghunatha  composed  a  work  in 
Marathi  also.  This  work  is  a  commentary  in  Marathi  prose 
on  the  Bhagavadglta  called  the  WTffe^fa  and  it  will 
be  of  special  interest  to  us  in  view  of  the  fact  that  Loka- 
manya  B.  G.  Tilak's  first  contact  with  the  Gita  literature 
which  later  blossomed  forth  into  his  monumental  work 
Gltdrahasya  in  Marathi,  began  with  the  reading  of  Raghu- 

natha's  wrcrrfafffT  in  AD.  1872  during  the  last  illness 
of  Mr.  Tilak's  father14  as  stated  by  him  in  the  Gltdrahasya 
itself.  In  the  Catalogue  of  Gujarat  Mss  by  Biihler 

13.  CCI,  625—  "STT^^T^jq-iJT''  Vedanta,  by  Raghunatha  B.  4. 
98.    Oppert  3226.11.5575.8374." 

"B.  4.98  "^=p.   98  of  Buhler's  Catalogue  of  Gujarat  Mss, 
Fasc.  IV;    Bombay   (1873).     Ms.  No.  346— 

5T5rc<IT^VfqroT   by  ?!S[5rr*T)  Folios   311   in   the 
possession  of  ^fcfarofJT  ^[|  °f  Bhavanagar. 

14.  Gitarahasya,  Prastavana   (p.  1)   dated  A.D.  1915— 

«FPW  'Clf^  etc-"  Evidently  Mr.  Tilak's  love  for  the 
Gita  began  at  the  age  of  16  on  a  perusal  of  Raghunatha'svfTq-tf^^f^r. 
I  am  thankful  to  Mr.  Achwal  of  Poona  for  drawing  my  attention 
to  this  important  reference. 


published  in  1873  he  notes  a  Ms  of 
in  the  possession  of  a  gentleman  at  Bhavanagar.  It  would 
thus  be  seen  that  the  chronology  of  the  works  of 
our  author  so  far  known  is  capable  of  being  represented  as 
follows:  — 

—  Composed  in  A.D.  1843. 

15—  Composed  before  A.D.  1872. 
—  Composed  before  A.D.  1873. 

15.     Bhagavadglta  with     srrerfeffo    of 

Printed  in  the  Vrttaprasaraka  Press  of  Naro  Appaji 
Godbole,  Sadashiv  Peth,  Poona,  Saka  1809  (—A.D.  1887).  This 
Maratjhi  Commentary  begins  with  9  Sanskrit  verses  as  follows  :  — 

HTTOT  an^l        I^f:  $wijjg    II  ?  II 

rfq  ^  i 
II  R  II 

n  \  \\ 

W  feroft        [«R  ^m^RR^R  "I  I 

The  last  verse,  viz.,  verse  9  in  the  above  extract  is  exactly  identi- 
cal with  verse  4  at  the  beginning  of  rgrq^  .  From  verse  4  we 
know  that  ^q^3[  was  the  father  of 

The  commentary  ends  as  follows  :  — 



It  will  be  seen  from  the  data  recorded  above  that  Raghu- 
natha  Sastri,  the  son  of  Ramacandra  Parvate,  flourished 
between  A.D.  1821  and  1859  during  the  time  of  English 
patronage  of  Sanskrit  learning  at  Poona.  The  view  of 
Dr.  Satischandra  Vidyabhusan  that  this  author  flourished 
"about  1815"  has  been  also  refuted  on  documentary  evid- 
ence. In  the  same  manner  the  statement  of  Pandit  Chitrav 
gastri  that  our  author  "died  about  1820"  is  incorrect  be- 
cause it  is  not  supported  by  any  document.  Moreover, 
Raghunatha  himself  states  that  he  composed  his  Nyayaratna 
in  Saka  1765  i.e.  in  A.D.  1843.  The  present  paper  amply 
illustrates  how  our  knowledge  of  authors  and  their  works 
even  of  the  last  century  is  most  inaccurate  owing  to  the 
want  of  proper  historical  reconstruction  on  the  strength  of 
reliable  documentary  evidence. 

:  II 



The  University  has  been  the  centre  of  considerable 
athletic  activities  since  its  very  foundation  in  1929.  A 
sound  tradition  of  outdoor  activities  had  already  been  set 
up  in  this  place  by  the  Sri  Minakshi  College,  thanks  to  the 
far-sighted  policy  of  the  Principal,  and  the  munificent 
patronage  of  the  Rajah  Sahib  of  Chettinad,  the  Manager. 
Cricket  for  lovers  of  the  King  of  Games,  Football  and 
Hockey  for  the  hardy  and  fleet-footed,  Badminton  and 
Volleyball  for  the  less  ambitious  but  active  students,  were 
all  well-established  games  at  the  time  the  Universiy  came 
into  being. 

With  the  inception  of  the  University,  a  programme  of 
compulsory  physical  activities  for  all  students  was  intro- 
duced, and  every  able-bodied  student  is  required  by  the 
regulations  to  play  some  game  or  other  of  his  own  choice. 
Facilities  have  accordingly  been  provided  for  a  very  large 
variety  of  games  and  sports;  and  as  many  as  fourteen  clubs 
now  form  the  Athletic  Association  of  the  University. 
Daily,  the  undergraduates  may  be  seen  taking  part  in  the 
following  games  and  sports  activities  :  badminton,  basket- 
ball, cricket,  football,  hockey,  playground-baseball,  quoits, 
tennikoit,  tennis,  volleyball,  boxing,  heavy  gymnastics, 
group  games  of  all  types,  and  indigenous  games.  To  these 
amenities  are  to  be  added  shortly  two  very  popular  and 
useful  kinds  of  sport,  boating  and  swimming. 


We  owe  all  this  great  array  of  activities  to  the  far- 
sightedness and  generosity  of  the  Founder-Pro-Chancellor, 
whose  interest  in  every  aspect  of  modern  education  is  well 
known.  It  is  he  who  chose  this  "  solitary,  solubrious  "  and 
spacious  corner  of  South  Arcot  for  this  famous  seat  of  learn- 
ing and  art.  It  is  he  who  planned  its  rapid  development 
from  a  wide  and  barren  sea  of  sand  and  swamp  into  a  small 
paradise  of  gardens,  mansions  and  playfields.  Fields  had 
to  be  raised  and  levelled,  tanks,  ponds  and  hollows  filled 
up,  and  thousands  of  gaunt,  ugly  and  useless  trees  felled 
down  in  order  that  the  wide  acres  we  now  have  could  be 
used  either  for  the  active  and  healthy  recreation  of  the 
undergraduates  or  for  the  creation  of  beautiful  parks  in 
which  the  pensive  student  may  amble  at  will.  The  cost  of 
all  this  was  indeed  counted  ;  but,  though  high,  it  has  been 
willingly  and  cheerfully  met  in  order  that  this  place  may 
become  a  great  and  worthy  centre  of  learning  in  Tamil  Nad. 

The  Raja  Sahib  has  given  this  place  of  his  best,  even 
in  respect  of  games  and  sports.  He  has  endowed  attractive 
and  valuable  trophies,  and  for  the  award  of  these,  annually 
inter-collegiate  and  inter-club  tournaments  are  conducted 
in  athletics,  cricket  and  tennis.  A  big  prize  is  annually 
given  in  his  name  to  the  best  all-round  student  distinguish- 
ing himself  in  the  sports  and  games  competitions  of  the 
year.  The  amenities  for  boating  now  being  added  are 
entirely  due  to  his  kindly  interest  and  guidance.  That  his 
interest  in  athletic  activities  as  a  means  of  education  is 
great  and  sincere  is  further  shown  by  a  magnificent  gift  he 
has  recently  made  to  the  Inter-University  Board  of  India 
of  a  large  and  artistic  trophy  for  Inter-University  Athle- 

To  the  facilities  we  possess  for  games  at  the  Univer- 
sity, its  numerous  and  spacious  playfields,  the  large 


pavilion,  office-rooms  for  the  staff,  the  boat  canal  and  the 
boat-house,  we  owe  a  great  deal  to  the  successive  Vice- 
Chancellors,  Dewan  Bahadur  S.  E.  Runganadhan,  the 
Right  Hon'ble  V.  S.  Srinivasa  Sastri  and  Sir  K.  V.  Reddi. 
These  are  due  to  their  benign  and  active  interest  in  games 
and  sports.  Physical  activities  at  this  place  have  also 
derived  immense  encouragement  from  the  youthful  and 
valuable  co-operation  of  members  of  the  Teaching  Staff 
who  have  actively  participated  in  the  play  of  the  under- 
graduates, and  assisted  them  in  its  organisation  and 

Thus,  sports  and  games  have  been  a  marked  feature 
of  our  University  life  here.  To  the  Founder  who  has  made 
all  this  possible,  may  God  be  pleased  to  give  a  long  life 
of  service  and  ever-lasting  happiness. 




This  short  play  which  is  ascribed  to  the  authorship  of 
the  celebrated  Sanskrit  dramatist  Bhasa  glorifies  Kama 
who  figures  as  one  of  the  great  heroes  of  the  Mahabharata. 
It  is  as  exquisite  as  it  is  short.  The  chief  theme 
is  Kama's  bounty  which  knew  no  bounds  and  which,  for  the 
very  reason,  made  his  name  for  ever  "like  the  Sun,  the 
Moon,  the  Himavan  and  the  Ocean."  To-day  Kama's  name 
is  a  household  word  signifying  limitless  generosity. 

Our  dramatist  however  has,  in  this  little  piece  of 
hardly  half  an  hour's  performance,  portrayed  the  hero  with 
a  rare  insight  into  the  human  mind.  Kama's  generosity 
was  not  an  accident;  it  was  not  a  freak  of  his  nature.  We 
find  it  fully  supported  by  many  a  noble  quality  which  makes 
him  majestic  as  well  as  magnanimous.  He  was  high  born, 
valiant  in  fight  and  just  and  honest  in  conduct.  But  one 
thing  was  against  him  and  that  was  Fate.  He  was  Kunti's 
first  born  child  by  favour  of  the  Sun-God.  No  more  auspi- 
cious circumstance  is  needed  for  one's  prosperity,  but  for 
Kama  it  proved  otherwise.  For  fear  of  scandal  Kunti  cast 
the  baby  into  the  river.  A  charioteer,  Adhiratha  by  name, 
rescued  the  child  and  his  wife  Radha  became  the  foster- 
mother.  Thus  nobody  could  tell  Kama's  lineage.  In  the 
eyes  of  the  world  he  was  low  born  with  no  stake  in  society. 
But  his  personality  and  attainments  were  so  irresistible  that 
they  caught  the  fancy  of  Duryodhana  who  elevated  him  to 
Kingship.  No  two  friends  could  be  more  affectionate  and 
true  to  each  other.  But  in  the  scheme  of  the  Mahabharata, 


this  friendship  proved  fatal  to  Kama.  He  came  to  be  as 
much  hated  and  despised  as  Duryodhana  himself  by  friends 
and  foes  alike.  How  could  a  base  born  son  of  a  charioteer 
enjoy  such  confidence  with  the  King  ?  Hence  he  should  be 
humiliated — that  is  how  he  was  looked  down  upon  even  by 
Duryodhana's  supporters.  And  what  about  his  generosity? 
Even  this  great  virtue  which  the  world  praises  so  much 
turned  out  to  be  the  blunder  of  his  life.  His  own  mother 
Kunti  took  advantage  of  it  and  extracted  a  promise  that  he 
would  not  kill  the  Pandavas  except  on*  and  that  he  would 
not  use  the  same  weapon  against  a  person  a  second  time. 
No  less  than  Indra  played  the  trick  on  him  to  the  utter  dis- 
regard of  all  ethical  principles. 

It  is  indeed  vain  to  suppose  that  Kama  was  all  virtue 
and  that  ms  end  was  thoroughly  undeserved  ;  for,  how  can 
he  be  exonerated  from  the  lalsehood  that  he  uttered,  quite 
consciously,  before  Jamadagni's  son  ?  It  may  be  his  ex- 
cessive enthusiasm  to  learn  at  the  feet  of  the  eminent  sage 
or  it  may  be  a  boyish  wantonness  that  encouraged  him  to 
utter  the  lie.  Nevertheless,  it  is  an  error  which  merited 
the  sage's  curse  and  which  thereafter  steadily  worked  the 
nemesis  of  our  hero.  Kama  however  reconciled  himself  to 
the  unfortunate  incident.  He  was  consecrated  on  the  throne 
of  the  Anga  country,  became  famous  for  his  skill  in  archery 
and  valour  in  war  and  basked  in  the  sunshine  of  Duryo- 
dhana's friendship. 

Inspite  of  all  the  glory  he  earned,  Kama  developed  a 
rather  pessimistic  outlook.  He  was  inwardly  smitten  with 
remorse  on  account  of  his  early  misfortune.  His  education 
and  training  ended  in  the  fatal  curse  of  Parasurama.  In 
life,  too,  he  came  to  be  associated  with  wickedness.  Kunti, 
Bhisma,  Krishna  and  others  chose  psychological  moments 
to  bring  home  to  Kama  that  the  Pandavas  were  his  younger 


brothers  and  thai  he  was  only  out  to  kill  his  kith  and  kin. 
These  crucial  incidents  in  his  life  swayed  heavily  upon  the 
mind  resulting  in  an  attitude  of  diffidence  which  ever  and 
anon  oppressed  him.  He  often  seemed  to  betray  a  deplor- 
able weakness  of  will  as  much  as  magnanimity  of  nature. 

At  ail  events,  therefore,  Kama's  is  a  great  personality 
endowed  with  manly  qualities  and  divine  splendour.  By 
the  decree  ol  destiny  only  his  magnificent  life  turned  out  to 
be  a  tragedy.  Truly  his  is  an  instance  of  the  tragic  hero  as 
conceived  by  the  Grlbks  ;  and  Karnabhara  can  be  described 
as  a  tragedy  with  all  the  appeal  of  its  technique.  Recently 
however,  Mr.  Pusaiker  in  his  Bhasa  —  A  Sludy  has  ex- 
pressed a  view  dillering  from  the  above  opinion.  He  would 
not  concede  the  title  of  a  tragedy  to  the  play  tnough  he  is 
willing  to  perceive  l''  a  pathetic  note  pervading  the  whole 
play/7  He  would  have  us  further  interpret  the  title  Karna- 
bhara as  follows  : 

This  appears  to  be  a  very  far  fetched  explanation  of  the  title 
which  in  simple  terms  means  "  Kama's  Burden  " 

(JWl  «K:,  3Hte9  W  TOWLI)  whicil  easily  reminds  us  of 
Kama's  task  or  responsibility  as  commander  of  Duryo- 
dhana's  forces  ;  he  has  also  a  friendly  duty  to  dis- 
charge, that  is  to  secure  victory  for  Duryodhana. 
The  title  further  suggests  the  heavy  handicap  under  which 
the  hero  has  had  to  fight  the  battle.  The  Sahrdaya 
cannot  indeed  afford  to  ignore  the  tragic  appeal  of  Kama's 
character  as  brought  out  in  the  little  play.  The  technical 
aspect  of  tragedy  too  is  clear  enough.  It  may  however  be 
urged  that  the  theme  of  the  play  is  the  gift  of  the  arjtnour 
and  the  ear-rings,  not  Kama's  end.  True,  that  is  the  pri- 
mary incident  that  is  related  in  the  piece,  a  large  portion 


of  which  is  taken  up  by  the  episode.  But  ponder  over  it 
with  due  regard  to  the  background  on  which  it  has  been  set. 
The  sentiment  of  pathos  is  overwhelming.  Kama  finally 
bids  Salya  drive  the  chariot  to  where  Arjuna  is.  That  is 
enough  to  suggest  the  end  of  the  great  warrior.  Need  it  be 
actually  included  in  the  play  ?  We  know  that  it  is  his  final 
fight.  The  greatness  and  majesty  of  his  personality  have 
already  been  killed  ;  only  his  mortal  frame  marches  to  the 
field  to  perish.  Indeed,  when  fates  are  against  what  can 
poor  souls  do  ? 

Tragic  as  his  end  was,  Kama's  fame  will  endure  till  the 
end  of  creation.  The  world  has  forgotten  all  that  was 
possibly  bad  in  him.  His  supreme  self-sacrifice  and  unstint- 
ing generosity  will  stand  unsurpassed  for  ever.  Both  by 
example  and  precept  he  has  taught  the  world  the  spirit  of 
sacrifice  in  these  memorable  words  : 


||  (Verse  22) 

As  Time  lapses,  learning  fades,  trees  fall  though  deep-rooted 
and  lakes  dry  up.  But  what  is  sacrificed  and  what  is  given 
will  remain  for  ever.  And  again 

^3  3°n  ^  II  (Verse  17) 

After  all,  man  ought  to  strive  in  pursuit  of  Dharma.  King's 
fortunes  are  wavering  as  the  serpent's  tongue.  Therefore, 
in  solely  promoting  public  weal,  while  lives  are  lost,  virtues 
will  endure. 



(The  preliminary  worship  over,  enter  the  Stage- 
Director  immediately) 

Stage-Director  : 

May  God  Vishnu  (Bearer  of  Fortune) 

grant  you  prosperity — Vishnu,  the 

slayer  of  gods'  hostile  hosts,  whose 

Man-Lion  form,  men,  women,  gods, 

demons  and  the  denizens  of  the  nether-worlds 

beheld  with  amazement  and  who 

ripped  open  the  bosom  of  the  demon-king 

with  his  axe-edged  claws.  1 

This  is  what  I  would  submit  to  the  honourable  gentlemen. 
Hark  !  what  is  it  I  hear  something  like  a  noise  while  I  am 
engaged  in  making  an  announcement  ?  Well,  I'll  see. 

(In  the  wings) 
Tell,  O  tell  His  Majesty  the  King  of  Anga. 

Stage-Director : 

Well,  I  understand : 

In  the  tumult  of  battle, 
the  servant  perplexed,  with 
hands  folded,  reports  to  Kama 
under  Duryodhana's  command.  2 

End  of  the  Prologue 

(Enter  the  Soldier) 

Soldier  :     Tell,  0  tell  his  Majesty  King  of  Anga  that 
the  hour  of  battle  is  nigh. 


With  elephants,  horses  and 

chariots,  arranged  in  battle  under 

Partha's  banner,  the  lion-like 

Kings  in  glee  send  forth  their  lion-roar  ; 

and  he  of  the  serpent-banner, 

world-famed  warrior  apprised  of 

the  situation,  has  set  out  in  haste 

to  battle  which  is  dreadful  with 

the  enemies'  war-cries.  3 

(Stepping  forward  and  looking  about)  Aye,  here  is 
the  Anga  King  sallying  out  of  his  mansion.  Accoutred  in 
full,  he  hies  this  way  with  King  Salya.  But  what  turmoil 
of  heart,  never  before  felt,  for  one  who  is  known  for  his 
valour  and  who  is  prominent  in  the  feast  of  war  !  For  he — 

conspicuous  by  his  dazzling  brilliance, 

counted  the  first  in  battle  and  prowess, 

the  skilled  one  arrives  with 

sadness  overcome.    Kama  in  his 

native  splendour  now  appears  like  the 

summer  sun  besieged  by  clusters  of  clouds.  4 

Let  me  keep  aside  (Exit) 

(Enter  as  described  Kama  with  Salya) 

Kama  :     Not  so  :  will  these  kings  who 
cross  my  arrows'  path  ever 
have  life  left  in  them  ? 
Good  must  be  done  to  the  Kauravas 
on  the  battle-front ;  only 
Dhananjaya  must  be  seen.  5 

King  Salya,  pray,  steer  my  chariot  straight  to  the  place 
where  Arjuna  is. 


Salya:     Certainly  (steers). 
Kama  :     How  strange  ! 

In  this  hour  of  battle, 

a  sense  of  oppression  lies  heavy 

on  the  mind  even  of  me  whose 

prowess  in  great  wars  is  like 

Yama's  in  rage-wars 

in  which  soldiers,  horses, 

elephants  and  chariots  are  hacked  to 

pieces  by  volleys  of  arrows  on  either  side    6 

How  hard  ! 

First-born  of  Kunti  was  I,  then  known 
to  the  world  as  a  Radba's  son  ; 
and  that  these  Pandavas — 
Yudhishthira  and  others — are  but 
younger  brothers  to  me  !  7 

Now  has  befallen  the  moment 

that  augurs  well  for  mo. 

The  great  day  is  come. 

But  alack,  vain  is  the 

weapon  I  learnt  to  wield  ; 

and  besides  am  I  prevented 

by  my  mother's  words.  8 

0  King  of  Madra,  pray  listen   to  the  story  of  my 

Salya :  I  am  eager  too  to  hear  the  story. 

Kama  :  Once  before  I  went  to  Jamadagni's  son. 

Salya  :  What  then  ? 

Kama  :  Then — 



Salya  : 

Salya  : 
Kama  : 

Salya  : 
Kama  : 

Salya  : 

Kama  : 

Salya  : 
Kama  : 

Salya  : 

going  thither  I  bowed 

and  humbly  stood  before 

the  great  sage,  crest  of  the 

Bhrigu  race  and  foe 

of  the  Kshatriyas,  with  matted 

locks  tawny  like  the  lightning — 

creeper,  and  bearing  an  axe 

enveloped  by  the  halo  of  its 


And  then. 

Then  Jamadagni's  son  blessed  me  and  asked 
— who  art  thou  ?  and  what  brought  thee 
hither  ? 

And  then. 

'  Holy  Sire,  I  desire  to  be  instructed  in  all 

the  weapons  '  said  I. 
And  then. 

Then  spoke  the  sage  '  Only  to  the  Brahmans 
will  I  impart  instruction,  not  to  the 

Yes,  there  is  that  old  enmity  that  the  sage 
bears  to  those  of  the  Kshatriya  race. 

I  averred  I  was  not  a  Kshatriya,  and  began 

to  take  lessons. 
Then  : 

Then  after  some  time,  I  once  went  with  my 
teacher  to  fetch  fruits,  roots,  flowers, 
dry  twigs  and  kusa  grass.  Weary  with 
wandering  in  the  woods,  the  master  fell 
asleep  on  my  lap. 

And  then. 


Kama :     Then — 

A  certain  insect  witH  a  sting  hard  as 


unfortunately  bored  both  my  thighs  ; 
with  fortitude  however,  did  I  endure 
the  pain,  lest  I 
disturb  f     my    master's    slumber.      Wet 


blood  he  woke  up  suddenly  and 
found  me  out. 

Inflamed  with  rage,  he  cursed  me — 
let  thy  weapons  fail  thee  in  thy  hour  of 

Salya  :     Alas,  the  holy  sage  spoke  sternly. 

Kama  :     But  let  us  verify  the  story  of  the  weapons. 

(Doing  so") 

These  weapons  seem  to  be  powerless  ! 

Besides — 

With  eyes  blinded  by  despair 
faltering  again  and  again  having  lost 
control,  these  steeds, 
and  these  elephants  too — with  icher 
smelling  like  the  Saptacchada — seem  to 
forebode  retreat  in  battle.  11 

The  conches  and  the  drums  have  also  been 
silent ! 

Salya  :     'Tis  hard  indeed  ! 

Kama  :     King  Salya,  enough,  enough  with  this  des- 

Killed  in  battle  one  attains  heaven  ; 
victorious,  of  course,  one  wins  glory.    Both 
are  highly  commended  in  the  world.    Hence, 
to  fight  is  not  in  vain.  12 


And  Again — 

these  steeds  of  excellent  Kamboja  breed 
have  never  disappointed  my  hopes  in 
wars.     In  speed  they  are  equal  to 
the  King  of  Birds. 

Surely  will  they  protect  us  if  need  be  at  all. 


Prosperity  be  to  the  kine  and  Brahmans  ;  Prosperity 
be  to  virtuous  wives  ;  Prosperity  be  to  warriors  who 
do  not  retreat  in  battles  and  good  luck  be  to  me  whose 
hour  is  come.  Here  I  am,  pleased. 

I  will  straightway  rush 

to  the  Pandavas'  fierce 

battle-front  and  capture  King 

Dharma,  famed  for  many  virtues. 

And  felling  Arjuna  with  my  swift 

arrows  will  I  make  the  field 

easy  of  access  even  as  a  forest 

when  the  lion  is  killed.  14 

King  Salya,  we  shall  mount  chariot. 
Salya  :     Certainly.    (Both  feign  mounting  the  chariot) 
Kama  :     King  Salya,  pray  steer  my  chariot  to  thet 
place  where  Arjuna  is. 

(In  the  wings.) 

O  Kama,  a  great  favour  do  I  beg  of  thee. 
Kama  :      (Listening)  Aye,  it  is  a  powerful  voice  ! 

Surely  a  nobleman  he,  not  a  mere  Brahman, 
as  there  is  great  majesty.    Hearing  his  sweet 
and  dignified  voice,  these  courses  of  mine, 

losing  control  over  their  bodies, 
stop  movement  all  on  a  sudden.    They 


stand,  as  in  a  picture,  with  ears  erect,  eyes 

steady  and 

the   forehead   winding   to   a   side   with   the 

neck.  15 

Call  the  Brahman.       No,  no.    I  will  myself  call 

him  . 
Your  worship,  this  way  please. 

(Enter  Indra  in  the  guise  of  a  Brahman) 

Sakra  : 

Karna  : 



0  Clouds,  return  ye  with  the  Sun.  (Approch- 

ing  Karna)  O  Karna,  a  great  favour  do  I 
beg  of  thee. 

1  am  very  pleased,  Your  Worship. 

I  am  now  to  be  counted  among  the 
blessed  in  the  world.    Here  do  I  bow  to 

you — 

I,  Karna,  whose  lotus-feet  are 
illumined  by  the  gems  of  the  coronets  of 


but  whose  crown  is  now  hallowed  by 
the  dust  of  a  worthy  Brahman's  feet.  16 
(To  himself)  what  shall  I  say  now  ?    Should 
I  say  '  live  long '  long  will  he  live.    Should  I 
not,  he  would  scorn  me  as  a  fool.    Avoiding 
both  what  then  shall  I  say  ?    Well,  I  have  it. 
(Aloud)  O  Karna,  as  the  sun,  the  moon,  the 
Himavan,  the  ocean,  let  thy  fame  endure. 

Holy  sage,  would  you  not  wish  to  say  '  live 
long  '  ?  Rather  this  alone  is  worthy.  For — 
[After  all,  man  ought  to  strive  in  pursuit  of 


Sakra : 

Sakra  : 

Sakra  : 

Dharma.J  King's  fortunes  are  wavering  as 
the  serpent's  tongue.  Therefore  in  solely 
promoting  public  weal,  while  lives  are  lost, 

virtues  will  endure.  17 

Your  worship,  what  would  you  desire  and  what 
may  I  offer  you  ? 

A  great  favour  do  1  beg  of  thee. 

Yes,  I  will  grant  you  the  great  favour.  Pray 
listen  to  what  riches  I  have. 
I  would  confer  upon  thee  a  thousand  cows 
excellent  and  sacred,  with  horns  decked 
with  gold ;  young,  beautiful  and  much 
coveted  by  those  in  need  ;  yielding  a  stream 
of  nectar-like  milk,   after   their  calves  are 
suckled  to  contentment  18 

Cows  a  thousand !     Their  milk  1  may  quaff 
for  a  while.    No,  Karna,  I  do  not  need. 

Your  Holiness  would  not  have  it.    Pray  listen 

to  this. 

I  would  at  once  give  away  thousands  of 
steeds  of  excellent  quality  comparable  to 
those    of    the    sun.     As    instruments    to 
kingly  fortune  they  deserve  to  be  highly 
regarded  by  the  princes;  their  mettle  is 
tested  in  battle  ;  and  born  as  they 
are  of  the  famous  Kamboja  breed,  they 
equal  the  very  Wind  in  velocity.  19 

Horse  ?    For  a  while  I  ride  on  it.    No  Karna, 
I  will  not  have  it. 

Your  worship  won't  have  it,  Pray  listen  yet 


I  would  give  you  many  a  herd  of  these 
elephants,  of  tusks  and  toe-nails  shining, 
able  to  rout  the  enemy  in  battle.    Their 
temples  streaming  with  ichor,  the  bees 
gather  about  them  in 
swarms.    Further,  they  would  look 
like  a  huge  range  of  mountains  and 
trumpet  deep  and  resonant  as  the  clouds. 


Sakra :     Elephant  ?  for  a  moment  would  I  ride.     I 

like  not,  Kama,  I  like  not. 

Kama :      Your    holiness    wouldn't    have    that    either. 
Pray,    listen   again.     Gold   beyond   count,   I 
would  give  you. 
Safcra  :     I  take  and  go.     (Pacing  some  distance)     No, 

I  like  not  Karna,  I  like  not. 

Kama :     Then  will  I  conquer  the  Earth  and  give  you. 
Sakra :   What  shall  I  do  with  the  Earth  ? 
Kama :     Then,  I  would  make  over  to  you  the  fruit  of 


Sakra :      What  is  the  use  of  the  fruit  of  Agnishtoma  ? 
Kama :     Then,  I  give  you  my  head. 
Sakra  :     Alas,  Alas  ! 

Kama :     Fear  not,  fear  npt.     Pardon  me,  Holy  Sir, 
pray,  listen  yet. 

Born  with  my  own  person,  this  armour 
is  protection  to  my  body.    Neither 
gods  nor  demons  could  pierce  it 
with  all  their  weapons.    Yet  I  would 
with  pleasure  part  with  the  armour 
and  also  this  pair  of  ear-rings 
should  your  worship  so  desire.  21 



Sakra  :      (Gleefully)  Give,  do  give, 

Kama  :  (To  himself).  This  after  all  was  his  end  and 
aim.  Could  it  be  the  cunning  of  that  highly 
deceitful  Krishna  ?  May  be.  Fie  !  It  is  un- 
worthy to  bewail  what  is  past.  There  is  no 
doubt.  (Aloud)  Pray  accept. 

Salya  :     Give  not,  O  King  of  Anga,  give  not. 

Kama  :     Don't  you  prevent  me,  King  Salya.    Look 
With  the  lapse  of  time,  learning  suffers 
decay,  trees  fall  though  well-rooted  ; 
water  even  in  springs  and  lakes  dries  up 
But  what  is  sacrificed  (into  the  fire) 
and  what  is  gifted  away  (to  the  needy) 
will  remain  for  ever.  22 

Hence,  please  accept,     (tears  open  and  gives). 

Sakra  :  (To  himself  after  taking)  Well,  the  two 
things  have  been  taken.  I  have  thus  accom- 
plished what  all  the  gods  proposed  to  do  for 
Arjuna's  victory.  Let  me  now  mount  the 
Airavata  and  witness  the  grand  duel  between 
Arjuna  and  Kama.  (Exit.) 

Sailya :     0  King  of  Anga,  pity  thou  art  deceived. 

Kama  :     By  whom  ? 

Salya :     By  Sakra. 

Kama  :  Not  indeed.  Sakra,  on  the  contrary,  has 
been  deceived  by  me.  Because 

With  offerings  at  many  a  sacrifice  the 
twice-born  seek  to  propitiate  him. 
Hosts  of  demons  are  crushed  by  him  ; 
he  punished  Paka.     Constant  patting 
on  the  back  of  the  divine  elephant  has 



hardened  his  fingers.  Arjuna  is  his 
son.  Such  a  one  has,  through  me, 
gained  his  purpose  ! 

(Enter  divine  messenger  in  a  Brahman's  garb) 


Divine  Messenger  :      O  Kama,  thou  hast  been  blessed 

by  Purandara  who  regrets  for  having  taken 

away  the  armour  and    the  ear-rings.     Pray, 

accept  this  unfailing  missile,  called  Vimala, 

to  slay  one  of  the  Pandavas. 

Kama  :     Fie  !    I  do  not  accept  anything  in  return  for 
my  gift. 

Divine     Messenger  :     Would  you  not  accept  by  the 

word  of  a  Brahman  ? 
Kama  :     Word  of  a  Brahman  ?  Never  before  have  I 

transgressed.    When  may  I  have  it  ? 

Divine  Messenger :     Whenever  you  think  of  it,  you 

have  it. 

Kama  :     Very  well.  I  am  beholden.  Dost  thou  return. 
Divine  Messenger :     Certainly.  (Exit.) 

Kama  :     King  Salya,  let  us  mount  the  chariot. 
Salya  :     Certainly.  (They  jeign  mounting  the  chariot.) 
Kama :     Aye,  I  hear  something  like  a  noise.     What 
could  it  be  ? 

It  is  the  blast  of  the  conch,  resembling 
the  roar  of  the  Ocean  of  Doom. 
Is  it  Krishna's  ?    It  may  not  be.    It 
is  Arjuna's.    Enraged  at  the  defeat 
of  Yudhishtira,  indeed,  Arjuna  will 
fight  with  all  his  might,  24 


King  Salya,  pray,  steer  my  chariot  to  the  place 
where  Arjuna  is. 

Salya :      Certainly. 


May  prosperity  reign  everywhere. 
May  adversity  vanish  for  all  time. 
May  our  Sovereign  full  of 
Kingly  virtue,  alone,  rule 
the  Earth. 





Steele,  the  father  of  the  periodical  essay,  the  collabo- 
rator of  Addison  in  the  Taller  and  the  Spectator  is  a  familiar 
figure,  but  Steele  the  passionate,  faulty  but  loyal-hearted 
lover,  the  author  of  the  exquisite  letters  to  his  wife,  is  com- 
paratively unknown.  Of  the  great  love-letter  writers  in 
English  Steele  alone  represents  the  typical  eager  wooer  and 
devoted  husband,  "hoping  and  worshipping  doubting  and 
quarrelling — now  in  the  seventh  heaven  of  delight,  now 
crying  in  outer  darkness — always  thinking  of  the  beloved 
with  a  boy's  heart  and  a  man's  care." 

The  object  of  his  love  is  Mary  Scurlock,  a  Welsh  lady 
of  some  property  and  considerable  personal  attraction.  "She 
was  a  brunette,  with  a  rather  high  forehead,  the  height  of 
which  was  ingeniously  broken  by  two  short  locks  upon  the 
temples.  Moreover,  she  had  distinctly  fine  eyes,  and  a 
mouth  which,  in  its  normal  state  must  have  been  arch  and 
pretty."  Steele  falls  a  victim  to  her  charms  within  a  short 
time  after  the  death  of  his  first  wife  who,  on  his  own  autho- 
rity, "had  so  extreme  a  value  for  him,  that  she,  by  fine, 
conveyed  to  him  her  whole  estate."  The  passion  is  recipro- 
cated by  Miss  Scurlock,  who,  though  less  impulsive  than 
her  wooer,  is  not  less  keen  on  the  marriage.  The  letter  that 
she  wrote  to  her  mother  seeking  the  latter's  consent  and 
blessing  reveals  her  opinion  of  Steele. 

"But  he  has  a  competency  in  worldly  goods  to  make 

easy,  with  a  mind  so  richly  adorned  as  to  exceed  an 


equivalent  to  the  greatest  estate  in  the  world,  in  my 
opinion:  in  short,  his  person  is  what  I  like;  his  temper 
is  what  I  am  sure  will  make  you,  as  well  as  myself 
perfectly  happy,  if  the  respect  of  a  lover,  with  ths 
tender  fondness  of  a  dutiful  son,  can  make  you  so;  and, 
for  his  understanding  and  morals,  I  refer  you  to  his 
'Christian  Hero'  which  I  remember  you  seemed  to  ap- 
prove  What  I  desire  is,  your  consent  and  blessing 

to  my  putting  it  out  of  my  power  to  delay,  and  so  per- 
haps to  lose,  my  first  and  only  inclination;  for  I  shall 
never  meet  with  a  prospect  of  happiness  if  this  should 

Steele  is  a  man  of  transparent  sincerity.  To  affectation 
of  every  kind  he  is  a  total  stranger.  He  repudiates  the  arti- 
ficial language  of  romance  from  the  first.  "I  shall  affect 
plainness  and  sincerity  in  my  discourse  to  you,  as  much  as 
other  lovers  do  perplexity  and  rapture.  Instead  of  saying, 
1  shall  die  for  you/  I  profess  I  should  be  glad  to  live  my  life 
with  you/'  But  the  ardour  of  his  passion  gushes  out  in  words 
throbbing  with  emotion.  Like  all  fervent  lovers  he  looks 
upon  his  beloved  as  a  goddess,  and  his  union  with  her  as  the 
consummation  of  human  felicity. 

"You  are  so  good  as  to  let  me  know  I  shall  have  the 
honour  of  seeing  you  when  I  next  come  here.  I  will 
live  upon  that  expectation,  and  mediate  on  your  per- 
fections till  that  happy  hour.  The  vainest  woman  upon 
earth  never  saw  in  her  glasse  half  the  attraction  which 
I  view  in  you.  Your  air,  your  shape,  your  every 
glance,  motion,  and  gesture,  have  such  peculiar  graces, 
that  you  possess  my  whole  soul,  and  I  know  no  life  but 
in  the  hopes  of  your  approbation:  I  know  not  what  to 
say,  but  that  I  love  you  with  the  sincerest  passion  that 
ever  entered  the  heart  of  man," 


He  interrupts  her  sabbath  meditations  to  tell  her  in  a 
letter  that  "there  is  nothing  but  Heaven  itself  which  I  prefer 
to  your  love  which  shall  be  the  pursuit  of  my  life."  Every 
moment  of  separation  from  her  is  torture  to  him,  and  he  is 
so  full  of  her  that  "  his  books  are  blank  paper,  and  his 
friends  intruders." 


I  lay  down  last  night  with  yr  image  in  my  thoughts, 
and  have  awak'd  this  morning  in  the  same  contempla- 
tion. The  pleasing  transport  with  which  I'me  delighted, 
has  a  sweetness  in  it,  attended  with  a  train  of  ten  thou- 
sand soft  desires,  anxieties,  and  cares.  The  day  arises 
on  my  hopes  with  new  brightness;  youth,  beauty,  and 
innocence,  are  the  charming  objects  that  steal  me  from 
myself,  and  give  me  joys  above  the  reach  of  ambition, 
pride,  or  glory.  Believe  me,  fair  one,  to  throw  myself 
at  yr  feet  is  giving  myself  the  highest  bliss  I  know  on 

His  was  a  whirlwind  courtship.  Nevertheless  he 
grows  impatient,  and  presses  her  to  mention  the  happy  day 
when  he  can  call  her  his. 

"Dear  Mrs.  Scurlock,  I  am  tir'd  with  calling  you  by 

that  name  ;  therefore  say  the  day  in  which,  you'le  take 

that  of,  Madam,  your    most    obedient,    most    devoted 

humble  ser'nt." 


"Oh  hasten  ye,  minutes!  bring  on  the  happy  morning 
wherein  to  be  ever  hers  will  make  me  look  down  on 
thrones!  Dear  Molly,  I  am  tenderly,  passionately  faith- 
fully thine." 


At  last  the  date  of  the  marriage  is  fixed.  It  is  to  come 
off  on  Tuesday,  September  8,  1707.  The  ecstatic  lover  is 
on  the  tenterhooks  of  expectation,  and  he  can  think  of 
nothing  else. 


It  is  the  hardest  thing  in  the  world  to  be  in  love  and 
yet  attend  businesse.  As  for  me,  all  who  speake  to  me 
find  me  out,  and  I  must  lock  myself  up,  or  other  people 
will  do  it  for  me. 

A  gentleman  asked  me  this  morning.  'What  news 
from  Lisbon?'  and  I  answered,  'She's  exquisitely  hand- 
some/ Another  desir'd  to  know  'when  I  had  been  last 
at  Hampton  Court  ?  '  'T  will  be  on  Tuesday  come  se'n- 
night.'  Pr'ythee  allow  me  at  least  to  kiss  your  hand 
before  that  day  that  my  mind  may  be  in  some 

On  the  appointed  day  they  "commit"  matrimony,  and 
Steele,  in  course  of  time,  "dwindles"  into  a  tame  and  sub- 
missive husband.  He  subscribes  himself  in  his  letters  to 
her  as  "your  happy  slave  and  obedient  husband,"  or  "your 
most  obsequious  husband  and  most  humble  serv'nt."  The 
letters  are  full  of  references  to  her  as  his  "absolute  gover- 
nesse"  and  "ruler."  He  repeatedly  acknowledges  her  sway: 
"You  are  the  head  of  us  and  I  stoop  to  a  female  reign,  as 
being  naturally  made  the  slave  of  beauty."  After  these 
confessions  we  need  not  be  surprised  to  hear  Dean  Swift 
writing  to  Stella  :  "He  is  governed  by  his  wife  most  abomi- 
nably, as  bad  as  Marlborough." 

But  if  she  governs  him  it  is  well  for  him,  for  he  is  a  most 
hopeless  governor  of  himself.  His  improvidence  in  money- 
matters  is  notorious,  and  he  is  no  less  aware  of  it  than  others. 
"I  never  can,  I  own.  . .  .be  what  they  call  thoroughly  fru- 


gal."  His  sanguine  Irish  nature  makes  him  mistake 
his  expectation  for  his  income.  He  lives  mostly 
on  airy  calculations,  and  unfounded  hopes  of  coming 
into  wealth.  "I  shall  on  Michaelmas  day  have 
£593,"  writes  the  incurable  optimist.  Again,  "  Within 
a  day  or  two  I  doubt  not  but  we  shall  have  our  money,  whicli 
will  be  the  introduction  to  that  life  we  both  pant  after  with 
so  much  earnestness."  And,  "1  have  that  in  my  pockett 
which  within  few  days  will  be  a  great  sum  of  money."  He 
repeatedly  assures  her  that  the  bargain  he  is  making  will 
keep  them  for  ever  from  want,  and  once  he  promises  her 
that  she  "shall  be  provided  for  better  than  any  other  family 
in  England."  Despite  these  extravagant  hopes  and  promises 
he  has  to  confess  that  "all  his  endeavours  and  thoughts  tend 
only  to  extricate  his  condition."  She  is  certainly  more  pru- 
dent than  he,  and  that  is  why  he  calls  her  his  "dear  Prue.' 

Again,  Steele  loved,  not  wisely  but  too  well,  the  drink 
that  both  cheers  and  inebriates.  Without  it  he  could  not  have 
been  what  he  calls  himself,  "no  undelightful  companion,"  or 
what  his  wife  describes  him  to  be,  "as  agreeable  and  pleasant 
a  man  as  any  in  England."  It  was  a  habit  all  too  common 
in  his  age.  Sir  Leslie  Stephen  has  classified  the  men  of  the 
eighteenth  century  into  those  who  could  drink  two  bottles 
of  port  after  dinner  and  those  who  could  not,  and  Thackeray 
has  observed  that  the  wits  of  the  age  of  Queen  Anne  were  fat: 
"Swift  was  fat;  Addison  was  fat;  Gay  and  Thomson  were 
preposterously  fat;  all  that  fuddling  and  punch  drinking,  that 
club  and  coffee-house  boozing  shortened  the  lives  and  en- 
larged the  waist-coats  of  the  men  of  that  age."  Though 
Steele  was  not  "a  mountain  of  beef"  (as  Horace  Walpole 
described  a  fellow  diner  at  the  table)  there  is  no  doubt  as 
to  which  of  the  two  classes  of  people  mentioned  by  Sir  Leslie 
Stephen  he  belonged.  With  the  morning  headache,  a  disease 


with  which  most  of  his  contemporaries  were  familiar,  Ste%ele 
confesses  his  crime  to  his  wife  and  promises  amendment. 

"I  have  been  a  little  intemperate,  and  discomposed 
with  it;  but  I  will  be  very  sober  for  the  future  especially 
for  the  sake  of  the  most  amiable  and  most  deserving 
woman,  who  has  made  me  her  happy  slave  and  obedi- 
ent husband." 

But  promises  are  more  easily  made  than  kept.  Many 
of  the  letters  are  written  in  drink.  "I  am,  dear  Prue,  a  little 
in  drink  but  at  all  times  yr  faithfull  husband."  In  one  letter 
he  subscribes  himself  "dead  drunk"  for  love,  another  in  toto 

"Dear  Prue, 

Sober  or  not,  I  am  ever  yours." 

One  need  not  be  a  prophet  to  guess  in  what  condition 
Steele  was  when  this  letter  was  written.  Equally  obvious 
is  the  reason  why  many  letters  consist  of  illegible  scrawl.  It 
is  well  that  a  man  so  improvident  and  imprudent  as  Steele 
has  his  "Prue"  to  govern  him. 

Like  all  affectionate  couples  Steele  and  his  wife  fre- 
quently quarrelled  with  each  other.  Steele' s  irregular  habits 
are  a  constant  source  of  friction.  He  is  often  away  from 
home,  business  and  conviviality  make  him  stay  out  at  night. 
This  "coquette  of  some  years'  standing,"  this  "cried  up 
beauty"  must  have  found  life  with  her  incurably  social, 
impractical  and  extravagant  husband  somewhat  of  a  trial. 
Evidently  she  is  vexed  by  his  frequent  absences,  and  one  of 
Steele's  letters  written  in  on  unusually  serious  and  wounded 
vein  shows  that  "his  absolute  Governesse"  must  have  been 
exceptionally  disrespectful  and  cruel.  He  returns  the  letter 
to  her,  complaining  about  her  masterful  ways  and  asserting 


that  though  he  loves  her  "better  than  the  light  of  his  Eyes 
or  the  life-blood  in  his  Heart,"  he  will  be  master  of  himself, 
that  "his  time  and  his  will  should  be  under  no  direction  but 
his  own."  She  must  also  have  been  guilty  of  inquiring  too 
closely  as  to  how  he  was  spending  his  time,  and  of  making 
him  look  ridiculous  by  "sending  after  him."  How  frequent 
these  bickerings  are  is  clear  from  what  he  once  writes  to 
her :  "  I  wish  I  knew  how  to  court  you  into  Good 
Humour  ;  for  Two  or  Three  Quarrels  more  will  despatch 
me  quite." 

The  embers  of  misunderstanding  flicker  and  fade,  and 
fade  and  flicker  again,  but  the  steady  flame  of  his  love  never 
dims  for  a  moment.  If  a  frown  or  a  hard  word  of  hers  sinks 
him  into  despair  a  smile  or  a  compliment  sends  him  into 
ecstasy.  Once  she  addresses  him  as  "dear  Dick"  in  a  letter 
written  from  Wales,  and  the  enraptured  husband  declares 
that  he  could  forget  his  gout  and  walk  down  to  her  from 
London.  The  letters  are  rull  of  instructions  to  her  to  take 
care  of  her  health.  "Pray  wrap  yourself  very  warm"  is  the 
refrain  of  many  of  his  notes.  Her  report  of  "continuall 
pain  "  in  her  head  gives  him  "  sensible  affliction  "  and  he 
gives  her  his  own  recipe. 

"I  am  confident  that  washing  your  head  in  cold  water 
will  cure  you;  I  mean,  having  water  poured  on  your 
head,  and  rubbed  with  an  hand,  from  the  crown  of 
your  head  to  the  nape  of  your  neck.  When  I  lay  in  yr 
place  and  on  yr  pillow,  I  assure  you,  I  fell  into  tears 
last  night,  to  think  that  my  charming  little  insolent 
might  be  then  awake  and  in  pain,  and  tooke  it  to  be 
a  sin  to  go  to  sleep," 

Many  of  his  letters  are  merely  notices  of  little  pre- 
sents sent  to  her,  "I  enclose  a  guinea  for  your  pocket", 


or  "I  send  you  some  tea  which  I  doubt  not  you  will  find  very 
good,"  or  again, 

"Dear  Prue, 

I  send  you  seven  pen'orth  of  walnutts  at  five  a  penny 
which  is  the  greatest  proof  I  can  give  you  of  my  being, 
with  my  whole  heart  yrs." 

Before  the  letter  is  despatched  he  adds  in  a  P.S.  "There 
are  but  29  walnutts."  The  next  day  he  sends  her  "half  an 
hundred  more  of  walnutts."  In  all  these  letters  we  have 
the  prose  of  love.  "For  ihee  I  die,  For  thee  I  languish." 
he  says  in  a  short  note  of  two  sentences  in  1712,  six  years 
after  the  marriage,  and  in  1717  he  addresses  her  as  "Ten 
thousand  times  my  dear,  dear,  pretty  Prue,"  and  concludes 
another  letter  with  "Poor,  dear,  angry,  pleased,  pretty, 
witty,  silly,  everything  Prue,  yours  ever." 

Steele's  affection  and  respect  for  his  wife  do  not  appear 
surprising  to  us  when  we  remember  that  it  is  he  who  in  speak- 
ing of  Lady  Elizabeth  Hastings,  has  paid  the  most  handsome 
compliment  that  has  ever  been  paid  to  a  woman:  "passion  so 
high  souled  and  graceful  that  to  love  her  is  a  liberal  educa- 
tion." As  Thackeray  has  pointed  out,  Steele  is  the  first  of 
English  writers  who  admired  and  respected  women.  While 
Congreve  looks  on  it  as  mere  instruments  of  gallantry,  and 
destined  like  most  fortifications  to  fall  after  a  certain  time  be- 
fore the  arts  and  bravery  of  the  besieger  man,  while  Swift 
takes  no  pains  to  hide  his  opinion  that  woman  is  a  fool,  while 
Addison  watches  them  as  if  they  are  harmless,  half-witted 
pretty  creatures  made  only  to  be  men's  play  things,  while 
Pope  declares  that  "every  woman  is  at  heart  a  rake"  hungry 
for  pleasure  and  for  gain,  Steele  alone  pays  a  manly  homage 
to  woman's  goodness  and  understanding  as  well  as  to  her 
beauty  and  tenderness.  "His  breast  seems  to  warm,  and  his 



eyes  to  kindle  when  he  meets  with  a  good  and  beautiful  wo- 
man, and  it  is  with  his  heart  as  well  as  with  his  hat  that 
he  salutes  her/' 

Steele' s  letters  are  also  full  of  tender  references  to  his 
children.  "The  children  are  almost  always  in  my  head  at 
the  same  time  as  yourself,"  he  writes  to  his  wife.  Again 
(playfully) :  "All  my  public  spirit  and  gallantry  is  turned 
into  the  care  of  a  wayward  beauty  called  a  wife,  and  a  parcel 
of  brats  called  children."  Here  is  an  interesting  account  of 
one  of  the  sons  by  the  affectionate  father: 

"Your  son  at  the  present  writing,  is  mighty  well  em- 
ployed, in  tumbling  on  the  floor  of  the  room,  and 
sweeping  the  sand  with  a  feather.  He  grows  a  most 
delightful  child,  and  very  full  of  play  and  spirrit.  He  is 
also  a  very  great  scholar:  he  can  read  his  Primer;  and 
I  have  brought  down  by  Virgil.  He  makes  very 
shrewd  remarks  upop  the  pictures.  We  are  very  inti- 
mate friends  and  play-fellows." 

Indeed  Steele  must  have  been  a  great  favourite  with  his 
children  of  whom  and  of  whose  mother  he  was  very  proud. 
"Your  son,"  he  writes  to  Mrs.  Steele,  "is  extremely  pretty, 
and  has  his  face  sweetened  with  something  of  the  Venus  his 
mother,  which  is  no  small  delight  to  the  Vulcan  who  begot 


Steele  commits  to  paper  every  thought  the  moment  it 
comes  into  his  head.  If  any  letters  could  be  called  unpre- 
mediated  effusions,  undoubtedly  Steele' s  letters  to  his  wife 
deserve  the  description.  Many  of  them  are  dashed  off  in  a 

"I  have  but  few  minutes  from  the  duty  of  my  employ- 
ment to  write  in,  and  without  time  to  read  over  what 


I  have  writ;  therefore  beseech  you  to  pardon  the  first 
hints  of  my  mind,  which  I  have  expressed  in  so  little 

Sometimes  he  has  "to  steal  a  moment"  from  a  friend 
who  is  with  him  and  observes  him  in  every  gesture  and  mo- 
tion, to  tell  "the  charmer  and  the  inspirer  of  his  soul"  that 
he  is  "her  devoted,  obedient  servant." 

The  open  hearted,  unreserved,  simple  and  affectionate 
nature  of  the  man  reveals  itself  in  everyone  of  his  letters. 
In  fact,  reading  two  or  three  of  the  short  notes  scribbled  by 
Steele  to  his  wife  we  get  details  for  a  mental  portrait  of  the 
writer  such  as  might  be  sought  in  vain  in  fifty  essays  of  the 
Tatler.  But  when  we  read  these  tender  and  loving  letters 
we  feel  even  now  as  though  we  are  unjustifiably  prying 
into  the  writer's  confidence.  Steele  expressly  begs  his  wife 
"to  show  his  letters  to  no  one  living,"  for  the  most  excellent 
reason  that  "other  people  cannot  judge  of  so  delicate  a  cir- 
cumstance as  the  commerce  between  man  and  wife."  They 
answer  to  the  definition  of  the  true  letter,  a  spontaneous  non- 
literary  production,  ephemeral,  intimate,  personal  and  pri- 
vate, a  substitute  for  a  spoken  conversation."  Well  does 
Steele  deserve  to  be  remembered  as  the  ideal  letter  writer 
no  less  than  as  the  father  of  the  familiar  essay. 



PROF.  K.  M.  KHADYE,  M.A.,  (CANTAB). 
Nowrosjee  Wadia  College,  Poona. 

I  deem  it  a  very  high  honour  to  be  called  upon  to  write 
something  for  this  Commemoration  Volume.  The  services 
of  the  Founder  of  the  Annamalai  University  to  India  have 
been  so  great  that  they  deserve  to  be  recorded  in  letters  of 
gold.  This  duty  I  would  naturally  leave  to  the  present 
workers  in  the  University. 

I  have  thought  it  best  to  write  on  Reviews  of  Books, 
because  I  wish  the  University  had  the  opportunity  to  base  its 
choice  of  Books  for  its  Library  on  such  reviews  as  I  would 
look  upon  as  ideal. 

There  was  a  time  when  the  Reviewer  thought  that  it  was 
his  duty  and  his  privilege  to  show  up  the  faults,  and  the 
faults  only,  of  the  books  he  had  to  review:  to  censure  them 
or — what  is  virtually  the  same  thing,  if  not  worse — -to  damn 
them  with  faint  praise.  Bishop  Coplelton  had  such 
reviewers  in  his  mind  when  in  the  course  of  his  satirical 
'Advice  to  a  young  Reviewer'  he  said:  — 

1  'You  will  perhaps  wonder  why  all  my  instructions  are 
pointed  towards  the  censure,  and  not  the  praise,  of  Books; 
but  many  reasons  might  be  given  why  it  should  be  so.  The 
chief  are,  that  this  part  is  both  easier,  and  will  sell  better/' 

To-day  we  have  almost  reached  the  other  extreme. 
Books  do  not  sell  well  unless  they  have  a  good  press,  and 


favouritism — or   worse — has   often   resulted   in   an   undue 
adulation  of  third  rate  stuff. 

In  either  event  it  is  the  poor  reader  who  suffers. 
Reviews  have  in  these  days  become  almost  indispensable. 
Our  very  existence  as  men  and  women  of  culture  depends 
on  them.  For,  as  Sir  Arthur  Quiller-Couch  puts  it: 
'Man  and  this  planet  being  such  as  they  are,  for  a  man  to 
read  all  the  books  existent  on  it  is  impossible;  and  if  possible, 
would  be  in  the  highest  degree  undesirable'. 

We  have  to  make  a  choice.  And  to  whom  shall  we  go, 
if  not  to  the  Reviewer  for  help  in  making  our  choice?  'Some 
books,  Bacon  tells  us,  'may  be  read  by  Deputy'.  For  books 
of  this  type  at  least,  we  shall  certainly  have  to  depend  on  the 
Reviewer  in  these  days — when  the  output  of  Books  has  been 
enormous  and  when  our  interests  have  been  so  varied.  For 
such  books  and  the  literature  of  knowledge  in  general,  what 
we  expect  from  the  Reviewer  may  be  only  a  faithful  and 
easily  intelligible  summary  of  the  book  he  reviews.  His  task 
is  easy,  provided,  of  course,  he  is  somewhat  of  an  expert  in 
the  subject  of  the  book  reviewed.  Be  it  said  to  the  credit  of 
the  better  sort  of  our  periodicals  and  newspapers  that  their 
reviews  hardly  ever  fail  to  give  fair  satisfaction  in  this  field. 
When,  however,  we  come  to  the  reviews  of  what  De  Quincy 
calls  the  literature  of  power,  we  have  often  a  different  tale 
to  tell.  For  one  thing,  all  literature  of  power  is  subjective — 
at  least  more  subjective  than  objective,  and  its  appeal  cannot 
be  the  same  to  everybody.  Tastes  differ.  What  the 
reviewer  dislikes  the  reader  may  like  and  what  the 
reviewer  relishes  the  reader  may  hate.  Theoretically 
speaking,  this  position  must  be  conceded.  But,  as  a  matter 
of  fact,  normally,  this  situation  must  not  and  does  not  arise. 
If  the  Reviewer  is  what  Dr.  I.  A.  Richards  calls  an  adequate 
reader — a  man  of  normal  feelings,  with  no  special  preposses- 


sions  or  prejudices,  a  man  of  Catholic  tastes,  widely  read, 
conversant  with  bad  as  well  as  good  literature,  there  is  no 
reason  why  his  judgment  should  not  be  ordinarily  acceptable 
to  the  reader.  Whether  the  reviewer  is  such  a  man  is  what 
the  reader  is  keen  on  knowing.  And  that  is  why  signed 
reviews  arc  so  much  in  demand.  We  ask  for  guidance  from 
a  man  on  whom  we  can  rely.  This  reliance  on  great  names 
may  not  be  without  its  own  peculiar  risks,  but  on  the  whole 
the  system  of  signed  reviews  works  better  than  any  other. 

i  have,  by  impiicauon  at  least,  included  judgment  as  a 
iactor  ot  some  importance  in  a  review,  and  nere  I  am  in  good 
company.  Jb'or  instance,  the  Century  Dictionary  cieimes  a 
leview  as  'A  critical  Examination;  a  Critique;  particularly  a 
written  discussion  oj  the  merits  and  dejects  oi  a  literary 
worK/  I  must  admit,  however,  that  tins  delimtion  may  riot 
be  universally  accepted.  The  shorter  Oxiord  tells  us  tiiat 
a  review  is  'a  general  account  or  criticism  oi  a 
literary  work/  'ihe  iact  is,  ol  iate,  all  criticibm  iias 
tenaed  to  become  impressionist.  Anatoie  France  looked 
upon  criticism  as  'the  adventures  ol  a  soul  througii  master- 
pieces' ana  Benedetto  Croce  would  have  us  believe  tiuu  tiie 
critics  sole  busmess  is  to  reproduce  the  work  01  arc  as  tne 
autnor  conceived  it.  'lo  me  it  appears  that  tins  tendency  is 
a  reaction  against  the  dogmatic  criticism  01  earner  days. 
Tne  tins  won  t-do-sort  ol  criticism  is  deiiiiitely  worse  tnan  an 
attempt  to  get  at  tne  author's  point  oi  view.  Ihe  en  tic  can 
oiten  ao  nothing  oetter  than  initiate  tiie  reader  into  the 
inmost  recesses  ol  the  writer's  heart.  j.o  reproduce  tiie  con- 
ditions at  tiie  time  the  work  oi  art  was  conceived  is  an 
achievement  ol  the  highest  merit,  and  we  should  be  grateiui 
to  a  critic  who  suceeds  in  doing  it.  But  when  ail  his  due 
praise  is  given  to  such  a  critic,  we  nave  also  tne  right  to  ask 
him  whether,  while  giving  Ins  author  ins  uue,  ne  has  con- 


sidered  the  position  of  the  reader  or  the  reader's  point  of 
view.  How  the  work  of  art  is  concieved  is  one  thing, 
and  how  it  would  affect  the  reader  is  quite  another 
thing.  Those  critics  who  adventure  through  masterpieces 
may  not  give  a  moment's  thought  to  the  reader,  but  the 
reader's  point  of  view  is  at  least  as  important  as  the  author's, 
so  long  as  authors  write  for  the  readers  and  not  for  them- 
selves. And  when  a  critic  thinks  of  giving  any  importance 
what-so-ever  to  the  readers  point  of  view,  he  has,  ipso  facto, 
to  include  judgment  of  some  sort  in  his  critique. 

What  is  true  of  criticism  on  a  large  scale  is  true  also  of 
reviews — such  as  appear  in  periodicals  and  newspapers. 
Reviews  have  to  be  brief — the  briefer  the  better,  provided 
they  have  all  the  essentials  of  criticism  on  a  large  scale — they 
must  recreate  the  original  work  of  art — that  is  due  from 
them  to  the  author — and  they  must  understand  the  reader 
and  make  him  feel  at  ease  in  the  presence  of  the  work  of  art. 
Judgment  of  some  sort  is  implicit  in  this  second  part  of  the 
Reviewer's  duty. 




As  a  Medical  Examiner  of  the  University  women  stu- 
dents of  Poona  for  the  last  few  years,  I  have  arrived  at  some 
conclusions,  which  I  take  this  opportunity  to  place  before 
the  Public,  in  this  volume  which  commemorates  the  services 
of  a  great  man  to  the  Public  of  India. 

At  the  outset,  I  must  point  out  that  there  is  a  great 
improvement  in  the  height  and  health  of  our  girl  students  in 
schools  and  colleges  during  the  last  five  years.  This  is  due 
as  much  to  the  greater  freedom  of  life  which  now  has  been 
theirs,  as  to  the  Compulsory  Physical  Training  to  which  they 
have  been  subjected  in  recent  times. 

Those  girls  who  have  at  least  a  moderate  kind  of  freedom 
in  their  daily  life  at  home  and  in  the  teaching  institutions  and 
who  take  part  in  sports  are  the  best  in  health. 

Poverty  is  one  of  the  causes  of  undernourishment  and 
deficient  diet  among  us  and  our  students  are  a  prey  to  it. 
But  considering  the  money  that  is  spent  by  our  students,  I 
must  say  that  the  undernourishment  and  deficiency  in  diet 
are  due  more  to  our  lack  of  knowledge  of  balanced  diet  than 
to  poverty.  We  must  create  a  real  interest  in  balanced  diet 
among  our  men  and  women. 

The  sight  of  a  good  many  of  our  girls  is  bad  owing  to 
uncorrected  eyesight.  I  may  say  that  this  is  often  due  to 


their  working  when  they  are  not  keeping  fit,  or  are  convales- 
cent afer  some  disease  like  malaria  or  some  infectious  fever. 
We  often  neglect  convalescence  and  that  is  often  the  root 
cause  of  many  diseases  and  bad  health  amongst  us.  The  girl 
who  is  deeply  engrossed  in  her  studies  and  does  not  take  any 
part  in  the  social  life  of  her  college  is  often  anaemic  or  weak. 
The  girl  who  lives  in  the  college  hostel  and  enjoys  a  freer 
life  is  often  better  in  health  than  a  girl  who  comes  from  her 
home,  as  I  believe  the  home  atmosphere  and  environments 
of  our  girls  are  not  often  as  free  and  congenial  as  they  ought 
to  be. 

The  educated  woman  is  not  worse  in  her  married  or 
social  life  than  her  uneducated  sister,  nor  does  she  suffer 
more  in  any  of  the  complaints  peculiar  to  women,  or  in 
pregnancy,  nor  does  she  have  more  difficult  child-labour  than 
her  uneducated  sister. 

It  must  also  be  admitted  that  both  our  men  and  women 
are  often  ignorant  of  the  rudimentary  principles  of  health — 
of  sex-hygiene,  or  antenatal  and  postnatal  care,  and  this  is 
a  great  handicap  in  life.  Somebody — perhaps  the  Univer- 
sity or  the  heads  of  our  schools — ought  to  make  the  rudi- 
mentary knowledge  of  the  rules  of  hygiene  and  health — sex 
hygiene,  balanced  diet,  first  aid,  antenatal  and  postnatal  care 
compulsory  for  our  students — both  men  and  women,  if  our 
future  generation  is  to  be  strong  and  healthy  and  hardy 
enough  to  take  a  leading  part  in  our  country's  social  and 
political  life.  Without  this  knowledge,  mere  culture  or  deep 
learning  is  no  good  to  our  boys  and  girls.  For,  we  ought  to 
know  that  a  sound  mind  exists  only  in  a  sound  body. 

There  are  very  few  facilities  for  sports  and  physical 
exercise  for  our  women  students,  and  many  cannot  and  will 
not  take  part  in  sports,  and  therefore  I  think  Physical  Train- 


ing  must  be  made  compulsory  for  all  students  from  the  pri- 
mary education  stage  to  the  University  stage.  I  must  say  here 
that  if  Compulsory  Physical  Training  is  to  be  successful,  a 
genuine  interest  in  Physical  Training  has  to  be  created  not 
only  among  the  students,  but  also  among  the  parents  and  the 
managers  of  the  teaching  institutions.  Without  the  co-ope- 
ration of  all  these  three  groups  of  people,  Physical  Training 
tends  to  become  a  mere  farce.  Last  but  not  the  least  in 
importance  is  the  medical  examination  of  students.  It  is 
medical  examination  which  points  out  the  defects  and  defici- 
encies and  abnormalities  in  the  student.  The  guardians  and 
the  heads  of  institutions  have  to  look  into  these  matters. 

In  conclusion,  I  would  suggest  that  our  teaching  insti- 
tutions ought  to  take  more  interest  in  the  physique  of  our 
students.  They  ought  to  impart  to  them  the  knowledge  of 
the  rules  of  hygiene,  create  a  freer  and  more  congenial 
atmosphere,  provide  good  and  adequate — though  not  neces- 
sarily costly — sports  facilities  and  introduce  medical  exami- 
nation and  Compulsory  Physical  Training.  Only  then  can  we 
hope  to  make  our  young  men  and  women  fit  to  take  their  due 
share  in  the  burdens  of  life. 




Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar,  the  Founder  of 
the  Annamalai  University,  evinced  his  practical  interest  in 
education  when  he  made  his  first  efforts  to  found  a  college 
in  Madura  which  found  fruition  ultimately  in  the  starting 
of  what  was  the  Sri  Minakshi  College  in  Chidambaram.  As 
is  usual  with  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar,  it  was  a  whole-hearted 
effort  as  he  is  known  not  to  do  things  by  halves.  It  is  his 
efforts  to  make  the  college  many  ways  a  model  institution 
under  the  Madras  University  that  brought  about  the  acquain- 
tance between  us.  The  college  rapidly  advanced  from  step 
to  step,  and  had  almost  reached  the  position  of  being  one  of 
the  comparatively  few  fully  equipped  colleges  in  the  Presi- 
dency, when  the  agitation  for  a  separate  University  for  the 
Tamil  districts  resulted  in  the  appointment  of  a  Tamil  Uni- 
versity Commission,  which  was  to  tour  the  Tamil  districts 
taking  evidence  and  submit  its  recommendations  in  regard 
to  this.  The  University  of  Madras  was  seriously  making 
efforts  to  become  a  teaching  University  contemplated  by  the 
Act  of  1923.  The  normal  development  expected  by  the 
sponsors  of  the  new  Act  was  the  creation  of  the  teaching 
University  at  Madras,  which  would  have  become,  with  its 
constituent  colleges,  a  teaching  centre  like  Oxford  or  Cam- 
bridge, the  affiliated  colleges  constituting  more  or  less  a 
distinct  section  of  this  University,  ultimately  to  become  a 


separate  affiliating  University.  This  course  of  development 
was  marked  out  for  the  Allahabad  University  and  resulted 
in  the  creation  of  the  teaching  University  of  Allahabad  and 
the  affiliating  University  of  Agra.  The  Tamil  University 
Committee  went  about  making  its  enquiries  in  this  view. 
Differences  of  opinion  soon  developed  as  to  the  centre  of 
this  new  University  and  it  became  a  matter  of  conten- 
tion whether  Trichinopoly  or  Madura  should  have  this 
honour.  The  majority  of  the  members,  however,  were 
opposed  to  the  separation  and  did  not  favour  it  mostly  on  the 
ground  it  would  have  tended  to  create  a  much  less  efficient 
affiliating  University  than  the  Madras  University  was  during 
more  than  sixty  years  of  its  existence.  In  the  course  of  this 
enquiry  and  the  discussions  in  connection  with  it,  Sir  Anna- 
malai  Chettiar's  intention  to  develop  the  Sri  Minakshi  Col- 
lege into  a  unitary  teaching  institution  raised  to  the  rank  of 
a  University,  was  discussed.  I  took  occasion,  when  the  re- 
port was  got  ready,  to  file  a  note  that  the  recommendation 
of  the  Committee  against  starting  a  new  University  in  the 
Tamil  districts  should  not  prejudice  the  question  of  the  Sri 
Minakshi  College  developing  into  a  unitary  teaching  Univer- 
sity. Whether  this  had  any  influence  or  no,  the  idea  fruc- 
tified in  the  foundation  of  the  Annamalai  University,  and 
took  its  character  readily  as  a  unitary,  teaching  University. 
In  the  course  of  normal  development  in  earlier  years,  it  held 
out  promise  of  becoming  a  University  centre  of  learning 
very  much  like  the  German  Universities  of  the  old  regime. 
This  position  was  due  entirely  to  the  active  exertions  all 
round  of  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar. 

The  Annamalai  University  started  under  very  favoura- 
ble auspices,  thanks  to  the  active  interest  of  this  gentleman, 
and  set  before  itself  two  specific  objects  in  view. 
It  was  to  be  a  residential  unitary  teaching  University. 


Secondly  it  had  laid  itself  out  deliberately  to 
foster  South  Indian  culture  specifically,  and  work  for  the 
special  promotion  of  the  study  of  the  history,  culture  and 
literature  of  the  Tamils,  involving,  as  it  naturally  should,  the 
promotion  of  the  study  of  Tamil  and  Sanskrit  in  all  their 
branches  to  the  highest  specialised  work  possible. 
Having  regard  to  the  active  personal  interest 
taken  by  the  Pro-Chancellor,  there  was  every  hope 
that  this  double  ambition  would  be  realised  to  the  full. 
Courses  were  accordingly  laid.  During  the  earlier  years 
therefore  work  went  on  along  the  lines  laid  down  and  care- 
fully selected  appointments  were  made  to  fill  the  various 
Chairs  and,  in  respect  of  certain  subjects,  even  provision 
was  made  for  sending  out  young  men  for  training  in  various 
branches  of  teaching  under  terms  of  indenture  to  serve  the 
University  on  their  return.  These  early  acts  naturally 
gave  the  best  promise  of  realising  the  objects  with  which 
the  University  started.  Naturally  in  the  present  condition 
of  opinion  in  regard  to  University  education,  there  came  in 
the  external  influences  which  led  on  to  the  expansion  of  the 
University  along  new  lines.  Certain  schemes  like  schemes 
of  agriculture  and  industry  were  brought  in,  to  claim  their 
quota  of  attention  and  diversion  of  funds.  We  have 
the  fullest  appreciation  of  the  development  so  far  in  orien- 
tal studies  and  institutions  brought  into  existence  therefor, 
such  as  the  Sanskrit  and  the  Tamil  Colleges,  the  College  for 
Music  which  promised  to  develop  into  a  real  academy  of 
music,  a  good  library  and  numbers  of  up-to-date  laboratories, 
with  a  residential  system  and  promotion  of  social  life.  We 
feel  certain  that  the  distinguished  Rajah  Saheb  who  has 
done  so  much  already  to  promote  this  unique  institution 
would  find  it  possible  to  put  the  University  on  the  rails  for  a 
fuller  and  a  freer  and  a  brighter  development,  his  original 


ambition.  We  congratulate  the  Rajah  Saheb  upon  his 
having  completed  his  60th  year,  and  reaching  his  Sashti- 
yabdapurti  in  orthodox  parlance.  Let  us  hope  that  he  will 
step  forward  steadily  from  this  milestone  to  the  further 
Biblical  three  score  and  ten,  to  the  more  orthodox  Sata- 
bhisheka  or  the  80th  year,  and  the  real  Vedic  Satayush  or 
the  101st  birthday. 

Before  concluding,  however,  we  take  the  liberty  of 
appealing  to  the  Rajah  Saheb  to  exert  his  influence,  both 
among  the  wealthy  members  of  his  community  and  others 
similarly  happily  placed,  to  secure  if  necessary  their 
co-joperation  and  good  offices  to  place  this  University 
beyond  all  need.  It  is  his  function  as  the  original 
founder  of  the  institution  to  hold  aloft  the  high 
ideal.  Promotion  of  the  culture  characteristic  of 
India  involves  an  equal  and  impartial  treatment  of  all 
subjects  coming  within  the  purview  of  Indian  studies. 
Linguistic  studies  of  the  most  general  character  imply, 
as  it  does  in  distant  foreign  countries,  the  study  of  Sanskrit 
language  and  literature  essentially  as  a  basic  study,  and 
the  understanding  of  the  Indian  culture  as  such,  or  of  its 
preservation  and  promotion  on  right  lines,  equally  demand 
the  cultivation  of  its  philosophy,  history  and  the  sciences 
of  India.  In  the  realm  of  Sanskrit  studies,  South  Indian 
Sanskrit  studies  have  a  very  important  and  peculiar  role 
to  play  in  the  study  of  Indian  literature  and  culture.  May 
the  Almighty  God  help  him  to  fulfil  his  aims,  and  place 
his  own  foundation  on  a  permanent  footing  to  achieve  his 
high  cultural  ambition.  May  the  Almighty  God  shower 
on  Him  His  blessings  to  enable  him  to  do  this  good  work. 


B.  S.  MADHAVA  RAO,  D.Sc.,  F.R.A.S. 
Professor  of  Applied  Mathematics,  University  of  Mysore, 


The  first  notable  success  of  astrophysics  was  the  theory 
of  ionisation  of  stellar  atmospheres.  Later  work  related  to 
constitution  of  stars  dealing  with  problems  of  equilibrium 
and  energy  transport  leading  to  the  mass — luminosity  rela- 
tion, which  can  be  taken  to  characterise  the  second  stage  of 
this  development.  As  long  as  considerations  relating  to 
energy-production  were  not  tackled  rigorously,  there  was 
no  hope  of  proceeding  further  and  reaching  the  third  stage 
of  explaining  the  mysteries  of  the  Russell-Hertzsprung  dia- 
gram. The  development  of  nuclear  physics  in  the  last  few 
years  has  made  it  possible  to  obtain  definite  results  regard- 
ing energy — generation.  Just  as  in  the  first  stage  it  was 
the  theory  of  atomic  structure  that  helped  in  the  develop- 
ment, it  is  appropriate  that  in  this  third  stage  we  should 
invoke  the  help  of  nuclear  structure.  Some  of  the  achieve- 
ments of  these  latest  ideas,  their  bearing  on  stellar  evolu- 
tion and  the  difficulties  still  to  be  surmounted  are  indicated 
in  this  article. 

It  is  a  great  pleasure  to  offer  this  as  my  humble  con- 
tribution to  the  volume  commemorating  the  61st  birth- 
day of  one  whose  ideals  in  founding  this  University  have 
been  as  lofty  and  sublime  in  conception  as  the  subject  of 
this  article. 


I.    Internal  constitution  of  stars 

A  general  theory  of  the  internal  constitution  of  stars 
has  been  shown  to  be  possible  on  the  basis  of  the  laws  of 
gravitation,  of  radiation,  of  atomic  structure  and  of  simple 
gas  laws.  The  theory  is  not  too  complicated  mainly  on 
account  of  the  fact  that  the  properties  of  matter  in  its 
gaseous  and  highly  ionised  state  in  the  interior  due  to  the 
enormous  pressures  and  temperatures  ruling  there  are 
much  simpler  than  in  any  other  state. 

The  principle  of  mechanical  equilibrium  permits  the 
calculation  of  the  pressure  P  at  any  point  of  a  siar  if  one 
knows  the  way  in  which  the  density  e  varies  with  the  dis- 
tance from  the  centre  in  other  words  if  the  "model"  be 

In  the  simple  gaseous  ionisated  state  the  mean 
molecular  weight  H  can  be  calculated  from  atomic  theory, 
and  the  equation  of  state  for  the  perfect  gas  is  also  valid.  For 
a  given  model  therefore  the  temperature  T  at  any  point  can 
also  be  calculated. 

The  next  important  consideration  is  that  at  the  high 
temperatures  in  the  interior,  radiation  pressure  is  as  im- 
portant as  gas  pressure.  Taking  this  into  account  and  using 
the  fact  that  radiation  pressure  varies  as  the  fourth  power 
of  the  temperature,  one  could  calculate  the  internal  tem- 
perature of  a  star  for  any  given  model.  The  calculations 
become  particularly  simple  on  Eddington's  model  for  which 
<><~28  that  of  water, 

Pc=36X109  atm;  T.~2'9X107  K  for  the  sun. 

To  relate  the  above  quantities  with  conditions  at  the 
surface,  one  has  next  got  to  calculate  the  escape  of  radiation 
from  the  interior.  On  general  principles  it  is  evident  that 


the  heat  will  flow,  inside  the  star,  from  regions  where  the 
radiation  pressure  is  greater  to  those  where  it  is  smaller. 
This  flow  of  heat  however  meets  with  a  resistance  due  to 
the  opacity  of  the  gas,  and  the  co-efficient  of  opacity  * 
can  be  calculated  as  a  function  of  P,  v  and  T  by  applying 
the  general  methods  of  the  quantum  theory  of  the  inter- 
action of  matter  and  radiation.  It  is  thus  possible,  start- 
ing with  pure  theory,  to  calculate  the  luminosity  of  a  star 
of  given  mass  and  radius  and  built  on  a  given  model.  It  is 
found  that  the  luminosity  increases  very  rapidly  with  the 
star's  mass-rather  faster  than  its  fourth  power  on  the 
average.  For  the  same  mass  it  changes  but  slowly  with 
the  star's  size  (inversely  as  Vr) .  Differences  in  the  model 
make  surprisingly  little  difference  in  the  luminosity.  The 
chemical  composition  makes  little  difference  too  except  for 
the  abundance  of  hydrogen,  the  luminosity  of  a  star  of 
almost  pure  hydrogen  being  less  by  a  factor  of  300.  Apply- 
ing this  to  the  sun,  an  agreement  between  calculated  and 
observed  luminosities  is  obtained  if  hydrogen  forms  35% 
by  weight  of  the  interior  mass,  the  rest  being  heavy  ele- 

This  conclusion  that  the  luminosity  of  a  star  depends 
mainly  upon  its  mass  is  in  effect  Eddington's  well  known 
"mass-luminosity  relation,"  and  it  will  be  shown  later  that 
it  is  really  a  consequence  of  the  fact  that  the  hydrogen  con- 
tent of  a  star  does  not  vary  at  random  for  a  given  mass. 

2.     The  Russell-Hertzsprung  diagram. 

The  theory  of  constitution  of  stars  described  above 
accounts  for  the  close  correlation  between  luminosities  and 
masses,  but  it  gives  no  explanation  at  all  of  the  equally 
conspicuous  relations  connecting  luminosity  and  spectral 




class  as  is  brought  out  clearly  in  the  Russell — Hertzsprung 
diagram,  R.H.D.  in  brief.  Experience  has  shown  that,  up  to 
a  certain  approximation,  all  stars  are  characterised  by  two 
numbers  which  might  be  chosen  in  general  as  the  luminosity 
L  and  the  surface  temperature  T.  These  at  the  same  time 
also  define  the  radius  of  the  star  R,  In  the  R.H.D.  these 
co-ordinates  are  plotted  as  log  L  and  log  T;  alternatively 
one  could  also  plot  log  (R/R  )  and  log  (L/L  and  call 

O  O 

this  the  modified  R.H.D.  or  the  R-L  plane.  The  diagram 
shows  (Fig.  I)  that  stars  favour  only  certain  regions  of 
the  plane.  The  great  majority  of  the  stars  belong  to  the  so 

«*  1  t°3L/U*       Bu>e 

+y  - 

Fro.  I.  Showhif  the  relation 
between  m«s»c*,  radii  and  lumi- 
nosities of  various  stars  and  the 
division  of  stars  into  the  normal 
start  or  ttw  «tara  of  the  mam 
sequrncr.  red  giants  (including 
Ophrid  variables)  ami  white 
Udncludmg  probably  Wolf- 



-80        -1.0 





Fig.    I 

called  main-sequence;  their  luminosities  and  radii  increase 
rather  regularly  with  their  mass,  as  also  the  effective  tem- 
perature. So  the  stars  of  this  group  range  from  hot  and 
luminous  blue  giants  down  to  the  cool  and  faint  red  dwarfs. 
According  to  the  best  observations  it  is  practically  a  sharp 
line,  and  the  stars  belonging  to  it  therefore  form  a  one- 
parameter  group.  Besides  the  stars  of  the  main  sequence, 


and  to  the  right  of  them  above  lie  the  red  giants  (L  large 
T  small)  with  L  and  R  larger  than  for  stars  of  the  same 
mass  in  the  main  sequence.  In  the  R-L  diagram  these 
form  a  separate  branch  (giant  branch)  branching  off  near 
the  middle  of  the  main  sequence.  It  should  also  be  noted 
that  some  particular  stars  located  in  this  region  possess  a 
property  of  periodic  luminosity  changes  (Cepheid  varia- 
ables  and  others  of  long  period)  and  represent  the  upper 
boundary,  in  respect  of  L,  of  the  giant  branch.  Again  to 
the  left  and  below  the  main  sequence  are  the  white  dwarj 
states  (T  large,  L  small)  corresponding  to  smaller  lumino- 
sities and  radii  than  stars  of  corresponding  masses  in  the 
main  sequence.  Probably  related  to  the  white  dwarfs  are 
the  central  stars  of  planetary  nebulae  (Wolf -Ray et  stars) 
which  also  possess  small  radii  for  given  luminosities. 

A  proper  understanding  of  this  distribution  of  stars 
in  the  R-L  diagram  is  of  fundamental  importance  for  ques- 
tions of  stellar  evolution  and  it  can  be  seen  from  very 
general  considerations  that  this  understanding  depends  on 
a  knowledge  of  the  mechanism  of  energy  production  in 
stars.  In  consonance  with  the  theorem  of  Vogt  and  Russell 
one  must  expect  theoretically  that  under  certain  assump- 
tions the  state  of  a  star  is  completely  characterised  by  two 
parameters  and  accordingly  by  its  position  in  the  R.H.D. 
Further  the  matter  which  a  star  consists  of  is  determined 
by  specifying  its  total  mass  and  its  chemical  composition. 
If  now  the  original  chemical  composition  of  stellar  material 
be  universally  the  same  (and  our  knowledge  of  the  abun- 
dance relations  of  chemical  elements  makes  this  assumption 
plausible)  a  difference  in  the  chemical  composition  of  stars 
can  only  be  a  result  of  the  energy-generating  nuclear  reac- 
tions which  on  their  part  are  determined  by  the  state  of  the 


star.     Therefore  there  remain,  besides,  only  the  mass  and 
the  age  of  the  star  as  independent  parameters. 

The  calculation  of  the  empirical  parameters  L  and  T 
from  the  mass  and  the  parameter  of  chemical  composition 
assumes  a  theory  of  the  internal  constitution  of  the  star. 
On  the  theory  of  Eddington  sketched  in  §  1  which  assumes 
the  conditions  of  equilibrium  and  energy-transport  as 
fundamental  but  not  the  energy-generation,  the  mass-lumi- 
nosity relation  is  obtained  as  a  relation  between  two  para- 
meters, the  stars  of  different  luminosities  in  the  main 
sequence  being  also  stars  o(  different  masses.  But  it  is  obvi- 
ous however  that  the  mass-luminosity  relation  merely  des- 
cribes their  uniform  chemical  composition.  The  principal 
problem  of  the  theory  of  nuclear  reactions  in  stars  is  to  derive 
the  dependence  of  energy-generation  on  chemical  composi- 
tion, and  thereby  elucidate  the  structure  of  the  R.H.D. 

3.     Stellar  nuclear  reactions 

The  magnitude  of  the  problem  of  energy-generation 
inside  a  star  can  be  best  illustrated  by  considering  the  Sun, 
a  typical  star.  The  Sun  radiates  2  ergs  per  second  per  gram 
of  its  mass  which  corresponds  to  a  loss  of  4,200,000  metric 
tons  per  second,  and  since  there  is  equilibrium  between 
generation  and  loss  of  energy,  energy  of  the  same 
order  must  have  continued  to  be  generated  throughout  geo- 
logical times  during  the  last  2*109  years.  Besides  the  Sun 
there  are  stavs  which  thiow  out  nearly  thousand  times  as 
much  energy.  The  question  naturally  arises:  where  does 
this  energy  come  from?  According  to  the  ideas  of  modern 
Physics,  there  are  four  possible  sources: 

(i)  Contraction  of  a  star  without  change  of  chemical 
constitution — the  energy  liberated  is  gravita- 
tional energy. 


(ii)  The  building  up  of  heavy  atomic  nucleii  out  of 
lighter  ones — the  energy  liberated  is  nuclear 

(iii)  Contraction  by  transformation  of  a  part  of  the 
matter  into  densely  packed  neutrons. 

(iv)  Complete  annihilation  of  matter — energy  liber- 
ated is  the  rest  energy  of  matter. 

Of  these  the  last  source  can  be  left  out  of  account  in 
view  of  the  fact  that  it  has  not  been  so  far  observed  in  the 
laboratory,  and  even  from  a  theoretical  point  of  view  the 
discovery  of  the  neutron  and  positron  has  shown  that  by 
the  equalisation  of  positive  and  negative  charges  only  the 
electron  mass  is  transformed  into  radiation  while  the  pro- 
ton mass  is  unaltered.  On  very  general  thermodynamic 
arguments  it  can  be  shown  that  the  third  source  postulated 
is  improbable  for  normal  stars  but  might  be  invoked  for 
explaining  catastrophic  phenomena.  Thus  we  have  to 
make  the  assumption  that  during  the  life  time  of  a  star, 
in  so  far  as  it  is  subject  to  our  observation,  only  the  first 
two  sources  need  be  considered.  Of  these  the  first  alone  is 
not  sufficient  to  explain  the  production  of  energy  as  for 
example,  in  the  case  of  the  Sun  whose  present  rate  of 
radiation  would  exhaust  this  source  in  4*107  years.  One  is 
led  almost  by  a  process  of  exhaustion  to  the  second  as  the 
most  likely  one.  Although  this  had  been  surmised  some 
years  ago  it  is  only  the  progress  of  nuclear  physics  in  the  last 
few  years  that  has  made  it  possible  to  prove  this  surmise 
and  decide  rather  definitely  which  process  can  and  which 
cannot  occur  in  the  interior  of  stars.  A  careful  analysis  by 
Bethe  of  all  the  possible  processes  has  shown  that  the  only 
thermonuclear  reactions  which  can  occur  at  sufficiently  large 
rates  at  the  temperatures  of  stellar  interiors  are  those  bet- 



ween  protons  and  the  light  nuclei!.  In  general  terms  one 
might  say  that  the  energy  production  of  stars  is  due  entirely 
to  the  combination  of  four  protons  and  two  electrons  into 
an  a  particle.  As  can  be  seen  from  Table  I  this  formation  of 
four  atoms  of  hydrogens  into  one  of  helium  results  in  a  dia- 
mution  of  the  combined  masses  of  the  interacting  nucleii 
by  1  part  in  135.  This  simplifies  the  discussion  of  stellar 
evolution  in  as  much  as  the  amount  of  heavy  matter,  and 
therefore  the  opacity,  r^es  not  change  with  the  time. 

TABLE        Corrected  and  additional  nutlear  masses, 
and  binding  energies. 


MASS                         (MMU)                REFERENCE 









4.025  4 

0.6  ±1 


4.003  86 



4.026  9 

-1      ±1 



-0.9  ±0.2 



5.013  6 

-1.6  ±0.3 


6.021  9 

-1.8  ±0.8 



7.019  28 




8.007  80 

-0.08  ±0.04 



8.027  4 

0.0  ±0.4 




-0.5  ±0.2 



10.020  2 




12.0225  -243 

0.0  ±0.9 







14.013  1 



Table  I 

These  reactions  of  hydrogen  with  the  lighter  nucleii 
are  shown  in  Table  II  which  gives  the  energy  evolution  Q 
of  the  reaction,  its  probability  per  second  and  also  the  life 
time,  all  calculated  for  a  temperature  of  2X107  degrees, 


As  has  been  shown  by  Bethe  no  elements  heavier  than 
helium  can  be  built  up  to  any  appreciable  extent  perma- 
nently in  the  interior  of  stars  under  present  conditions.  An 
extract  from  table  II  of  reactions  leading  to  He4  is  given  in 
Table  III,  along  with  the  average  energy  produced  in  ergs/gm 

TABLE       Probability  of  author  reaelitri  al  J-/fl'  drgtftt  •• 

•t  AC  lion 



P(MC  •'» 

L\tt.  roi  *».  *j« 



Kef  Id 





1.2  10U  yr 

2  sec 

H'4-  II  »  II*'1 

21  3 

10  £ 



0.2  sec. 

HfJ-t-H  -»l  i'* 




•j  10-' 

•  day 

H«-'+  11  =  1  •** 




6  10"« 


4  t 


7  10"J 

t|'-f||  ml  Hf* 

4  -10*^ 


6  10'* 

1  mm 

Hcr  +  ll  *•  Bn 


002  D 

38  I 

6  10-'* 

2000  yr.  . 



10*  X 

38  t 

4  10-» 

15  mm. 

t  ^ 

2  D 


2  10"'» 

5000  yr 

B"+ll  «•<  " 





1000  yr 

HU4-H  •*  )  He* 


10*  £ 


t.2  10-^ 

3  days 

t  ii  +  H-N" 







0.6  X 


4  !()-" 

25  10*  yr 









s  iy 


2  J0"1? 

5  10'  yr 




^.  jo  -11 

2000  yr 

If'-f  H  «•  r  " 


0.02  £> 

61  6 

g   10"M 

10"  yr 

r'»+H  •"<>"*  H<« 



4  10~l> 

3   10'  yr. 

Ne5l  +  H  •  NJ'J 


10  D 

71  7 

5«  JO"** 


M(f"-f  H  -  At" 






S»**  4-  H  »  I*" 


10  /) 



3  10»»yi 

CV-f-M  *  A'* 


10  D 



2*  10*  yr 

H'  +  tl'-flc'+ii 


.*  10*  Af 



18  5 



2  '10-** 

Be  '-4  H'  —  H'  -f  «" 


10*  K 


2*  10""'* 





3*  10*** 





Mc'  +  Hc'-lfe' 


0  0^  Z>' 




J  tO'yr. 

l.i'-f-Hr1  ••  R" 


I  £>• 


/  5-  lO-»» 

B*'  +  Hf'-(» 






3  HP'yt. 

w^"*i/7r«  T/M  ofT"nM?T  o'^,Ill^?i*Iuv*'T<.iDL"t.<*u/l?i?? for  dJ**  radiauon-  f">™  K*  <*fl.  «*'- 

:y  tre  lintwl  mtrrlv  lar  the  «akv n»  dto- 

Tkr  Irnrrt  In  the  column  giving  tlw  trvfl  wiJih  mran    X  •ciprMmtnt*!  V^JIK,  O^r^Iculated  for 
<lipO»f  radiatidi  with  struU  npfoficcJurff    J/4  l»  1/20  of  b<}   (12;,  (?  -quarfrupol*  r«  Ji  .tion   hq   (I2«)    ux 
•  Tbrgt  rf  »ciioiu,jrf  not  br lirvfd  to  orrur  «nc«  thf a  product  or  on*  of  the  rractuit*  n  un»nhir  .  Thcv 
» u»4on 

Table  II 

per  second.  As  can  be  seen  at  once  from  this  table  it  is 
the  nitrogen  reaction  alone  which  gives  energy  generation  in 
consonance  with  the  observed  data  for  the  sun.  We  can 
divide  these  reactions  into  three  classes: 

with  the  deuteron  being  next  transferred  into  He4  by  further 
capture  of  protons.  From  the  life  time  value  in  Table  II 
and  energy  generation  value  in  Table  III,  this  appears  a  pro- 
bable reaction,  but  there  is  a  possibility  that  this  reaction 
itself  may  be  forbidden  by  selection  rules. 


TABLE      Energy  production  in  the  sun  for  several  nuclear  reactions. 

REACTION  PRODUCTION  «(erg/g  sec.) 

H'+H»«H«  +«++/.*  02 

H'+Hi=He«  3X10" 

Li7+H»«2He«  4X10'* 


*  "+/•"  means  that  the  energy  production  in  the  reactions  following 
the  one  listed,  is  included-  E.g.  the  figure  for  the  N^+H1  includes  the 
complete  chain  (1). 

Table  III 

(ii)     the  reactions  in  which  the  light  elements  Li, 
Be,  B  are  involved 

Li7  +  H1  -  2  He4 
Be9  +  H1  -  Li6  +  He4 
B11  +  H1  -  3  He4 

Li  begins  to  be  used  up  at  about  2X106  deg,  Be  at  3 '5  X  106 
deg  and  the  isotopes  of  B  at  about  9X106  degrees.  As  seen 
from  Table  II  these  light  elements  would  "burn"  in  a  very 
short  time,  and  moreover  they  are  destroyed  permanently 
and  will  not  be  replaced.  Thus  for  example,  Be  would  act 
in  the  following  way 

Be9  +  H1  -  Li6  +  He4 
Li6  +  H1  -  Be7 
Be7  +  E-  =  Li7 
Li7  +  H1  =  2  He4 

(iii)     N14  H1  -  O15 

which  written  out  fully  as  a  chain  reaction  is  given  in  Table 
IV.  This  is  in  fact  the  most  important  source  of  stellar 




Table  IV 

energy  and  in  it  carbon  and  nitrogen  isotopes  serve  merely 
as  catalysts  for  the  combination.  It  can  conveniently  be 
called  the  carbon-nitrogen  cycle.  As  seen  from  Table  II,  a 
given  C12  nucleus  will,  at  the  centre  of  the  sun,  capture  a 
proton  once  in  2'  5  X  106  years,  a  given  N14  once  in  5  X  107 
years.  These  times  are  short  compared  with  the  age  of 
the  sun,  and  therefore  the  cycle  will  have  repeated  itself 
many  times  in  the  history  of  the  sun  so  that  statistical 
equilibrium  has  been  established  between  all  the  nucleii 
occuring  in  the  cycle.  Another  important  point  about  this 
cycle  is  its  very  strong  dependence  on  temperature  viz.  T18 
and  this  has  important  astrophysical  consequences. 

The  one  thing  that  is  common  to  all  the  above  reac- 
tions is  the  end  product  He4,  the  a-particle.  Obviously 
nothing  can  happen  to  it  since  the  reaction  He4  +  H  =  Li5 
is  unstable  because  of  the  non-existence  of  Li5.  The 



a-particle  appears  to  be  the  only  thing  stable  in  this  micro- 
cosm of  changes,  and  if  hydrogen  be  the  "fuel  of  the  stars" 
helium  is  the  ashes. 

4.     The  Sun 

As  has  already  been  remarked  in  connection  with* 
Table  II  it  is  the  carbon-nitrogen  cycle  that  keeps  the  sun 
shining.  This  can  be  brought  out  in  a  more  striking  way 
by  answering  the  following  question.  Neglecting  all  nuclear 
considerations  regarding  the  cycle,  which  nucleus  will  give 
us  the  right  energy  evolution  in  the  sun  ?  or  conversely  ; 
given  an  energy  evolution  of  20  ergs/g-sec  at  the  centre, 
and  2  ergs/g.sec  at  the  surface,  which  nuclear  reaction  will 
give  us  the  right  central  temperature  (~19X106  degrees)? 

TABLE  Central  temperatures  necessary  for  giving  ob- 

served energy  production  in  sun,  with  various  nuclear 




H'+H-He*  (U6 





Ne^+H-Na23  37 

Table  V 

This  calculation  has  been  carried  out  in  Table  V.     It  has 
been  assumed  that  the  density  is  80,  the  hydrogen-concen- 



tration  35%  that  of  the  other  reactant  10%  by  weight.  It 
is  seen  from  the  table  that  all  nucleii  up  to  boron  require 
extremely  low  temperatures  in  order  not  to  give  too  much 
energy-production;  these  temperatures  (<107  degrees)  are 
quite  irreconcilable  with  the  equations  of  hydrostatic  and 
radiation  equilibrium.  On  the  other  hand,  oxygen  and 
neon  would  require  much  too  high  temperatures.  Only 
carbon  and  nitrogen  require  nearly,  and  nitrogen  in  fact 
exactly,  the  central  temperature  obtained  from  the  Edding- 
ton  integrations  (19  X  106  degrees).  Thus  from  stellar 
data  alone  we  could  have  predicted  that  the  carbon-nitro- 
gen cycle  is  the  process  responsible  for  the  energy  produc- 

TABLE  Comparison  of  the  carbon-nitrogen  reaction  with 




















19           18.5 

Sirius  A 




26           22 





6           32 

U  Ophiuchi 




25           26 


Y  Cygni 




32          30 



Table  VI 
The  main  sequence 

The  theory  that  the  main  sequence  stars  owe  their 
energy  generation  chiefly  to  the  carbon-nitrogen  reaction 
is  very  satisfactorily  verified  from  observational  data.  In 
table  VI  a  comparison  of  the  theory  with  observation  is 


made  in  the  case  of  five  stars  for  which  the  data  are  suffici- 
ently well-known.  The  last  column  in  the  table  is  calcu- 
lated as  the  necessary  central  temperature  to  give  the 
correct  energy  evolution  as  observed.  In  the  calculations 
the  N14  content  is  taken  as  10 /o.  The  last  column  but  one 
gives  the  temperatures  as  calculated  on  Eddington's  theory. 
The  agreement  between  the  two  columns  is  highly  satisfac- 
tory, the  only  exception  being  the  star  Capella  which  cannot 
really  be  considered  as  belongirg  to  the  main  sequence. 

Russell  had  suggested,  long  ago  that  the  central  tem- 
peratures of  all  stars  of  the  main  sequence  are  nearly  the 
same  although  the  luminosities  of  these  stars  varied  by 
factors  of  the  order  10U.  This  is  easily  understood  on  the 
present  theory  if  we  assume  that  in  general  all  these  stars 
have  the  same  energy  source.  In  fact  the  very  strong 
dependence  of  the  N-C  cycle  on  temperature  (^Tld) 
shows  that  a  small  variation  of  the  central  temperature 
brings  about  a  large  change  in  the  luminosity. 

As  pointed  out  by  Von  Weiszsacker  it  is  also  possible  on 
this  theory  to  understand  the  bend  in  the  R'H'D  (See 
Fig.  1)  in  the  region  of  the  red  dwarfs.  The  reaction 
H  +  H  —  D  +  £+  already  considered  before  plays  a  role  in 
this  connection.  Due  to  its  weak  dependence  on  tempera- 
ture this  reaction  is  not  of  much  importance  for  the  major 
part  of  stars  in  the  main  sequence  whose  central  tempera- 
ture are  ^  2  X  107  degrees.  In  the  region  of  smaller  tempe- 
ratures of  the  order  15X106  degraes  and  less,  this  reaction 
appears  to  be  concurrent  with  the  N~C  reaction  and  as 
shown  by  Fig.  2.  even  of  greater  importance.  The  bend  in 
the  main  sequence  is  to  be  attributed  to  the  weak  depend- 
ence of  luminosity  on  central  temperature  in  this  region  of 

red  dwarfs  of  mass  (Ho^M     nearly. 





*o  • 


25 — 

FIG.  The  energy  production  in  ergs/g  sec.  due  to  the 
proton-proton  combination  (curve  H-f-H)  and  the  carbon- 
nitrogen  cycle  (N  +  H),  as  a  function  of  the  central  tem- 
perature of  the  star.  Solid  curve:  total  energy  production 
caused  by  both  reactions.  The  following  assumptions  were 
made:  central  density  =  100,  hydrogen  concentration  35 
percent,  nitrogen  10  percent:  average  energy  production 
1/5  of  central  production  for  H  +  H,  1/10  for  N-f  H. 

Fig.  II 

The  narrow  width  of  the  main  sequence  can  be  under- 
stood if  we  observe  that  its  stars  are  prescribed  to  lie  in  a 
region  which  corresponds  to  certain  allowed  variations  in 
their  chemical  composition.  These  stars  must  satisfy  both 
the  following  conditions  (a)  they  must  not  be  so  young 
that  their  energy-generation  is  due  either  to  contraction  or 
the  burning  of  elements  lighter  than  carbon  and  (b)  on  the 
other  hand  they  must  not  fail  to  possess  hydrogen.  We 
describe  gaints  as  those  stars  which  do  not  satisfy  (a)  and 
the  white  dwarfs  as  those  which  do  not  satisfy  (b). 

6.     Giants  and  Variable  Stars. 

The  central  temperatures  of  these  stars  are  less  by  a 
factor  10  than  those  of  main  sequence  stars,  which  also 



amounts  to  low  densities.  Under  these  circumstances  it  is 
impossible  for  the  carbon  cycle  to  work,  and  one  has  to 
assume  that  the  energy  is  generated  either  by  contraction 
or  by  the  transformation  of  very  light  atoms.  In  either 
case  the  giants  must  still  be  young  stars.  Since  the  elements 
Li,  Be  and  B  are  scarce  on  the  sun  and  the  earth  it  is  plausi- 
ble to  assume  that  these  elements  have  been  burnt  away  in 
normal  stars  but  exist  in  abundance  in  very  young  stars.: 

-1.0  0  +10  +'10  t-3O 

Fir,        Pulsating  variables  and  different  nuclear  reactions. 
Fig.  Ill 

On  the  assumption  that  the  energy  generation  in  giants 
is  due  to  reactions  of  the  lighter  elements,  Gamow  and 
Teller  have  drawn  in  the  R-L  diagram  calculated  curves  for 
each  reaction  parallel  to  the  main  sequence  (See  Fig.  3).  A 
star  which  contains  all  these  nucleii  in  large  quantities  would 


stay  along  one  of  these  curve  as  long  as  the  correspond- 
ing isotope  was  completely  burnt  out,  and  then  make  a 
transition  to  the  curve  of  next  higher  temperature  and 
finally  land  in  the  main  sequence.  On  this  picture  such  a 
star  should  spend  a  comparatively  long  time  within  each  of 
these  bands  and  undergo  a  more  rapid  gravitational  con- 
traction during  the  transition  from  one  such  region  to  an- 
other. As  is  well  known  these  variable  stars  from  a  one- 
parameter  sequence,  all  their  characteristics  being  depend- 
ent on  the  vibration  period.  Thus  the  knowledge  of  this 
period  fixes  the  position  of  the  star  on  the  R— L  diagram. 
In  fig  3.  the  region  of  pulsating  stars  in  shown  by  the  shad- 
ed area,  the  width  of  each  area  being  proportional  to  the 
number  of  stars  observed.  It  is  seen  that  there  are  definite 
concentrations  of  the  stars  near  the  regions  where  the 
nuclear  reactions  of  light  elements  become  import- 
ant. The  three  regions  corresponding  to  cluster,  Cepheid 
and  long-period  variables  might  be  associated  with  the  B10 
arid  Li,  Be,  and  perhaps  the  D — reactions  respectively. 
Gamow  goes  even  further  in  explaining  the  line  of  the 
pulsating  stars  as  a  limit  to  the  distribution  of  red-giants  in 
the  R— L  diagram.  According  to  him  this  line  is  to  be  inter- 
preted as  the  limit  above  which  the  evolution  is  purely 
gravitational  (until  the  star  gets  into  the  main  sequence) 
and  below  which  it  is  due  to  nuclear  reactions.  Because  of 
the  short  time  scale  of  gravitational  contraction  the  number 
of  stars  observed  above  this  line  must  be  statistically  small, 
and  this  explains  the  gap  between  this  line  and  the  main 
sequence.  The  pulsative  instability  of  the  stars  near  this 
limiting  line  can  be  explained  as  due  to  the  conditions  exist- 
ing during  the  transition  from  the  state  of  thermonuclear 
evolution  into  the  state  of  purely  gravitational  contraction. 


This  theory,  charming  as  it  is,  meets  with  the  difficulty 
that  the  abundance  of  the  lighter  elements  in  red  giants 
does  not  appear  to  be  sufficient  to  retard  the  process  of  con- 
traction suitably,  and  it  may  be  still  necessary  to  assume 
that  either  pure  contraction  and  some  other  unknown  source 
of  energy  plays  a  part  in  the  evolution  of  giants. 

7.    White  dwarfs  and  Novae 

In  connection  with  the  Vogt-Russell  theorem  it  has 
already  been  remarked  that  the  mass  and  a  parameter  de- 
noting chemical  composition  can  be  chosen  as  independent 
numbers  characterising  a  star.  For  stars  in  the  region  to 
the  left  of  the  main  sequence  we  can  take  the  hydrogen 
content  as  the  parameter  of  this  chemical  composition  in  so 
far  as  nuclear  reactions  are  concerned.  From  the  theory  of 
nuclear  reactions  it  follows  at  once  that  a  star  to  the  left  of 
the  main  sequence  can  contain  little  or  no  hydrogen,  for  if  it 
did  the  state  of  high  temperature  and  density  would,  inspite 
of  gravitation,  induce  sufficient  energy  generation  to  prevent 

Before  understanding  the  evolutionary  significance  of 
white  dwarfs  it  is  necessary  to  get  some  theoretical  ideas 
about  them  which,  thanks  to  the  work  of  Chandrasekhar, 
are  very  satisfactory.  They  represent  senility,  almost  the 
approach  to  the  final  state  of  a  contracting  star  in  which 
all  the  energy,  gravitational,  nuclear  or  what  not,  has  been 
exhausted  and  radiated  away  into  space,  and  nothing  more 
can  happen  to  it.  Within  them  the  electrons  are  degenerate 
jammed  together  as  closely  as  the  quantum  laws  permit. 
It  has  been  shown  that  the  radius  and  density  of  a  star  in  this 
state  are  determined  by  its  mass  (and  H-content  if  any) .  If 
the  mass  of  a  star  does  not  exceed  the  value  Mo =5  -  7M  /|x2 



(^molecular  weight  and  equal  to  2  for  no  hydrogen)  i.e. 

1*4  M    ,  the  final  state  by  contraction  will  be  a  sphere  of 

completely  degenerate   (partially  relativistic)   electron  gas. 

For  such  masses  less  than  M     ,  each  mass  gives  a  definite 


value  Emm  for  the  final  radius  the  least  value  0  or  Rum 
corresponding  to  Mo  itself.  For  masses  larger  than  Mo  the 
critical  conditions  will  not  be  reached,  and  as  far  as  present 
knowledge  goes  such  a  star  might  contract  indefinitely. 
Another  interesting  point  in  connection  with  stars  of  mass  ^ 
Mo  might  also  be  noticed.  For  the  mass  lying  between 

5'7  M     /M~  and  6'6  M  /V2,  the    degeneracy  of  an    electron 

O  O 

gas  will  always  begin  at  a  certain  stage  while  for  still  heavier 
stars  the  electrons  will  always  remain  in  the  state  of  an  ideal 
gas.  The  evolutionary  significance  of  these  ideas  will  be 
discussed  in  the  last  section. 

As  intermediate  states  between  the  main  sequence  and 
white  dwarfs  are  the  novae,  according  lo  ideas  put  forth  by 
Biermann.  This  theory  is  based  on  the  following  facts: 

(i)  For  a  normal  nova  outburst  the  energy  generat- 
ed is  small  as  compared  with  the  thermal 
energy  content  of  the  stars. 

(ii)  The  luminosity  of  a  nova  before  and  after  the 
outburst  is  the  same  within  the  limit  of  errors 
of  observation. 

(iii)  As  far  as  the  best  observations  go,  the  final  state 
after  an  outburst  is  intermediate  bet- 
ween the  main-sequence  and  white  dwarf 
states.  The  first  two  observations  which  are 
mutually  compatible  show  that  the  outburst 
does  not  materially  alter  the  inner  structure 



of  the  star,  and  this  shows  that,  in  view  of 
(iii)  the  star  was  also  in  the  intermediate 
state  before  the  outburst. 

The  origin  of  the  outburst  itself  has  been  ascribed  by 
Vogt  to  the  fact  that  the  onset  cf  degeneracy  would  auto- 
matically liberate  the  great  quantity  of  radiant  energy 
previously  trapped  in  the  gas,  since  degenerate  gas  has 
very  small  opacity. 

8.    Evolution  of  Stars 

If  we  accept  the  evolutionary  hypothesis  and  postulate 
the  energy  sources  as  in  section,  3  it  follows  that  small  and 
large  masses  should  have  a  rather  different  evolutionary 
history,  since  the  mass  or  a  star  during  its  whole  life  his- 
tory is  almost  invariant  changing  by  less  than  1  per  cent. 

Consider  first  a  star  of  small  mass.  This  would  start 
from  the  main  sequence,  and  for  its  further  evolution  the 
H-content  might  be  taken  as  the  parameter.  The  energy- 
generation  would  be  due  to  the  N-C  cycle  and  the  lumino- 
sity would  increase  by  nearly  a  factor  of  100  as  the  H-con- 
tent  is  decreasing.  The  existence  of  the  empirical  mass- 
luminosity  relation  can  be  interpreted  as  a  statistical  corre- 
lation intrinsically  due  to  the  fact  that  the  star  spends  most 
of  its  life  time  in  the  low  luminosity  part  of  its  evolution- 
ary track.  This  track  based  on  the  N-H  reaction  is  shown 
schematically  in  Fig.  4  for  the  sun.  After  the  hydrogen 
content  has  fallen  below  a  certain  limit  the  star  will  start  a 
contraction  which  steadily  increases  in  speed.  When  the  H- 
contents  falls  to  nearly  0*002  per  cent  the  nuclear  energy 
liberation  becomes  negligible  as  compared  with  the  gravita- 
tional. The  evolutionary  track  due  to  contraction,  is  shown 
further  in  the  same  figure,  and  gives  rise  to  a  continuous 
increase  in  luminosity  during  a  comparatively  long  period  of 



time.     The  last  stage  of  contraction    will  now    essentially 

depend  on  the  mass.    For  masses  <  1'4  M      the  contractive 

*  0 

evolution  begins  to  deviate  because  of  the  beginning  of 
the  formation  of  a  degenerate  electron  gas  in  the  central 
region.  The  rate  of  contraction  will  considerably  slow 
down,  and  the  star  reaches  the  white  dwarf  stage  where  it 
acquires  a  long  lease  of  life.  Going  still  further  in  evolution 

-SO  -10  0  +1.0 

FlG.   '  Evolutionary  track  of  a  light  star. 

Fig.  IV 

after  the  white  dwarf  stage,  the  increasing  exhaustion  would 
result  in  the  outer  non-degenerate  layers  becoming  thinner, 
and  the  star  would  shrink  and  grow  fainter  and  cooler  be- 
coming "a  yellow  dwarf7'  and  ending  as  a  "black  dwarf/' 

For  stars  with  masses  larger  than  1*4  M     (but  small)   the 


process  of  gravitational  contraction  is  not  limited  by  any 


maximum  density  and  such  stars  are  apparently  destined  to 
unlimited  contraction  with  central  density  and  temperature 
rising  above  any  given  value.  Fig.  4  also  shows,  according 
to  Gamow,  that  white  dwarfs  are  at  present  far  from  the 
finite  stage  of  contraction,  as  the  difference  between  the 

actual  track  for  a  star  of    mass  M       and  the  dotted  track 


R^Rmin  indicates.       Another   very   interesting    suggestion 

made  by  Gamow  is  that  stars  of  mass  between  5'7M    /M<2 

and  6*6  M    /V2  can  explain,  while  they  are  getting  into  a 

degenerate  state,  the  formation  of  "super-novae"  by  the 
propess  of  neutron-formation. 

We  now  come  to  consider  the  evolution  of  large  masses. 
The  first  stage  of  evolution  for  these  viz.,  the  red  giant  state, 
and  the  transition  through  the  pulsating  state  to  the  region 
of  blue  giants  in  the  main  sequence  appear  fairly  simple  to 
understand.  The  second  stage  as  to  what  to  happens  to 
these  when  they  go  over  to  the  left  of  the  main  sequence 
does  not  appear  to  be  quite  clear  at  present.  If  one  postu- 
lated that  they  met  the  same  fate  as  stars  of  masses  greater 

than  the  Chandrasekhar-Landau  limit  of  1/4  M      viz.  con- 

traction  to  arbitrarily  large  densities,  we  ought  to  find  dense 

states  of  large  masses;  but  these  have  never  been  observed. 
Two  ways,  perhaps  not  mutually  exclusive,  have  been  sug- 
gested to  meet  this  difficulty  Gamow  has  pointed  out  that 
such  contraction  cannot  take  place  indefinitely  because,  on 
account  of  the  angular  momentum  of  the  stars,  the  centri- 
fugal forces  soon  become  large  and  cause  the  breaking  of 
such  a  massive  star  into  several  small  pieces  (see  Fig.  5) 
with  the  masses  below  the  critical  value.  These  pieces  will 
then  continue  to  exist  indefinitely  in  the  form  of  white 



dwarfs.  Such  an  explanation  would  amount  to  the  drastic 
assumption  that  existing  white  dwarfs  do  not  represent  a 
finite  stage  of  evolution  of  a  single  star  but  are  fragments 
of  the  explosion  of  heavy  stars.  The  other  way  is  based 
on  the  suggestion  of  Chandrasekhar  that  all  stars  of  large 
mass  when  they  come  near  the  region  of  white  dwarfs 
actually  cast  off  their  masses  on  account  of  excessive  radia- 


Fio       Evolutionary  tiack  of  a  heavy  btar 

Fig.  V 

tion  pressure,  as  is  observed  in  the  Wolf-Rayet  stars.  After 
casting  off  their  mass,  these  stars  would  reach  the  white 
dwarf  stage.  This  suggestion  like  that  of  Gamow  also  makes 
the  white  dwarf  stage  not  a  finite  one  but  the  result  of  a 
catastrophic  change. 


While  the  results  based  on  the  carbon  cycle  energy- 
generation  can  be  considered  quite  satisfactory  for  the  main- 
sequence  stars,  the  above  considerations  relating  to  giants 
and  white  dwarfs  are  not  quite  satisfactory  and  there  appear 
some  contradictions  which  will  now  be  pointed  out.  The 
first  difficulty  is  presented  by  the  existence  of  stars  of  very 
high  luminosity  like  the  blue  giant  Y-Cygni  near  the  top  of  the 

main  sequence    (M=17      )     and  the  red  super  giant)  C- 


Aurigae.  These  giants  radiate  as  much  as  1000  erg/g.  sec.  or 
more,  and  at  this  rate  the  preponderant  initial  hydrogen  con- 
tent would  be  completely  consumed  in  10s  or  even  107  years 
O.i\  in  a  time  much  shorter  than  even  the  ape  109  years 
usually  piven  to  the  stars).  The  simplest  explanation  of  this 
would  perhaps  be  that  these  are  comparative  younsr  stars 
former!  long  after  the  separation  of  the  galaxies  (on  the  ex- 
panding Universe  hypothesis) .  Tn  view  of  the  fact  that  even 
at  the  present  time  the  mass  of  interstellar  matter  is  comTnen- 
qiTvpto  with  that  of  the  stars,  there  is  perhaps  intrinsically 
nothin<*  against  such  an  assumption,  But  it  has  to  face  the 
difficulty  that  in  star-clusters  to  which  a  common  origin  is  to 
bo  aserihod  there  exist  together  <*innts  and  faint  main-  sequ- 
foch  cannot  certainly  be  eoually  old.  Moreover 
only  stars  of  front  mass  be  younger  than  the 

nnrl  why  should  there  not  be  stars  to  the  right  of 
the  mrnn  sequence  having  low  Ifiminositv  and  **oin«*  over 
of  the  solar  tyne  or  fainter  tvnes?  The  second 

r  rrx]nfOc,  |o  ^p,  ^TVi^fo  r]xv^v^      £neh  n  star  havin^ 

of  th^  <3iin,  anrl  nprfli<*i^<~*  V»Trr1ro<^^n  content  wonlrl 
for  it**  formnt?o^,  throi^h  t^»o  nrocoss  of  normal 
ovohi^ion  at  least  10n  years  i.e.  period^  lonrf^r  than  the 
orf^  ^^  fk<-»  crplr|vif»s.  TV>o  pn^^e^fion  of  Onmow  that  white 
dwarfs  known  at  present  rlo  not  represent  the  finite  stages 


of  normal  evolution  of  smaller  masses  but  fragments  of 
larger  stars  broken  into  pieces  would  no  doubt  remove  this 
difficulty,  but  it  would  be  hard  to  assume  this  unless  it 
can  be  shown  independently  that  the  present  white  dwarfs 
are  not  the  result  of  the  normal  evolution  of  a  star  of  mass 

<  1*4  M     starting  from  the  main  sequence.    Another  way 


of  escape  out  of  the  difficulty  suggested  by  DeSitter  is  to 
assume  that  the  white  dwarfs  are  really  older  than  the 
galaxies,  and  being  dense  "hard  nuts  to  crack"  they  actual- 
ly came  through  the  period  when  the  galaxies  were  all  to- 
gether and  had  not  begun  to  separate.  This  again  appears 
difficult  to  understand  if  the  idea  were  applied  to  Sirius  A 
and  Sirius  B,  components  of  a  double  star  and  the  latter  a 
white  dwarf. 

In  conclusion  we  might  say  that  while  we  know  why 
the  main  sequence  stars  are  there  shining,  we  do  not  know 
why  the  giant  stars  still  shine,  and  why  the  white  dwarfs 
are  already  there. 


1.  Russell-Dugan-Stewart— Astronomy      II— Chaps.    15,      16 

and  Supplement. 

2.  C.  F.  von    Weiszsacker — Astronomischc    Hinweis  auf  die 

Eigcnschaften  der  Elementarteilchen    (report  for  the 
8th  Solvay  Congress) . 

3.  H.  A.  Bethe— Phys.  Rev.,  55  (1939)  p.  434. 

4.  G.  Gamow— ibid.,  55,  1939,  p.  718. 

5.  Gamow  &  Teller— ibid.,  p.  791,  p.  796. 

6.  H.   N.    Russell — 9th  James  Arthur  Lecture,  Science,  92, 

1940,  p.  19. 



C.  R.  MYLERU,  M.A. 

Modern  dramatic  criticism,  and  also  the  practice  of 
present-day  playwrights  are  definitely  against  the  use  of 
soliloquies  in  dramas.  They  are  condemned  as  old-fashion- 
ed, childish  and  conventional.  The  soliloquy  might  have 
coine  in  handy  for  Shakespeare  to  reveal  the  workings  of 
the  mind  of  the  villain  lago,  and  also  incidentally  to  indulge 
in  his  poetic  outbursts,  but,  is  it  natural,  asks  the  twentieth 
century  dramatist.  Do  people  soliloquise  when  they  go  shop- 
ping or  run  to  catch  trains  or  even  when  they  get  married? 
On  these  grounds  all  soliloquies  have  been  completely  banish- 
ed from  modern  plays,  and  especially  the  realistic  ones  deal- 
ing with  every-day  life.  If  an  unwary  playwright  should 
introduce  one  or  two  of  these  unfortunate  soliloquies,  he  is 
immediately  branded  as  out-of-date,  and  medieval. 

But  before  we  examine  the  question  in  detail  let  us  see 
what  is  a  soliloquy.  It  is  the  speech  in  which  a  character 
speaks  aloud  without,  or  regardless,  of  the  presence  of  hear- 
ers, directly,  to  the  audience.  Very  often  in  Elizabethan 
plays  we  will  have  the  villain  for  example  laying  aside  his 
mask  and  baring  his  soul  to  the  audience  in  a  speech  deliver- 
ed to  them  in  confidence.  We  can  also  include  under  this 
head  the  'asides,'  which  are  common  in  old  plays.  These  were 
the  means  employed  by  dramatists  to  take  us  down  into  the 
hidden  recesses  of  a  person's  nature,  and  to  reveal  the  mo- 
tives of  conduct  which  could  not  be  disclosed  in  the  course 
of  ordinary  dialogue.  Such  knowledge  would  be  necessary 


for  the  spectators  to  understand  the  characters  and  their 
actions  completely.  The  dramatist  is  at  a  disadvantage  when 
compared  to  the  novelist;  the  latter  can  dissect  his  charac- 
ters and  reveal  their  inmost  thoughts,  but  the  dramatist  can 
have  no  chance  of  doing  it.  That  is  why  the  old  playwrights 
had  recourse  to  soliloquies.  (It  is  curious  how  even  when 
there  is  no  necessity,  some  modern  novelists,  make  use  of 
soliloquies  in  their  novels!)  While  the  characters  are  think- 
ing aloud,  we  are  permitted  to  over-hear  what  they  say.  It 
should  not  be  taken  that  they  are  addressing  their  remarks 
directly  to  the  audience,  though  some  actors  might  recite 
their  soliloquies  in  that  style. 

The  soliloquy  played  an  important  part  in  ancient  Greek 
Drama.  In  Aeschylus  we  have  the  bound  Prometheus  pro- 
claiming his  woes  to  the  heavens,  before  the  daughters  of 
Ocean  come  to  comfort  him.  Even  in  Sophocles  and  Euri- 
pides there  are  several  long  speeches  which  are  spoken  at 
large  in  the  manner  of  soliloquies;  they  are  not  directly 
addressed  to  the  chorus.  But  even  when  speeches  are 
addressed  to  the  chorus,  they  are  in  the  nature  of  confessions 
of  the  inmost  thoughts  of  the  chief  characters.  In  French 
Drama  also  the  same  system  is  followed;  the  chorus  has 
shrunk  to  a  single  attendant  for  each  of  the  chief  characters, 
who  always  accompanies  his  hero  or  heorine,  and  hears  all 
that  is  said  by  the  chief  figures.  Thus  the  clever  French 
dramatists,  while  avoiding  all  semblance  of  the  soliloquy, 
profited  by  all  its  advantages.  These  confidants  were 
colourless  creatures,  drawn  vaguely  and  existed  for  the 
sole  purpose  of  being  talked  to.  Victor  Hugo  dismissed 
these  pale  figures  from  his  plays;  he  was  therefore  driven 
back  to  the  soliloquy.  The  argumentative  monologue  of 
the  king  in  "Hernani"  is  one  of  the  longest  soliloquies  in  all 
dramatic  literature.  It  is  full  of  Hugo's  swelling  rhetoric 



and  soaring  figures  of  speech.  Shakespeare  and  Moliere, 
born-playwrights  that  they  were,  knew  instinctively  how 
valuable  the  soliloquy  could  be  to  them.  They  never  wor- 
ried about  the  naturalness  or  otherwise  of  the  convention. 
Whatever  was  acceptable  to  their  audiences,  they  made  use 
of  without  any  hesitation.  In  Shakespeare  we  find  his  chief 
characters  again  and  again  revealing  their  intimate  thoughts 
and  desires  through  their  soliloquies.  Almost  Always  these 
are  helpful  in  making  us  understand  clearly  the  workings  of 
the  mind  of  his  more  complex  characters.  If  these  soliloquies 
were  not  there,  we  may  not  be  able  to  follow  some  of  the 
actions  of  some  of  his  more  intricate  creations.  But  for 
these  self-revealing  passages  we  may  not  be  able  to  under- 
stand the  character  of  some  of  his  men  and  women.  Shakes- 
peare makes  use  of  the  soliloquy  most  in  his  "Othello."  He 
uses  it  again  and  again  to  let  lago  reveal  his  own  villainy,  as 
if  he  did  not  want  the  groundlings  to  have  any  doubts  about 
the  wickedness  of  his  honest  lago! 

But  neither  Shakespeare  nor  Moliere  distinguished 
between  the  proper  use  and  abuse  of  soliloquy.  There  is 
soliloquy  which  reveals  character,  and  that  which  informs 
us  about  the  further  development  of  the  plot.  The  former 
is  certainly  on  a  higher  plane,  which  is  absolutely  necessary 
when  depicting  deep  conflict  of  emotions  or  psychological 
conditions.  "It  lets  a  tortured  hero  unpack  his  heart;  it 
provides  a  window  to  his  soul;  it  gives  the  spectator  a  plea- 
sure not  to  be  had  otherwise."  Professor  Bradley  remarks  in 
his  "Shakespearean  Tragedy"  "in  listening  to  a  soliloquy  we 
ought  never  to  feel  that  we  are  being  addressed;  in  this  res- 
pect, as  in  others,  many  of  Shakespeare's  soliloquies  are 
masterpieces;  in  some  the  purpose  of  giving  information  lies 
bare,  and  in  one  or  two  the  actor  openly  speaks  to  the 
audience."  Moliere  was  as  bad  Shakespeare  in  this  res- 


pect.  They  did  not  even  make  sure  that  there  was  no 
one  else  present  on  the  stage,  when  some  characters  were 
soliloquizing:  Romeo  overhears  Juliet's  soliloquy  from  the 
balcony  ;  in  Moliere's  "Miser"  also  there  are  such  situa- 

The  soliloquy  has  been  defended  ably  by  many  writers. 
William  Congreve  in  his  Epistle  Dedicatory  to  the  "Double 
Dealer"  puts  up  a  stout  fight  in  favour  of  soliloquies.  "I 
grant  that  for  a  man  to  talk  to  himself  appears  absurd  and 
unnatural:  and  indeed  it  is  so  in  most  cases;  but  the  cir- 
cumstances which  may  attend  the  occasion  make  great 
alteration.  It  oftentimes  happens  to  man  to  have  designs 
which  require  him  to  himself,  and  in  their  nature  cannot 
admit  of  a  confidant.  Such  for  certain,  is  all  villainy;  and 
otlier  less  mischievous  intentions  may  be  very  improper 

to  be  communicated  to  a  second  person when  a  man 

in  soliloquy  reasons  with  himself,  and  weighs  all  his  designs 
we  ought  not  to  imagine  that  this  man  either  talks  to  us  or 
to  himself;  he  is  only  thinking,  and  thinking  such  matter  as 
were  inexcusable  folly  in  him  to  speak.  But  because  we  are 
concealed  spectators  of  the  plot  in  agitation,  and  the  poet 
finds  necessary  to  let  us  know  the  whole  mystery  of  his 
contrivance,  he  is  willing  to  inform  us  of  this  person's 
thoughts;  and  to  that  end  is  forced  to  make  use  of  the  ex- 
pedient of  speech,  no  other  better  way  being  yet  invented 
for  the  communication  of  thought/'  Victor  Hugo  in  the 
"Miserables"  declared  that  it  was  wrong  to  believe  that  the 
soliloquy  was  unnatural,  because  often  a  strong  agitation 
speaks  out  aloud.  Prof.  Bradley  says;  "Neither  soliloquy 
nor  the  use  of  verse  can  be  condemned  on  the  mere  ground 
that  it  is  unnatural.  No  dramatic  language  is  natural/' 

It  is  curious  how  when  modern  audiences  allow  many 
unnatural  conventions  on  the  stage,  the  soliloquy  alone  has 


been  consigned  to  the  limbo  of  the  past.  In  certain  kinds 
of  plays  like  light-comedy,  the  comic-opera,  the  poetic- 
play  the  fantasy  etc.,  the  soliloquy  still  plays  an  important 
part.  Only  in  realistic  prose-drama  is  the  soliloquy  com- 
pletely tabooed.  But  even  here  it  can  be  allowed  in  certain 
circumstances;  for  example  when  a  mischievous  character 
is  plotting  his  schemes,  or  a  man  is  thinking  aloud  about 
his  engagements  for  the  day,  or  a  woman  is  cursing  her 
fate  when  things  go  awry  nothing  is  so  natural  as  to  soli- 
loquize. Merely  because  the  Elizabethans  used  it,  we 
should  not  think  it  to  be  old-fashioned,  and  therefore  re- 
ject it.  It  was  certainly  a  convention  in  those  days  to  have 
soliloquies  in  plays.  At  the  present  day  it  has  become  the 
convention  not  to  have  soliloquies!  Conventionalism  either 
way  is  not  sound;  will  it  not  be  better  to  leave  it  to  the  con- 
venience and  ability  of  writers  to  use  what  technique  they 
choose  to  make  their  plays  effective  ? 




Along  this  fascinating  road,  for  ages  past,  have  passed 
and  re-passed,  countless  Indians  from  the  coast  of  Coro- 
mandel.  This  statement  ignores  in  advance  the  criticism  of 
the  meticulous-minded  that  Mandalay  itself  was  only  a 
recent  creation,  having  been  built  by  King  Mindon  in  the 
attempted  fulfilment  of  a  dream.  The  road,  however,  has 
always  been  there  and  led  to  Ava  and  Amarapura,  whose 
very  names  breathe  romance.  It  held  an  irresistible  lure 
for  Indians  and,  from  the  deltaic  regions  in  the  south  to  the 
upper  reaches  of  the  Irrawaddy,  travellers  and  traffickers, 
bards  and  Buddhist  monks,  princes  and  peasants  from  all 
over  India  have  moved  in  an  unending  stream. 

It  all  began  long  ago  and  the  beginnings  are  lost  in  the 
mists  of  antiquity.  The  trek  across  the  Assam  frontier  must 
have  begun  long  before  King  Asoka  sent  his  missioneries  to 
Burma  to  preach  Buddhist  gospel.  There  Buddhism  found  a 
favourable  field  for  growth.  There  it  grew  and  flourished 
and  helped  to  link  the  two  countries  more  securely  than  a 
mere  military  conquest  or  political  association  could  have 
done.  Tamilnad's  connection  with  Burma  is  several 
centuries  old.  Rajendra  Chola,  runs  a  well-authenticated 
tradition,  led  an  expedition  to  Burma  and  proved  the  might 
of  Tamil  arms  on  the  banks  of  the  Irrawaddy.  Not  very 
long  ago,  there  were  discovered  outside  the  city  walls  of 


Pegu,  two  stone  pillars  erected  by  the  Chola  king  to  com- 
memorate his  victory.  One  of  them  used  to  stand  in 
front  of  the  District  Court  of  Pegu,  a  preserved  monument. 
There  is  a  theory  that  Kidaram,  one  of  the  Chola  con- 
quests, was  identical  with  Pegu  and  Kidaram  is  unmis- 
takably a  Tamil  name.  King  Anahwrata,  greatest  of  the 
kings  of  the  Pagan  dynasty,  for  his  greater  glory,  sent  to 
India  for  a  wife  and  married  Panchakalyani,  a  princess  of 
Vaisali,  and  Kyanzhitta,  the  builder  of  the  beautiful 
Ananda  pagoda  at  Pagan,  was  her  son.  All  Burma's 
legends  and  folk-lore  are  derived  from  India;  the  names  of 
her  towns  and  rivers — the  Irrawaddy,  for  instance,  and 
Ussa,  the  ancient  name  of  Pegu,  which  was  colonised  from 
Orissa,  (I  am  leaving  out  of  account  for  the  moment 
Chauthalon,  Burmese  for  'single  stone/  which  Chettiars 
have  rechristened  as  Sivasthalam  and  made  into  the  abode 
of  the  God  Subramania) — attest  a  long  and  almost  integral 
connection  with  India.  The  Talaings  are  believed  to  derive 
from  the  people  of  Telingana,  who  crossed  over  in  large 
numbers,  while  the  Corganghis  doubtless  came  from  Corin- 
gha,  near  Coconada.  Burma  has  always  been  hospitable  to 
her  western  neighbour,  and  it  is  undeniable  that  the  inter- 
mingling of  Indian  and  Burman  has  been  full,  free  and 
complete.  The  Indians  met  a  definite  economic  need;  they 
provided  the  drive  and  the  organising  energy  which  were 
apparently  beyond  the  easy-going  art-loving  Burmese. 
India  and  Burma  were  doubtless  meant  to  live  in  neigh- 
bourly intimacy;  the  Geological  Survey  of  India  reveals  the 
interesting  fact  that  the  terrain  of  Upper  Burma  is  very 
similar  to  that  of  Assam.  All  things  point  to  a  close  and 
considerable  contact  between  the  two  countries  going  back 
to  pre-historic  times,  a  fact  worth  remembering  at  a  time 


when  twentieth-century  man  would  play  at  sundering 
those  whom  God,  in  his  wisdom,  has  joined. 

In  the  unceasing  stream  of  traffic  with  Burma  have 
mingled,  for  longer  than  one  cares  to  remember,  the  Chetti- 
ars  or,  to  give  them  their  traditional  name,  the  Nagarathars 
of  the  ninety-six  oors.  It  is  a  far  cry  from  their  sun-baked 
homeland  in  the  south  country  to  the  basins  of  the  Sittang 
and  the  Salween.  It  is  true  that  nowadays  one  can  cross 
over  in  the  space  of  a  few  hours;  one  can  board  an  Imperial 
Airways  liner  or  a  K.L.M.  flying  boat  at  Calcutta  and  land 
at  Mingladon  aerodrome  in  time  for  breakfast  at  the  Strand 
Hotel  on  Rangoon's  river-front  or  to  do  an  early  stroke  of 
business  in  Moghul  Street  or  Fychte  Square.  But  the 
'temerarious'  souls  among  the  Chettiars  who  would  essay 
the  (to  their  minds)  not  unperilous  flight  across  the  Arakan 
Yomas  or  the  pretty  paddy-fields  of  Hanthawaddy,  can  be 
counted  on  the  fingers  of  one  hand.  Air-travel  is  still  a  novel 
form  of  locomotion  and  the  Chettiars  are  not  bitten  by  the 
modern  speed-bug  and  they  do  not  long  to  get  there  before 
anybody  else.  Life  is  long,  at  all  events,  reasonably  long 
enough,  and  undue  haste,  when  you  come  to  think  of  it,  is 
undignified,  and  only  upsets  the  digestion  and  discomposes 
the  nerves.  They  prefer  to  go  about  their  business  in  the 
way  their  ancestors  did  and  for  the  thrill  of  putting  a  girdle 
round  the  earth  in  lightning  speed  they  have  no  taste. 

This  does  not  mean,  however,  that  the  Chettiars  are 
not  adventurous.  Adventure  for  the  sake  of  adventure  is 
not  their  metier.  But  of  risks,  whether  physical  or  finan- 
cial, in  the  realm  of  business,  they  are  wholly  unafraid. 
They  have  all  along  been  true  to  the  old  saw  which  exhorts 
the  business  man  to  seek  his  fortune  by  trading  beyond  the 
seas.  In  the  old  days,  before  the  turbine  screw  was  in- 


vented,  these  merchant  adventurers  worshipped  the  tribal 
gods,  knelt  for  a  blessing  before  their  elders  and,  bidding 
farewell  to  their  family  and  friends,  set  sail  from  some 
Coromandel  port  and,  hugging  the  coast,  reached  Rangoon 
after  many  weeks,  the  discomforts  of  the  voyage  by  no  means 
diminished  by  their  enforced  subsistence  upon  the  home- 
made rice  and  curry,  rendered  flat  and  tasteless  by  the  act- 
ion of  the  sea-wind.  In  this  way,  they  traded  with  Malaya 
and  ultimately  found  their  way  to  the  Gulf  of  Martaban,  on 
whose  shores,  by  all  accounts,  the  first  Chettiar  firms  were 
started.  Once  landed,  they  opened  their  ledgers  and  com- 
menced business,  sustained  by  an  infinite  trust  in  Heaven 
and  the  confidence  of  the  local  population,  to  whom  their 
proved  integrity  was  the  main  passport.  Wherever  they 
went,  they  carried  with  them  the  sense  of  hospitality  for 
which  their  community  is  noted  and  the  mild,  gentle- 
mannered  Chettiars  soon  found  an  abiding  place  in  the 
affections  of  the  Burmans.  They  usually  laboured  for  terms 
of  three  years  and  then  returned  home  for  a  three-year 
period  of  rest  before  going  back  to  resume  their  business 
beyond  the  seas. 

Herein  lies  the  romance  of  Chettiar  business.  Romance 
and  banking!  It  may  seem  a  strange  combination,  as 
though  the  bamboo-mats  on  which  they  squatted  could 
turn  into  magic  carpets  on  which  one  could  fly 
and  the  figures  in  their  ledgers  could  turn  into 
fairies  and  knights-in-armour.  But  if  grit  and 
guts,  the  readiness  to  take  risks,  great  and  small  and  the 
determined  quest  for  the  goods  which  make  for  beauty, 
quality  and  independance  in  life  are  the  essence  of  romance^ 
the  Chettiars  had  it  in  ample  measure.  At  all  events,  with 
no  hint  of  the  Biblical  exhortation,  they  succeeded  in 
making  two  blades  of  grass  grow  where  there  was  only  one 


or  none  before.    And  that  is  their  magnificent  record  in 

It  all  followed  in  the  wake  of  the  opening  of  the  Suez 
Canal.  On  the  quayside  at  Port  Said  stands  a  statue  of 
Ferdinand  de  Lesseps.  The  statue,  with  equal  propriety, 
could  stand  in  front  of  the  Sule  Pagoda  Wharf  or  the  Brook- 
ing Street  jetty  in  Rangoon.  For  de  Lesseps  was  the 
wizard  who  brought  prosperity  to  Burma.  Inspired  by  the 
researches  of  the  Saint  Simonites  and  with  the  active 
assistance  of  his  friend,  the  Khedive  Mohamed  Said,  he  set 
to  work  and,  undeterred  by  opposition  or  ridicule,  succeed- 
ed in  cutting  open  a  canal,  of  which  Napoleon  had  dreamed 
and  of  whose  immense  possibilities  Palmerston  had  more 
than  a  hazy  notion.  The  canal  was  opened  in  1869  and 
that  dates  the  commencement  of  Burma's  commercial 
prosperity.  The  markets  of  the  West  were  clamouring  for 
rice  and  more  rice,  far  more  than  the  East  could  supply. 
Lower  Burma  had  a  plentiful  rainfall  and  was  admirably 
suited  for  the  cultivation  of  rice  but  she  had  never  till  then 
grown  more  than  what  was  necessary  for  domestic  con- 
sumption. But  when  the  canal  was  opened  she  sat  up  and 
took  notice.  There  were  vast  areas  of  malaria-ridden  swamp 
awaiting  the  operations  of  the  pioneer.  An  immediate  pro- 
gramme of  land  reclamation  on  a  colossal  scale  was  taken  in 

All  this  meant  money  and  a  lot  of  it  at  that.  Govern- 
ment was  either  unable  or  unwilling  to  give  the  financial 
backing  needed  but  they  actively  encouraged  the  employ- 
ment of  private-owned  capital  for  the  purpose.  The 
Chettiars  came  forward  and  advanced  the  capital  required 
and  enabled  to  open  up  the  province  to  agriculture.  Thanks 
to  their  timely  aid,  cultivation  went  up  a  hundredfold:  as 


much  as  seven  million  tons  of  paddy  were  cultivated  every 
year  of  which  nearly  half  was  regularly  exported.  Rangoon 
harbour  was  crowded  with  shipping  waiting  to  carry  the 
nutritious  paddy  stocks  to  the  markets  of  Europe.  All 
Burmese  economy,  in  the  lasi  analysis,  is  uaseci  on  agricul- 
ture and  nearly  ninety  per  cent  of  the  population  depend 
upon  the  land  for  their  livelihood.  Profits  went  up  and  there 
was  prosperity  all  round,  and  the  smile  on  the  Burman's 
face  grew  larger  and  the  lilt  of  his  pwe  dancing  livelier. 

It  is  only  fair  to  add  that  the  Chettiars  and  other 
Indians  shared  in  these  benefits.  The  Chettiars  had  a 
remarkably  developed  banking  organisation  which  played  a 
very  important  part  in  the  economy  of  Burma.  In  the 
words  of  Sir  Harcourt  Butler,  "  Without  the  assist- 
ance of  the  Cheitiar  banking  system,  Burma  would 
never  have  achieved  the  wonderful  advance  of  the  last  25 
to  30  years.  The  Chettiars  provide  the  necessary  finance 
to  the  agriculturists  in  practically  every  village  in  the  Pro- 
vince, and  while  enabling  the  Burman  to  greatly  increase 
his  production,  they  have,  at  the  same  time,  undoubtedly 
inculcated  ideas  of  thrift  and  economy  by  their  insisting 
on  regular  payments  as  regards  both  principal  and  interest. 
The  Burman  to-day  is  a  much  wealthier  man  than  he  was 
twenty-five  years  ago  and  for  this  state  of  things  the 

Chettiar  deserves  his  share  of  thanks I  feel  confident 

that  whatever  future  developments  of  banking  may  do  for 
Burma,  the  Chettiar  will  always  hold  his  own  and  prove 
himself  in  the  years  to  come,  as  he  has  done  in  the  past, 
the  real  backbone  of  the  Banking  system  throughout  this 
Province/  The  Burman  was  not  wanting  in  appreciation 
either.  Chettiar  firms  were  dotted  all  over  the  province 
and  the  utmost  friendliness  prevailed  between  the  Chettiars 


and  the  Burmese.  In  spite  of  the  high  profits  which  they 
were  enabled  to  earn,  the  Chettiars  retained  their  charac- 
terestic  simplicity  and  spent  large  sums  in  charity.  To  them 
might  have  been  addressed  Burns'  lines: 

To  catch  dame  Fortune's  golden  smile, 

Assiduous  wait  upon  her; 

And  gather  gear  by  every  wile, 

That's  justified  by  honour: 

Not  for  to  hide  it  in  a  hedge, 

Nor  for  a  train  attendant, 

But  for  the  glorious  privilege 

Of  being  independant. 

"And",  I  may  add,  with  apologies  to  the  spirit  of  Robert 
Burns  for  the  baldness  of  the  amending  prose,  "for  bringing 
a  ray  of  sunshine  into  the  drab  lives  of  their  poorer  fellow- 


We  have  good  authority  for  saying  that  most  of  the 
charitable  institutions  in  Burma,  barring  those  of  a  religious 
character  intended  to  secure  spiritual  merit,  were  presented 
by  Indians;  and  in  this  laudable  effort,  the  Chettiars  have 
done  their  bit.  In  their  own  homeland,  they  habitu- 
ally spend  large  sums  of  money  for  the  extension  of  the 
amenities  of  life.  Until  recently,  these  were  of  a  stereo- 
typed character,  such  as,  tho  building  of  tanks  and  temples 
(these  latter  according  to  the  most  exuberant  Dravidian 
formula),  of  choultries,  where  the  wayfarer  could  get  food 
and  shelter,  and  the  promotion  of  fairs  and  festivals,  be- 
loved of  the  peasantry.  South  Indian  art  and  architecture 
have  in  them  some  of  their  most  discerning  patrons,  and 
though  the  rococo  palaces  in  which  an  earlier  generation 
delighted  may  not  have  been  the  last  word  in  architectural 


beauty,  they,  at  any  rate,  provided  the  artisans  and  labour- 
ing men  of  Chettinad  with  the  means  of  livelihood.  On 
occasion,  the  Chettiars  will  fling  their  money  about  and 
forget  to  count  the  cost  and  organise  a  festival  and  turn 
the  countryside  over  to  gaiety  and  general  jollification. 
As  they  did,  for  instance,  when  the  Nagarathars  of  the 
ninety-six  oors  decided  to  celebrate  the  honour  of  heredi- 
tary Rajah  conferred  on  the  subject  of  this  memoir,  Rajah 
Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar. 

For,  on  a  memorable  April  afternoon  in  1929,  in  the 
village  of  Kovilur,  in  the  heart  of  Chettinad,  occurred  a 
remarkable  gathering  of  clans.  From  every  one  of  the 
ninety-six  oors  they  came,  flocking  to  participate  in  the 
honour  which  was  being  done  to  the  man  who,  more  than 
anybody  else,  had  helped  to  put  his  community  on  ^he  social 
map  of  India.  The  broad,  water-besprinkled  streets  were 
hung  thick  with  festoons,  over  which  dangled  innumerable 
fairy  lamps  in  every  shade  of  the  rainbow,  over  rows  and 
rows  of  tables,  laden  with  the  best  cheer  which  the  country 
could  afford.  Men  of  light  and  leading  from  all  over  the 
presidency  had  assembled  to  join  in  the  demonstration,  and 
the  Chair  was  appropriately  filled  by  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai' s 
old  friend,  The  Right  Hon'ble  V.  S.  Srinivasa  Sastriar,  whose 
appreciation  of  the  Rajah's  public  spirit  had  been  heighten- 
ed into  positive  admiration  by  .his  magnificent  endowments 
in  the  cause  of  education.  For  it  was  a  well-known  fact 
that  the  Rajah  had  changed  the  direction  and  quickened  the 
tempo  of  the  eleemosynary  activities  of  his  community. 
Bearing  in  mind  the  establishment  of  the  Minakshi  College, 
and  its  early  conversion  into  the  nucleus  of  the  Annamalai 
University,  the  Right  Hon'ble  Srinivasa  Sastriar  had  previ- 
ously sent  a  telegram  of  congratulation  which,  as  conveying 







the  general  sentiment,  could  not  have  been  better  expressed 
— "A  noble  deed  nobly  rewarded." 

The  Kovilur  meeting  was  a  landmark  in  Nagarathar 
history.  Never  before,  within  recent  memory,  had  there 
been  such  a  gathering  of  clans,  or  such  a  demonstration  of 
unrehearsed  affection  for  a  leader  of  the  community.  Rajah 
Sir  Annamalai,  however,  did  not  rest  on  his  laurels.  It  will 
not  be  proper  or  possible  to  treat  of  the  other  benefactions 
of  the  Rajah  or  of  his  other  services  in  the  public  cause 
within  the  limits  of  this  article.  His  services  to  the  com- 
munity in  regard  to  their  interests  in  Burma — and,  in  this 
particular,  they  were  identical  with  the  interests  of  the 
country  in  general — can  more  appropriately  be  indicated 
here.  It  was  not  very  long  before  a  situation  arose  which 
laid  under  contribution  Sir  Annamalai's  untiring  energy  and 
practical  wisdom  for  the  preservation  of  their  carefully  built- 
up  interests  in  Burma  and  to  this  end,  the  Rajah  devoted 
himself  fully,  freely  and  unreservedly. 

When  the  Statutory  Commission  visited  India,  Sir  John 
Simon  conceived  a  bright  idea  and  that  was  that  Burma 
should  be  seperated  from  India.  He  was  charmed  with  the 
province,  its  vernal  woods,  flowing  rivers  and  its  forests  of 
virgin  teak,  all  her  untapped  natural  resources,  and  as  a 
quid  pro  quo  for  the  pleasure  he  had  received,  resolved 
on  the  snapping  of  old  ties.  The  idea,  once  broadcast, 
took  root,  grew  and  became  a  rather  noisy  bee  in  the  bon- 
nets of  a  few  people.  Separation  became  a  burning  ques- 
tion at  the  time  of  the  Round  Table  Conference.  There 
were  many  in  Burma  who  looked  with  definite  disfavour 
on  the  idea.  Mr.  Ramsay  MacDonald,  the  Premier,  pres- 
cribed a  test  which  met  with  general  approval.  He  propos- 
ed to  leave  the  decision  to  Burma  herself.  In  a  historic 


declaration,  he  said,  "The  first  step  is  to  ascertain  whether 
the  people  of  Burma  endorse  the  provisional  decision  that 

separation  should  take    place The  people  of  Burma 

will  be  in  a  position  to  decide  whether,  or  not,  they  are  in 
favour  of  separation  from  India.  His  Majesty's  Govern- 
ment consider  that  the  general  decision  might  best  be  taken 
after  a  general  election  at  v/hich  the  broad  issue  had  been 
placed  before  the  electorate"  and,  he  expressly  stated,  that 
in  the  event  of  Burma  deciding  to  remain  within  the  Indian 
Federation,  "it  should  be  remembered  that  if  an  Indian 
Federation  is  established  it  cannot  bo  on  the  basis  that  the 
members  can  leave  it  as  and  when  they  choose/'  It  was  a 
time  when  generous  ideas  were  in  the  air  and  the  principle 
of  self-determination  so  presented  for  practical  action  was 
calculated  to  satisfy  all  parties.  Indian  leaders  considered 
it  the  best  way  of  solving  the  problem  and  stood  aside,  wait- 
ing to  see  the  sequel.  An  election  was  fought  on  the  broad 
issue  propounded  by  the  Prime  Minister  and  it  resulted  in  a 
resounding  victory  for  the  anti-separationists.  This  was  a 
rather  smart  smack  in  the  face  for  those  who  had  sv/orn  that 
the  Burmese,  as  one  man,  were  clamouring  for  separation. 
Doubts  were  cast — vague,  indefinite  elusive  uncertainties, 
impossible  to  lay  hold  of  and  assail — on  the  manner  in  which 
the  election  had  been  run.  It  was  alleged  that  the  issue  had 
not  been  properly  placed  before  the  people  and  His  Majesty's 
Government  decided  to  ask  the  Council  which  had  been  elect- 
ed to  decide  afresh  on  the  issue.  They  gave  their  verdict  in  a 
special  session  of  the  legislature  convened  for  the  purpose 
in  February,  1935.  37  of  the  elected  representatives  voted 
for  remaining  within  the  Indian  Federation,  while  31  voted 
against,  but  by  a  piece  of  jugglery  to  which  legislatures  with 
a  strong  nominated  bloc  are  peculiarly  susceptible,  by  add- 


ing  the  votes  of  non-official  members,  the  figures  given  above 
gave  place  to  47  for,  and  37  against,  separation. 

Before  this,  a  memorandum  signed  by  44  of  the  elect- 
ed representatives  had  been  sent  up  to  the  Government, 
pleading  for  retention  within  the  Indian  Federation.  The 
Burmese  representatives  who  gave  evidence  before  the 
Joint  Select  Committee,  including  Dr.  Ba  Maw,  sometime 
Premier  of  Burma,  were  emphatically  in  favour  of  "the 
federal  alternative  as  being  in  keeping  with  the  clear  man- 
date we  have  obtained  from  the  country." 

And  yet  separation  was  decided  on.  The  question  was 
hotly  debated  in  Indian  circles  whether  India  should  not 
enter  the  field  against  separation,  and  the  general  decision 
was  that  India  should  not  queer  the  Burman  pitch  by  any 
action  on  this  side  of  the  Bay  of  Bengal.  The  Nattukkottai 
Chettiar  Association  in  Burma  was  greatly  perturbed,  and 
it  was  mainly  as  a  result  of  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai's  attitude, 
which  was  in  conformity  with  the  general  view  of  the  Indian 
leaders,  that  the  Association  stood  aloof. 

Detachment  in  regard  to  the  issue  as  to  separation  did 
not  dispose  of  the  matter.  The  recommendations  of  the 
Joint  Select  Committee  gave  rise  to  apprehensions  that  the 
future  of  Indians  in  Burma  would  be  gravely  jeopardised. 
There  was  no  cleavage  of  opinion  in  any  particular  among 
the  Indians  in  Burma  as  to  the  dangers  inherent  in  the  posi- 
tion envisaged  by  the  Joint  Select  Committee,  and  it  was 
decided  that  steps  should  be  taken  to  safeguard  the  posi- 
tion of  Indians  in  Burma.  An  All-Burma  Indian  Conference 
was  held  at  Rangoon  on  the  29th  and  the  30th  December, 
1934,  and  it  was  presided  over  by  Mr.  Mirza  JVTohamed 
Rafi,  Mayor  of  Rangoon  who  had  been  associated  with  the 


Burma  Round  Table  Conference.  Mr.  S.  A.  S.  Tyabji,  who 
was  recently  in  India  at  die  head  oi  a  Delegation  from 
Burma  to  protest  against  the  Iiido-Burma  Immigration 
Agreement,  was  the  Chairman  of  the  Reception  Committee. 
Various  resolutions  were  passed  and  a  Delegation  was 
appointed  to  proceed  to  England  for  the  purpose  of  making 
representations  to  His  Majesty's  Government  with  a  view 
to  securing  adequate  safeguards. 

The  Delegation  left  for  England  in  February  1935. 
Meanwhile,  The  Government  of  India  Bill  had  been  pub- 
lished and  the  apprehensions  expressed  at  the  Rangoon  Con- 
ference were  found  to  be  justified.  The  provisions  enabling 
the  Burmese  legislature  to  impose  restrictions  on  the  rights 
of  Indians  to  enter  Burma  and  on  the  right  of  alienation  of 
land  were  calculated  to  cut  at  the  root  of  Indian  business  in 
Burma.  That  Indians  would  be  subject,  in  the  future,  to 
highly  discriminatory  treatment  was  a  conclusion  from  which 
there  seemed  to  be  no  escape. 

From  the  start,  it  was  clear  tJnat  the  position  called  for 
careful  handling.  The  delegation  held  several  discussions  in 
Bury  Street  among  themselves  and  the  task  of  negotiating  a 
satisfactory  amendment  oi  the  Bill  fell  upon  the  shoulders 
of  Rajah  Sir  Annamaiai  Chettiar. 

Rajah  Sir  Annamaiai  actually  arrived  in  London  on 
February  the  23rd,  and  lust  no  time  m  getting  into  touch 
with  the  India  Office  and  leading  members  of  Parliament. 
He  met  the  Right  Hon'ble  the  Secretary  of  State 
and  Mr.  R.  A.  Butler,  the  Under  Secretary,  both  of  whom  he 
was  able  to  impress  with  the  strength  of  the  Indian  case. 
He  also  took  an  early  opportunity  of  meeting  Earl 
Winterton  and  discussing  with  him  the  questions  agitating 


the  Delegation.  Very  early  in  the  proceedings,  the  dele- 
gation had  the  advantage  of  a  thorough  examination  of  the 
position  with  Lord  (then  Sir  Malcolm)  Hailey,  and  it  look- 
ed as  though  modification  was  possible  of  the  clause  relat- 
ing to  land  alienation  and,  as  to  Indian  immigration,  all  that 
the  Government  apparently  had  in  mind  was  the  confer- 
ment of  the  right  to  restrict  the  immigration  of  unskilled 
labour  into  Burma. 

In  addition  to  the  two  points  indicated  already,  Sir 
Annamalai  was  definitely  of  the  opinion,  that  it  was  a  matter 
of  the  first  importance  to  Chettiars,  that  they  should  have 
separate  representation  in  the  Burmese  legislature.  The 
enormous  interests  which  they  owned  in  Burma  were  held 
to  justify  the  reservation  of  a  seat  for  the  Nattukkottai 
Chettiars'  Association,  Burma. 

While  in  London,  Sir  Annamalai's  attention  was 
drawn  to  a  serious  omission  in  tiie  safguarding  provisions  of 
the  Bill.  While  a  certain  degree  of  security  in  regard  to  the 
carrying  on  of  trade  and  business  and  connected  matters  was 
guaranteed  to  British  Indian  subjects,  no  such  safeguard 
was  provided  in  the  case  of  subjects  of  Indian  States  simi- 
larly situated  in  regard  to  Burma.  Knowing  the  commit- 
ments of  the  Chettiars  of  the  Pudukotah  State,  and  of  the 
large  numbers  of  men  from  the  States  of  Western  India  who 
had  been  carrying  business  in  Burma  for  generations,  Rajah 
Sir  Annamalai  was  quick  to  realise  the  gravity  of  the  omis- 
sion and  he  forthwith  took  the  matter  up  with  the  Secretary 
of  State.  The  omission  was  repaired  by  the  Government 
themselves  introducing  the  necessary  amendment. 

Several  informal  discussions  were  held  with  the  India 
Office  authorities  who  displayed,  in  the  words  of  the  Rajah, 
"a  gratifying  readiness  to  appreciate  the  Indian  case  and  to 



do  what  they  could  do  to  safeguard  Indian  interests  in 
Burma."  His  discussion  with  Mr.  Geoitrey  Peto,  M.P., 
Mr.  Kirkpatrick,  M.P.  arid  the  Right  Hon'ble  Major  Hills 
were  particularly  helpful. 

The  discussions  disclosed  that  die  Government  were  not 
unalive  to  the  risks  involved  in  leaving  the  clauses  on  land 
alienation  unrectified.  These  clauses  were  so  framed  as  to 
give  the  Burmese  legislature  freedom  to  promote  legislation 
prohibiting  the  sale  or  mortgage  of  lands  to  persons  who 
were  not  agriculturists.  Sir  Annamalai  drew  pointed 
attention  to  the  large  accumulations  of  land  in  the  hands  of 
Indians,  as  a  result  of  circumstances,  purely  fortuitous. 
To  any  one  who  knew  the  real  position,  it  was  crystal  clear 
that  land  was  the  last  thing  which  the  Indian  business  men 
wished  to  own  in  Burma,  and  that  it  was  their  main  pur- 
pose and  preoccupation  to  get  rid  of  the  lands  which  had, 
so  to  speak,  come  unsought  into  their  possession.  Rajah 
Sir  Annamalai  was  able  to  convince  the  Secretary  of  State 
that  Indian  landowners  in  Burma  were  not  land-grabbers 
and  that,  though  as  landlords,  they  had  been  markedly  con- 
siderate to  their  tenantry  with  whom  their  relations  were, 
on  the  whole,  extremely  cordial,  they  did  not  fancy  the 
role  which  accident  had  thrust  upon  them.  He  pointed 
out  that  the  restrictive  legislation  foreshadowed  would  result 
in  an  artifical  restriction  of  the  land  market  and  a  serious 
reduction  of  land  values.  He  suggested  that  the  desired 
protection  of  agriculturists  from  the  consequences  of  their 
improvident  dealings  with  land  could  be  achieved  by  pre- 
venting the  sale  or  mortgage  of  land  in  the  hands  of  the 
agriculturists  to  anyone  who  was  not  an  agriculturist  him- 
self. The  suggestion  commended  itself  to  the  Secretary  of 
State  and  the  clause  in  question  was  amended  in  the  sense 


Clause  340  disturbed  the  delegation  a  good  deal.  It 
began  well,  it  conceded  to  Indians  the  right  to  reside  in 
Burma  and  to  carry  on  tiade  or  do  business,  without  any 
restriction  whatsoever:  it  put  the  Indians  exactly  in  the 
same  position  as  subjects  of  the  United  Kingdom  in 
regard  to  these  and  cognate  matters — but  with  a  differ- 
ence. The  clause  contained  a  proviso  that  all  the  rights  con- 
ceded by  the  clause  were  subject  to  "any  restriction  on  the 
right  of  entry"  or  "any  condition  lawfully  imposed  as  a  con- 
dition of  entry' '  which  the  legislature  of  Burma  might 
impose.  Therein  lay  the  rub.  The  clause  seemed  designed 
to  have  the  effect  of  taking  away  with  one  hand  what  had 
been  given  by  the  other.  Representations  were  made  to  the 
Secretary  of  State  about  the  unfairness  of  such  a  provision 
and  the  reply  was  given  that  it  was  felt  that  there  was  an 
uneconomic  excess  of  cheap,  unskilled  Indian  labour  which 
flooded  the  Burmese  market  and  that  the  clause  was 
designed  only  to  enable  legislation  restricting  the  immigra- 
tion of  unskilled  labour  from  India.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai 
and  Mr.  Haji  drew  attention  to  the  fact  that  there  was 
nothing  to  show  that  Indian  labour  was  assuming  menacing 
proportions  but,  on  this  head  the  Government  was  firm; 
but,  at  the  same  time,  they  made  it  perfectly  clear  that  it 
was  not  at  all  their  intention  to  strike  at  other  Indians,  who 
would  be  at  perfect  liberty  to  come  and  go  as  they  please. 
This  assurance  was  repeated  at  the  formal  interview  which 
the  Delegation  had  with  the  Secretary  of  State. 

The  delegation  was  strongly  of  the  opinion  that,  in  that 
case,  the  matter  should  be  placed  beyond  the  possibility  of 
doubt  by  a  suitable  amendment  of  the  proviso.  Lord 
Winterton  and  Mr.  Godfrey  Nicholson  were  good  enough  to 
table  amendments  in  the  sense  that  the  Burmese  legis- 
lature may  promote  legislation  designed  to  restrict  the 


immigration  of  cheap  unskilled  labour.  When  the  clause 
came  up  for  discussion,  the  Attorney  General,  Sir  Thomas 
Inskip  dealt  with  Lord  Winterton's  amendment  and  observ- 
ed that  "it  passed  the  wit  of  parliamentary  counsel  or  drafts- 
men to  devise  a  form  of  words' '  which  would  adequately 
define  the  phrase  "unskilled  labour"  and  that  therefore  the 
best  plan  would  be  to  instruct  the  Governor  to  reserve  any 
Bills  which  contain  racial  discrimination  and  to  reserve  also 
Bills  which  contain  restrictions  upon  professional  or  busi- 
ness men  who,  while  India  and  Burma  have  been  united, 
have  carried  on  business  in  either  country."  Sir  Samuel 
Hoare,  the  Secretary  of  State,  referring  to  the  discussions 
which  he  had  had  with  the  delegation  said  that  he  was  ablq 
to  convince  them  "that  the  best  way  of  meeting  their 
anxieties  was  to  adopt  the  method  of  the  Instrument  of 
Instructions."  After  such  a  full  and  clear  statement  of 
intention,  the  delegation  felt  that  there  was  no  further  need 
to  be  anxious  on  this  score.  Moreover,  when  the  Instru- 
ment of  Instructions  was  under  consideration  in  the  House 
of  Commons,  in  November  1936,  Mr.  Butler  observed  that 
the  fears  entertained  "on  this  score  by  Indians  who  wished 
to  enter  Burma  may  be  quietened  in  view  of  the  contents  of 
Paragraph  XX  of  the  Instrument  of  Instructions."  He 
added  that  "the  reason  that  we  cannot  make  a  simple  rule  is 
that  we  have  to  make  this  differentiation  in  regard  to 
unskilled  labour  while,  at  the  same  time,  we  do  not  want 
to  stop  the  free  entry  of  Indians  in  general."  It  was  assum- 
ed that  these  assurances  given  by  such  high  authorities 
would,  in  the  words  of  Mahatmaji  "have  the  effect  of  pro- 
missory notes."  The  delegation  had  not  the  slightest 
suspicion  then  that  a  day  would  come  when  these  assurances 
would  be  ignored  and  that  Government  would  take  its  stand 
on  the  letter  of  the  law  which  was,  after  all,  like  advancing 


a  plea  of  limitation  to  defeat  a  just  debt.  It  may  be  a  pro- 
missory note,  but  some  people  always  ask,  "Is  it  in  the 

Rajah  Sir  Annamalai,  while  he  was  in  England,  pleaded 
for  separate  representation  of  the  Nattukkottai  Chettiars' 
Association  in  the  Burmese  Legislature.  He  was  able  to 
present  his  case  with  such  reason  and  moderation  that  the 
Government  readily  accepted  his  suggestion.  In  moving 
the  amendment  Mr.  R.  A.  Butler,  the  Under  Secretary  of 
State  said  "The  Chettiar  Association  have  a  very  important 
position  in  Burma.  It  is  composed  mainly  of  merchant 
bankers,  who  perform  services  absolutely  vital  to  Burma. 
It  occupies  a  very  important  position  in  the  national  life  and 
performs  duties  which  Burma  can  ill  afford  to  lose." 

It  may  be  worth  recording  in  this  connection  that  after 
Rajah  Sir  Annamalai  had  left,  Mr.  R.  A.  Butler  told  the  pre- 
sent writer  (who  had  the  privilege  of  being  associated  with 
the  delegation  and  particularly  with  the  Rajah  all  through) 
that  it  was  a  pleasure  to  conduct  talks  with  the  Rajah  who 
had  always  "put  his  case  moderately"  and  hoped  that  his 
labours  will  be  appreciated  in  India. 

Mr.  Butler's  hope  was  justified.  On  his  return  to  India 
the  Rajah  was  the  recipient  of  letters  and  telegrams  expres- 
sing the  warmest  appreciation  of  his  work. 

A  special  meeting  of  the  Nagarathars  was  held  at 
Kovilur  where  a  resolution  expressing  the  community's 
appreciation  and  gratitude  was  formally  passed.  The 
Hindu  was  appreciative  and  stated  in  a  leading  article  "that 
the  concessions  that  have  been  gained  are  valuable.  They, 
in  fact,  make  it  clear  that  the  authorities  in  England  are 
convinced  that  every  one  of  the  claims  made  by  Indians  is 
wholly  justifiable." 


Since  separation  new  problems  have  arisen  and  the 
Rajah  has  always  been  ready  to  tackle  them  as  and  when 
they  arose.  In  1937,  an  attempt  was  made  to  tax  agricul- 
tural income  which  had  accrued  to  Indians  in  Burma  in 
1936.  This  was  indefensible  as,  under  the  Indian  Income- 
tax  Act,  agricultural  income  is  excmnt  from  liability  for 
income-tax  and  in  the  '  previous  year, '  which  was  the 
accounting  year  Burma  was  a  part  of  India.  The  Rajah  was 
almost  the  first  to  perceive  the  point  and  he  took  the  matter 
up  in  his  capacity  as  the  President  of  the  Nattukkottai 
Npcjarathar  Association  with  the  Central  Board  of  Revenue 
and  also  submitted  a  memorial  to  His  Excellency  the 
Governor-General-in-Council.  It  is  gratifying  to  be  able  to 
record  that  the  Government  of  India  directed  the  cancella- 
tion of  the  levy. 

Land  legislation  became  a  vexed  question  in  Burma  and 
came  to  be  taken  in  hand  in  1938.  The  question  was 
whether  occupancy  rights  were  to  be  given  to  Burmese 
peasants  and  what  steps  should  be  taken  to  protect  them 
from  the  consequences  of  their  improvident  dealings  with 
their  land.  The  System  of  landholding  in  Burma  is  ryot- 
wari  and  virtually  modelled  on  the  Madras  system.  Rajah 
Sir  Annamalai  Chettiar  and  his  fellow-Nattukkottai 
Chettiars  were  in  entire  sympathy  with  the  promotion 
of  schemes  calculated  to  improve  the  economic  position  of 
the  Burmese  peasant.  But  they  pleaded  that  the  methods 
adopted  should  be  such  as  to  achieve  the  object  and  at 
the  same  time  be  above  reproach.  He  cited  the  example  of 
the  Malabar  Tenancy  Act  and  indicated  that  the  remedy 
lay  in  the  direction  of  providing  for  something  like  an 
option  of  renewal  on  a  fair  and  equitable  rent,  to  be  settled 
by  the  Revenue  Officer  assisted  by  a  kind  of  local  jury,  and 


for  equitable  enhancement.  The  main  thing  to  be  guarded 
against  was  unconditional  or  improper  ejectment.  One 
point  which  Sir  Annamalai  has  always  stressed  is  that  the 
Indians  ought  to  be  prepared  to  part  with  their  lands  in 
their  possession  at  the  earliest  opportunity — a  view  in  which 
the  Indian  community  are  in  entire  accord. 

Many  and  various  are  the  practical  problems  which 
Separation  has  brought  to  the  fore  and  these  require  to  be 
studied  with  care  and  dispassion.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai 
keeps  an  alert  and  watchful  eye  on  them  and  has  been  ever 
ready  and  willing  to  take  steps  for  their  preservation. 

The  need  for  vigilence  and  vigorous  action  has  never 
been  greater  than  at  the  present  moment.  We  have  all  heard 
of  the  Indo-Burma  Immigration  Agreement  which  was 
recently  concluded  between  the  Government  of  India  and 
the  Government  of  Burma.  The  whole  matter  is,  in  a 
manner  of  speaking,  subjudice,  but  there  can  be  no  harm 
in  saying  that  the  whole  country  is  cursing  it  by  bell,  book 
and  candle.  The  strongest  criticism  to  which  there  has, 
so  far,  been  no  answer  is  that  the  agreement  runs  counter 
to  the  assurance  given  in  and  outside  Parliament  that  the 
checks  on  Indian  Immigration  would  be  limited  to  the  case 
of  unskilled  labour. 

A  public  meeting  was  held  in  Madras  on  the  28th  of 
July  to  condemn  the  agreement.  Sir  Mahomed  Usman  pre- 
sided and  expressed  his  disapproval  in  no  uncertain  terms. 
Kumararajah  Sir  Muthiah  Chettiar,  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai's 
son,  who  has  already  made  a  name  for  himself  by  his 
philanthropy  and  public  spirit,  subjected  the  agreement  to 
a  scathing  analysis.  A  strong  and  influential  Committee 
has  been  appointed  to  take  steps  to  obtain  a  rectification  of 
the  agreement.  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai,  naturally,  is  on  this 


Committee  where  his  intimate  first-hand  knowledge  of 
affairs  is  found  to  be  of  great  practical  help.  Along  with 
other  members  of  the  deputation,  he  waited  on  His  Excel- 
lency the  Viceroy  and  presented  the  case  for  India  forcefully 
and  yet  fairly. 

A  Delegation  from  Burma  was  in  Simla  recently  and 
Bombay  and  Bengal  have  taken  up  the  matter  vigorously. 
It  is  hoped  that  the  joint  labours  of  the  various  bodies  which 
have  taken  up  the  matter  will  result  in  the  substitution  of 
an  arrangement  which  will  be  in  consonance  with  justice, 
equity  and  good  conscience.  Sir  Annamalai's  own  feeling  is 
that  "someone  has  blundered".  The  Burmese  people  acting 
in  consullation  with  Indians  would  have  been  able  to  pro- 
duce an  arrangement  fairly  and  reasonably  reconciling  then- 
different  claims.  The  Burmese,  he  is  convinced,  have  noth- 
ing but  the  liveliest  affection  for  the  Indians,  based  upon  an 
intercourse  which  goes  back  through  the  ages  and  will  not 
readily  consent  to  cut  the  painter  regardless.  They  are  not 
at  all  likely  to  contemplate  with  equanimity  the  cessation  of 
the  free  flow  of  thought  and  commerce  which  has  charac- 
terised the  relations  between  the  two  countries.  And,  as 
for  the  Indians  themselves,  they  can  never  forget  what 
Burma  and  the  Burmese  have  meant  to  them,  and  whatever 
happens,  mingling  with  the  wind  in  the  palm-trees  and  the 
tinkle  of  the  temple-bells,  the  .voice  of  the  kindly  Burmese 
people  will  be  wafted  over  the  waters  of  the  Bengal  Bay. 

"Come  you  back  to  Mandalay, 
Where  the  flyin' — fishes  play, 
An'  the  dawn  comes  up  like  thunder  outer  China 

'crost  the  Bay!" 



The  Library  Movement  means  the  education  of  the 
masses  with  the  aid  of  Libraries  and  the  scope  of  the  sub- 
ject is  confined  to  popular  public  libraries  and  other  subjects 
like  the  Commercial,  Special,  National,  University,  Prison 
and  Hospital  Libraries  are  excluded.  The  oft-quoted  dictum 
of  Carlyle  'The  true  University  of  these  days  is  a  collection 
of  books"  is  only  a  half  truth.  "A  collection  of  books  is 
neither  more  nor  less  than — a  collection  of  books,  no  more 
a  library  than  a  heap  of  bricks  is  a  building.  The  books,  qua 
books  are  little  or  nothing — they  must  be  made  productive 
by  the  work  of  the  Librarian,  books  selected,  classified  and 
catalogued  and  intelligently  displayed.  That  is  a  library " 
(Stanley  Jast: — Libraries  and  Living,  page  4). 

It  wa*  in  the  year  1910  the  modern  Library  Movement 
began  in  our  country  when  that  enlightened  ruler  and 
sagacious  statesman,  the  late  Sayaji  Rao  Gaekwad 
brought  the  American  Librarian,  Borden  to  introduce 
and  plan  modern  libraries  in  his  state.  To  him  belongs 
the  credit  of  having  inaugurated  the  Library  Movement  in 
our  country.  Libraries  were  long  ago  recognized  as  im- 
portant auxiliaries  to  any  system  of  national  education  in  the 
European  countries  and  the  State  financed  and  maintained 
libraries  which  became  effective  instruments  of  adult  educa- 
tion and  centres  of  learning.  On  account  of  the  cultural 
value  and  immense  influence  on  the  people  the  library 



movement  in  the  West  converted  a  great  majority  of  nation- 
alities into  literate  citizens  who  were  fully  able  to  appreci- 
ate the  significance  of  political  and  social  rights  they  were 
capable  of  enjoying  under  democratic  governments.  A 
brief  review  of  the  progress  of  Libraries  in  a  few  European 
countries  may  help  us  to  understand  the  problem  better. 

Belgium  is  the  oldest  country  to  have  developed  the 
public  library  in  the  14th  and  15ih  centuries.  So  eariy  as 
1772  Maria  Theresa  opened  the  Library  oi  the  Dukes  oi 
Burgundy  and  in  I7i*2  the  National  Convention  decreed 
4  'There  shall  be  close  to  every  school  a  puohc  library  and  a 
small  museum  of  national  history/'  The  Teaching  League 
took  an  active  part  in  the  i^tn  century,  in  Ib20  every  Com- 
mune was  obliged  to  start  a  library  li  i|5  oi  the  electoral 
body  demanded  it.  in  li)2y  for  a  population  ol  8  millions 
there  were  over  3*8  million  booKs  and  2,188  public  libraries. 

Equally  interesting  is  the  progress  ot  Jbuigarian  Libra- 
ries which  were  tounded  in  Ibob  and  pavea  the  way  ior 
tuture  democracy.  ufclhe  Jruoiic  Libraries  were  miniature 
departments  ot  j&ciucaiion,  wao  appointed  teachers,  provid- 
ed poor  students  with  text  books  and  clothing,  tounded  the 

Bulgarian  Academy  oi  Sciences  at  Braila jtfuigarian 

national  drama  and  theatre  were  lostered  within  the  wails 
of  the  libraries  —ttostwicK — l  Popular  Libraries  of  the 
World ;  pages  36  and  37.  Portions  of  state  lands  were  set 
apart  out  oi  revenues,  of  which  the  libraries  were  maintained. 

In  1920  68  per  cent  of  the  population  of  the  Soviet  Union 
were  illiterate  and  the  work  of  the  Commissariat  of  Educa- 
tion was  the  education  of  adult  population  and  "creation  of 
centres  for  the  liquidation  of  illiteracy;  political,  cultural 
clubs  and  reading  rooms  (Lenin  Corners);  workers  and 
peasants'  houses;  permanent  and  itinerant  libraries; 


quick  learners  help  the  slower;  semi-illiterates  the  illite- 
rates/' Good  (W.T.)  "School  Teachers  and  scholars  in 
Soviet  Russia"  pages  61-63.  Thus  over  ten  million  people 
were  taught  to  read  and  write  and  the  love  of  books  was 
such  that  even  in  lobbies  of  Cinemas  there  is  a  Reading  Room 
to  keep  the  visitors  occupied  in  the  intervals  of  performances, 
and  the  number  of  literates  has  come  up  to  90  per  cent  in 
recent  times  because  the  Soviet  Libraries  were  an  active 
social  and  educational  force, 

In  England  the  Public  Library  Act  was  passed  in  1850 
and  from  that  time  onward  the  state  has  undertaken  the 
maintenance  and  control  of  libraries.  By  1927  with  the 
benefactions  of  Andrew  Carnegie  the  whole  country  was 
covered  with  a  network  of  county  libraries,  the  next  stage 
being  the  establishment  of  Regional  System  of  Co-operation 
and  National  Central  Library.  Sir  Frederick  George  Ken- 
yon,  Director,  British  Museum,  in  his  Message  to  Indian 
Library  Association  states  "You  in  India  can  profit  by  our 
experience.  It  may  take  generations  to  form  a  library  sys- 
tem to  cover  this  vast  country.  The  lesson  of  Librarians  is 
mutual  help  and  common  service  to  entire  nation  and  man- 

When  compared  to  this  state  of  affairs  elsewhere  the 
Library  movement  may  be  said  to  be  still  in  its  infancy  in 
our  country.  Judged  by  the  literacy  test  in  the  last  decade 
which  is  only  8  per  cent  for  the  whole  of  India  (though  a  few 
states  fare  better)  the  gulf  separating  the  educated  and  the 
uneducated  is  so  enormously  wide  and  no  society  or  nation 
can  be  said  to  be  civilized  or  enlightened  under  such  condi- 

The  Indian  peasant  is  steeped  in  ignorance,  superstition 
and  bigotry  in  addition  to  his  proverbial  poverty.  A  com- 


pulsory  (not  optional  as  it  is  now)  system  of  primary  edu- 
cation can  surely  eradicate  the  evil  but  without  the  aid  of 
libraries,  even  this  will  be  useless.  The  Government 
Reports  of  Education  Departments  have  often  deplored  the 
lapses  into  illiteracy  in  the  stages  of  primary  education.  The 
dictum  of  Loe  Strachey  (Editor  of  the  Spectator) — "To 
educate  people  and  not  to  provide  them  with  tools  to  work 
with  (books)  is  obviously  an  absurdity,  if  not  a  crime' '  still 
holds  good.  The  only  solution  and  immediate  need  of  the 
hour  is  the  establishment  of  village  libraries  whereby  the 
wastage  of  money  on  primary  education  could  be  avoided 
and  full  benefits  be  reaped  by  the  villager.  The  economic, 
cultural  and  political  advancement  of  our  country  is  closely 
connected  with  the  education  of  the  masses  and  libraries 
play  the  most  important  part  in  this  nation-building  activity. 
It  is  for  the  State  to  maintain  and  build  up  as  many  libraries 
as  possible  or  to  initiate  legislation  to  enable  local  authori- 
ties to  raise  funds  by  taxation. 

Let  us  examine  if  this  movement  is  entirely  foreign  or 
if  there  are  traces  of  libraries  in  our  country  in  ancient  days. 
Long  ago  our  venerable  sage  and  lawgiver  Manu  declared 
that  to  carry  knowledge  to  the  doors  of  the  poor  was  the 
greatest  act  of  charity  a  nation  could  be  capable  of  doing 
and  knowledge  was  imparted  in  very  ancient  times  by  word 
of  mouth  before  the  days  of  printing. 

Literature  and  learning  were  the  sole  monopoly  of  the 
priestly  classes  who  carried  the  whole  of  the  Vedas  in  their 
memories  and  were  thus  Ambulatory  Librarians.  Even  to 
this  day  we  find  traces  of  them  in  the  Dwivedi  and  Trivedis 
of  Gujarat.  The  secular  literature  was  spread  by  the  bards 
who  were  entertained  at  royal  courts  and  sang  the  exploits 
of  warriors.  It  was  from  the  amalgamation  of  these  epics 
we  get  the  Mahabharata. 


From  the  accounts  of  the  Chinese  pilgrims  Fa-hien, 
Hiuen  Tsiang  and  I-tsing  of  the  5th  and  7th  centuries  we  get 
some  description  of  libraries  in  the  Universities  of  Nalanda, 
Taxila  and  Pataliputra.  The  Nalanda  University  had  a 
library  in  a  nine  storied  building  with  300  apartments. 

In  the  Inscriptions  of  Nagai  published  in  1928  (Hydera- 
bad Archaeological  Series  No.  8  pages  7  and  40)  under  the 
Chalukyan  king  of  the  llth  century  we  find  "Equipment  of 
a  Library  (Sarasvati  bhandara)  with  Librarians  who  were 
called  Sarasvati  bhandarikas."  There  were  six  of  them  who 
with  six  other  teachers  were  teaching  a  body  of  252  students. 
King  Bhoja  is  said  to  have  had  a  big  library. 

Under  the  Mohammadan  rule  we  find  emperors  taking 
interest  in  Hindu  books  and  Kalilah  Damnah  was  translated 
into  Persian  as  Anwar-i  Suheili.  Jalaluddin,  founder  of  the 
Khilji  dynasty,  appointed  the  reputed  poet  and  scholar  Amir 
Khusru  as  his  Imperial  Librarian  and  raised  him  to  the 
status  of  a  peer.  In  the  Bahmini  dynasty  there  was  a  big 
library  at  Ahmednagar.  Mohammad  Gawan  who  lived  in 
the  15th  century  was  the  Andrew  Carnegie  of  those  days. 
He  was  a  minister  and  poet  who  built  a  number  of  libraries. 
At  Bijapur  there  was  a  library  under  the  Adil  Shahi  kings. 

Fergusson  an  English  architect  who  visited  the  place 
in  the  19th  century  concluded  from  the  ruins  that  it  must 
have  been  a  fine  library. 

Among  the  Moghul  kings  Great  Akbar  was  an  enthusi- 
astic bibliophile,  who  acquired  the  library  of  his  minister 
Faizi  and  also  the  Library  of  the  Gujarati  king  whom  he 
conquered.  It  was  in  his  reign  we  have  the  practice  of 
illuminating  books  with  pictures  and  much  attention  was 
paid  to  sumptuous  bindings.  The  recent  work  of  historic 
importance  throwing  light  on  miniature  painting  and  book 


decorations  of  the  ancient  Persians  is  that  publication  of  the 
Oxford  University  Press  under  the  editorship  of  Pope  (Sur- 
vey of  Persian  Art,  Volume  III).  Humayun  also  was  a 
lover  of  books.  There  seems  to  have  been  some  system  of 
classification  also.  Books  were  divided  into  three  groups 
(1)  Poetry,  Medicine,  Astrology  and  Music,  (2)  Philology, 
Philosophy,  Sufism,  Astronomy  and  Geometry,  (3)  Com- 
mentaries, traditions,  theology  and  Law.  It  is  too  much  to 
expect  that  the  equipment,  methods  and  ideals  of  modern 
Library  service  were  prevalent  in  our  country  long  ago. 

Coming  to  recent  times  in  the  pioneer  State  of  Baroda 
there  are  over  1,100  Village  Libraries  for  a  total  of  3000 
villages  in  the  State  and  the  system  of  State  grant  is  as 
follows.  In  District  towns  the  Government  gives  a  grant 
of  Rs.  700  provided  the  people  raise  Rs.  700  and  local  boards 
contribute  an  equal  sum  of  Rs.  700.  In  the  case  of  less  im- 
portant towns  the  amount  is  Rs.  300  and  for  villages  100 
with  equal  contributions  from  the  people  and  local  boards. 
Similar  rules  apply  for  buildings  also  (Rs.  1000).  On  mar- 
riage occasions  a  small  fee  is  collected  for  libraries.  The 
travelling  libraries  are  maintained  solely  by  Government. 
With  its  network  of  village  and  town  libraries,  Baroda  is 
the  most  advanced  state  in  our  country  and  serves  over  82 
per  cent  of  the  state  population. 

Another  American  A.  D.  Dickson  reorganized  the  Libra- 
ries of  the  Punjab  in  1915  and  started  training  classes.  In 
1929  there  was  a  Librarians'  Club  in  Lahore  which  ultimate- 
ly developed  into  the  Punjab  Library  Association  and 
Modern  Librarian  is  the  leading  journal  in  the  field  now, 
In  1932  the  Indian  Library  Association  was  formed  which 
has  held  four  conferences.  The  compilation  of  a  Union 
Catalogue  of  Scientific  Periodicals,  a  Scheme  for  inter-loan 


of  books,  expansion  of  Dewey  System  to  suit  Indian  subjects 
are  some  subjects  on  which  it  is  at  work.  It  has  also  taken 
up  the  establishment  of  provincial  copyright  libraries  in  the 

Much  useful  work  has  also  been  done  by  the  Library 
Associations  of  the  Provinces  of  Madras,  Bombay,  Bengal 
Bihar  and  United  Provinces.  The  Andhra  Desa  Library 
Association  has  been  organizing  libraries  amongst  the 
Andhras  north  of  Madras.  The  All  Kerala  Library  Associa- 
tion is  doing  much  in  the  States  of  Travancore  and  Cochin. 

The  Governments  of  the  Punjab,  Bombay,  Bihar,  United 
Provinces  and  Madras  are  doing  some  efforts  for  establishing 
libraries  in  rural  parts;  but  still  much  remains  to  be  done 
and  there  is  enough  scope  ror  private  philanthropy  to  under- 
take this  work  of  national  reconstruction. 


"A  Critical  Evalution" 

P.  S.  NAIDU,  M.A., 

ivimd-maUer  dualism,  it  has  been  argued,  is  the 
hiduen  rock  on  wmch  many  systems  01  European  thought 
have  been  wrecked,  it  has  raised  so  many  insoluble  pro- 
blems that  one  looks  aghast  at  the  dead  wall  to  which  one 
is  led  up  ii'  its  implications  are  uncritically  accepted. 
Courageous  attempts  have  been  made  to  break  through  this 
wall  by  denying  the  one  or  the  other  element  in  the 
dualistic  partnership,  or  by  reducing  one  to  the  status  of  a 
mere  function  or  even  an  appearance  of  the  other.  But 
these  attempts  have  been  sorry  failures.  What  is  ejected 
out  of  the  front  creeps  in  by  the  back  door.  From  Plato 
down  to  Bergson  dualism  has  persisted  in  some  form  or  other. 
Mind  and  Matter;  thought  and  extension;  substance  and 
attribute ;  reality  and  appearance ;  phenomenon  and 
noumenon; — these  are  a  lew  of  the  many  forms  which  the 
dualism  has  assumed.  Of  these  mind-matter  dualism  is  the 
most  refractory  type.  We  do  not  propose  to  tackle  this  pro- 
blem in  this  very  short  paper,  but  shall  attempt  to  deal  with 
something  which  is  much  simpler,  but  at  the  same  time  very 
important  for  a  general  understanding  of  the  problem  in  its 
proper  perspective.  We  shall  deal  with  the  metaphysical 
origins  of  this  problem  in  Cartesian  philosophy. 

Dualism  of  mind  and  matter  has  been  a  most 
unwelcome  legacy  to  the  long  line  of  European  thinkers.  It 


haunted  the  minds  of  philosophers  and  psychologists,  and 
produced  bizarre  hallucinations  and  strange  delusions.  Its 
remote  origins  are,  no  doubt,  lost  in  the  dim  past  of  ancient 
Greek  speculations,  but  its  immediate  ancestry  may  be 
readily  traced  to  the  'father  of  modern  philosophy'.  Renes 
Descartes  it  was  who  gave  it  philosophic  standing,  and  since 
his  time  it  has  been  a  thorn  in  the  side  of  the  philosopher. 

There  are  critical  thinkers  who  believe  that  it  is  not  the 
method  of  doubt,  not  the  'cogito  ergo  sum\  but  the  dualism 
of  mind  and  matter  that  is  the  foundation  for  Cartesian 
philosophy.  It  is  a  datum,  and  not  a  deduction,  say  they. 
The  steps  in  the  proof,  though  styled  deductive,  by  which 
Descartes  passes  from  the  self  to  the  external  world  on  the 
one  hand,  and  to  God  on  the  other,  are  so  many  immediate 
intuitive  apprehensions,  and  not  syllogistic  deductions. 
Each  step  in  the  demonstration,  Descartes  himself  holds, 
shares  the  compelling  character  of  the  'cogito'.  We  are  pre- 
pared to  admit  this,  but  we  are  forced  to  agree  with  the  critic 
who  says  that  unless  a  dualism  is  postulated  as  a  pre-condi- 
tion of  the  demonstration,  the  conclusion  cannot  be  obtained. 
Descartes  contends  that  the  'cogito'  is  an  axiom  in  the 
strictest  mathematical  sense.  Even  so,  all  that  the  Cartesian 
deducation  can  establish  is  that  there  is  a  material  world  and 
that  our  knowledge  of  it  is  not  deceptive.  How  that  know- 
ledge is  possible  at  all  is  not  made  clear. 

The  whole  difficulty  arises  out  of  a  subtle  unanalysed 
fallacy  in  the  'cogito'  itself.  When  Descartes  argued,  "I 
think  ;  therefore,  I  am,  "  he  created  an  unbridgable  gulf  be- 
tween the  subject  who  thinks  and  the  object  of  his  thought. 
Thereafter  a  reconciliation  between  subject  and  object  could 
be  attempted  only  through  some  such  highly  mechanical 
and  artificial  device  as  the  'Deus  ex  machina'  of  Occasiona- 



The  situation  became  so  distressing  that  Spinoza  had 
to  adopt  very  desperate  measures  to  rescue  the  toundations 
of  metaphysics.  As  an  alternative  to  occasionalism 
Spinoza  chose  the  device  of  raising  the  methodological 
principle  of  universal  Cartesian  doubt  to  the  status  of  a 
meta-physical  principle.  He  stated  it  in  the  form  so  well 
known  to  us,  'All  determination  is  negation.'  But  in  doing 
so  he  emptied  his  central  metaphysical  concept  of  all  con- 
tent. It  is  true  that  dualism  of  the  Cartesian  type  is  elimi- 
nated here,  but  the  conception  of  the  absolute  which 
Spinoza  arrived  at  by  thinking  away  all  its  determinations 
is  so  significantly  empty  of  any  content  that  a  learned 
philosopher  remarked  that  it  is  'the  empty  idea  of  being, 
which  idea  is  indistinguishable  from  the  idea  of  empty 
being.'  If,  therefore,  we  exclude  from  the  absolute  com- 
pletely the  positive  element  which  the  relations  of  the 
finite  supply,  we  must  find  ourselves  confronted  by  an  un- 
knowable absolute — an  absolute  which  because  it  leaves 
the  finite  unexplained  is  philosophically  useless,  and  which 
because  it  excludes  the  finite  from  itself  is  faced  by  it  as  an 
other,  and  so  ceases  to  be  absolute.  This  is  the  final  con- 
clusion if  we  accept  the  rigorous  exclusion  of  determination 
championed  by  Spinoza  and  others  in  the  same  line  of 
philosophic  thought. 

But,  even  so  has  Spinoza  succeeded  in  maintaining  con- 
sistently the  position  reached  by  systematic  deduction  from 
his  metaphysical  principle?  Alongside  his  empty  absolute  he 
postualtes  'God'  with  innumerable  auspicious  qualities.  The 
dualism  which  Spinoza  sought  to  overcome  by  reducing 
thought  and  extension  to  the  subordinate  status  of  attributes 
of  the  absolute  now  reappears  in  another  form.  And  this 
persistent  dualism  may  in  the  last  resort  be  traced  to  the 
Cartesian  'Cogito'. 


How  are  we  to  break  through  this  dualism?  Leibnitz, 
the  third  in  the  line  of  European  rationalistic  succession, 
attempted  to  resolve  the  difficulty  by  taking  up  relation  into 
substance  itself,  and  by  attempting  to  reconcile  the  idea  of 
substance  as  a  continum  with  that  of  substance  as  com- 
posed of  discrete  elements.  We  have  seen  already  that 
Descartes  created  a  gulf  between  subject  and  object,  and 
then  struggled  to  bridge  it  by  interactionism.  The  cartesian 
system  is  predominantly  logical,  and  so  efficient  causation 
has  no  place  in  it.  Yet  efficient  causation  is  introduced  by 
Descartes  and  made  to  function  in  an  illogical  manner.  In 
Spinoza  efficient  causation  has  no  place  at  all.  Has  not 
Spinoza  definitely  thrown  out  interactionism,  and  chosen 
logical  ground  and  consequence  instead  of  cause  and  effect 
as  his  guiding  principles?  But  this  discarded  element 
suddenly  makes  its  appearance  in  the  Spinozistic  doctrine 
of  modes.  Leibnitz  shrewdly  noticing  these  defects  in  his 
predecessor's  systems,  proposed  to  take  up  efficient  causa- 
tion into  his  principle  of  sufficient  reason.  But  in  the 
Monadology  of  Leibnitz  the  principle  of  contradiction  plays 
an  important  part.  And  Leibnitz  is  unable  to  bring  this 
principle  into  harmony  with  efficient  causation.  And  finally 
we  are  landed  in  the  grand  Leibnitzian  doctrine  of  'Pre- 
established  Harmony'.  Moreover  the  Leibnitzian  denial  of 
the  reality  of  space  is  in  response  to  the  demand  made  by 
the  very  definition  of  the  Monad  itself.  The  philosophical 
quagmire  into  which  our  thinker  lands  himself  may  be  traced 
to  his  incapacity  to  resolve  the  two  principles  of  contradic- 
tion and  efficient  reason  in  a  higher  synthesis.  If  he  had 
treated  these  as  merely  two  aspects  of  self-consciousness  he 
would  have  had  no  difficulty  at  all  in  his  metaphysics. 

And  that  takes  us  back  to  the  beginning  of  our  story. 
The  blame  for  all  the  ills  that  European  rationalism  is  heir 


to  may  be  laid  at  the  door  of  Descartes.  The  Cartesian 
Cogito,  and  the  assumption  that  the  rationality  of  the 
universe  may  be  deduced  from  this  principle  are  the 
sources  of  all  these  difficulties.  It  was  open  to  Descartes 
to  have  made  the  right  start  by  taking  the  rationality  of 
the  universe  or  the  veracity  of  God  as  the  indispensable 
first  principle  or  the  unquestioned  datum.  Then  the  scio, 
and  not  the  cogito  would  have  been  the  ruling  doctrine  in 
Cartesianism.  And  in  the  scio  Descartes  would  have 
found  such  a  vital  union  betwen  subject  and  object 
as  would  have  made  the  dualistic  position  absolutely  impossi- 
ble. The  cogito  necessarily  resolves  into  a  subject  who 
perceives  his  own  ideas  which  may  or  may  not  be  true  repre- 
sentations of  the  reality  outside,  whereas  in  the  scio  we  have 
a  subject  who  know:;  objects.  Ropresentationism  could 
have  been  completely  avoided  by  making  the  fact  of  know- 
ledge instead  of  the  fact  of  thinking  the  central  point  in  the 

The  cogito  with  interactionism  as  its  prop  challenges 
parallelism  and  brings  this  into  prominence,  and  finally 
evolves  into  pre-established  harmony.  Throughout  the 
course  of  this  evolution  the  principle  of  efficient  causation 
championed  by  science  is  making  its  appearance  at  critical 
points  in  a  most  inconvenient  manner.  All  these  unrecon- 
ciled and  irreconcilable  logical  and  psychological  principles 
may  be  resolved  in  a  higher  synthesis  if  we  make  1  know' 
instead  of  1  think'  the  starting  point  for  a  rationalistic 



Lecturer  in  Economics,  University  of  Madras. 

For  a  long  time  the  city  of  Madras  and  the  coastal 
districts  to  the  north  do  not  appear  to  have  been  self-suffi- 
cient in  the  matter  of  food  supply.  An  English  writer  of 
the  18th  century  refers  to  its  dependence  on  foreign  supplies 
of  food  grains  and  the  consequent  vulnerability  to  an  econo- 
mic blockade: 

"Madras,  with  most  other  places  on  the  Coast  of 
Corromondel  (which  is  in  general  barren  and  does  not 
produce  grain  enough  for  the  subsistence  of  its  inhabi- 
tants) is  obliged  to  be  yearly  supplied  from  the  more 
fertile  coasts  of  Orissa  and  Bengal,  with  vast  quantities 
of  rice,  which  is  the  chief  food  of  the  most  of  the  people 
in  the  East  Indies;  so  that  an  Enemy  that  is  superior  at 
sea,  may  easily  distress  them  very  much,  by  taking  the 
vessels  laden  with  rice  coming  from  the  Northward."1 

Among  the  records  of  the  East  India  Company  we  find 
statistics  of  the  import  of  "rice,  wheat  and  all  other  grain 
and  pulse"  from  1796-97  to  1828-29.  These  statistics  pre- 
pared by  the  elder  Mill,  in  his  capacity  as  the  Examiner  of 

1.  A  Narrative  of  the  transactions  of  British  Squadrons 
in  the  East  Indies  during  the  late  war :  By  an  Officer  who  served 
in  those  Squadrons  (1751) ,  p.  30, 



India  Correspondence,  does  not  give  the  import  figures  for 
rice  separately,  but  it  is  certain  that  the  bulk  of  it  consisted 
of  rice.  The  following  figures  give  the  periodical  averages 
of  import  in  quantity  and  value  of  grains  from  "the  several 
ports  of  Bengal  to  the  several  ports  and  places  on  the  Coro- 
mandel  coast"  from  1796-97  to  1828-29.2 


Period      Average  No.  Average  No.  Average 
Years  of  Bags         of  Maunds      Value 


1796-7  to  1800-1 





1801-2  to  1805-6 





1806-7  to  1810-11 





1811-12  to  1815-16 





1816-17  to  1820-21 





1821-22  to  1825-26 





1826-27  to  1828-29 





A  closer  study  of  the  statistics  shows  that  these  imports 
came  to  meet  a  real  want  since  they  had  been  the  heaviest 
in  years  when  the  Presidency  or  parts  of  it  were  experiencing 
a  drought  or  famine,  as  in  1806-7  and  1807-8,  in  1812-13 
and  1813-14  and  in  1823-24  to  1825-26.  The  imports  were 
confined  to  the  city  of  Madras  (and  its  vicinities  including 
Chingleput  and  North  Arcot  Districts)  and  to  the  northern 
districts  such  as  Godavary,  Kistna,  Vizagapatam  and  Gan- 
jam.  In  the  south,  Tanjore  was  acting  as  a  great  granary  and 
was  even  exporting  to  Ceylon.  On  the  West  Coast,  Canara 

2.     Compiled  from  the  Report  of  the  Select  Committee  of  the 
House  of  Commons,  1832,  Appendix  No.   109. 


was  exporting  rice  to  Arabia  and  Bombay.3  The  Ceded 
Districts  received  their  supplies  mainly  from  Mysore.  The 
markets  of  Tanjore  and  Canara  would  have  met  the  internal 
demands  had  there  been  an  adequate  development  of  in- 
land communications.  However,  up  to  about  1825  rice  im- 
ports from  Bengal  were  regular.  "  A  large  fleet  of  dhonies 
regularly  plied  between  the  Coromandel  Coast  and  Bengal 
conveying  salt  to  Calcutta  and  returning  with  cargo  of 
grain.  Their  chief  resort  was  the  port  of  Coringa  from 
which  place  grain  could  be  distributed  not  only  throughout 
the  Northern  Circars  but  also  through  Hyderabad.4 

In  the  twenties,  a  new  source  of  supply  for  rice  sprang 
up  from  Burma,  which  ultimately  displaced  Bengal  as  an  ex- 
porter. It  subsequently  assumed  such  proportions  during 
the  economic  depression  that  prevailed  in  the  Madras  Presi- 
dency during  the  years  1825-545  that  an  analogy  as  to  its 
effects  can  be  found  only  in  the  Burmese  imports  of  rice  in 
the  recent  depression.  History  repeats  itself. 

The  development  of  rice  trade  in  Burma  reads  like  a 
romance.  In  1826  the  provinces  of  Arakan  and  Tenasserim 
were  annexed  by  the  British.  At  that  time  they  were  so 
thinly  populated  and  undeveloped  that  it  was  seriously  con- 

3.  Evidence  of  Mr.  Hodgson  to  the  Select  Committee  of  the 
House  of  Commons,  dated  May  1830. 

4.  Henry  St.  G.  Tucker :    Memorials  of  India  Government, 
p.  461. 

The  important  part  played  by  the  port  of  Coringa  (near 
Cocanada)  in  the  commercial  intercourse  with  Burma  is  seen  from 
the  fact  that  even  to-day  Telugu  labourers  from  whichever  part 
they  come  are  called  Corangees  by  the  Burmese. 

5.  Thomas    and    Natarajan :     Economic    Depression    in    the 
Madras  Presidency    (1825-54),    (Economic  History  Review,  Vol. 
VII  No.  1.) 


templated  whether  they  should  not  be  restored  to  the  Burman 
king.  But  in  the  subsequent  thirty  years  the  two  provinces 
witnessed  unparalleled  economic  development  under  the 
aegis  of  British  rule.6  Vast  tracts  of  virgin  soil  were  brought 
under  the  plough  and  sown  with  paddy.  The  total  increase 
in  the  cultivated  area  in  Arakan  alone  between  1826  and 
1855  was  250  per  cent. 


Area  of  assessed 



Land  Revenue 















A  similar  development  took  place  in  Tenasserim  also, 
where  the  land  revenue  from  cultivated  area  rose  from 
Rs.  26,760  in  1825-26  to  Rs.  8,33,000  in  1855-56.  In  1843 
the  acreage  under  cultivation  was  1,00,657.  In  1855-56  it 
rose  to  1,81,681.  Meanwhile  population  also  grew  but  not 
at  a  pace  to  substantiate  the  truth  of  the  Malthusian  law. 
While  the  density  per  square  mile  increased  from  5*5 
and  2-5  in  1826  to  20  and  7  in  1855  in  Arakan  and  Tenas- 
serim respectively,  the  area  under  cultivation  increased  at  a 
faster  pace  in  the  newly  developing  country. 

6.  Col.  A.  Fytche,  Chief  Commissioner,  British  Burma  and 
Agent  to  the  Governor-General :  Memorandum  on  the  compara- 
tive progress  of  the  Provinces  now  forming  British  Burma  under 
British  and  Native  Rule,  23—8—1867. 


An  increase  in  the  two  factors  of  production,  land  and 
labour,  under  British  political  organisation  resulted  in  in- 
tense exploitation  of  resources.  Till  then  these  provinces 
had  few  ports  of  importance  and  the  number  of  vessels  which 
called  at  those  ports  were  few  and  far  between;  now  they  saw 
the  rise  of  Akyab  in  Arakan  and  Moulmein  in  Tenasserim. 
The  former  reached  a  population  of  20,000  during  the  period 
and  the  latter  from  a  fishing  village  became  a  port  of  60,000 
inhabitants.  In  1855  the  value  of  trade  of  Arakan  amounted 
to  Rs.  187,69,980  and  that  of  Tenasserim  to  Rs.  83,63,050. 
The  increased  production  of  rice  found  an  outlet  in  the 
markets  of  Madras  and  northwards. 

A  number  of  factors  helped  to  give  a  fillip  to  the  Bur- 
mese export  trade  in  grain.  Firstly,  ine  iandnoiders  in  Bri- 
tish Burma  had  numerous  advantages  over  those  in  Madras, 
The  swamps  of  Arakan  required  but  little  manual  labour  to 
ensure  abundant  crops.  The  land  tax  was  no  more  than  a 
fourth  of  what  it  was  in  most  parts  of  the  Presidency.7  Waste 
lands  were  granted  on  very  tavourable  terms.  Lands  were 
divided  into  5  classes  according  to  fertility  and  were  given 
rent-free  for  periods  varying  from  4  to  34  years.  After  that 
assessments  starting  with  a  minimum  of  6d.  per  acre 
were  levied  and  they  increased  at  a  progressive  rate  within 
a  period  ranging  from  8  to  64  years  as  the  case  might  be, 
until  the  maximum  of  Is.  6d.  per  acre  was  reached.  Even 
at  that  stage  one-fourth  of  the  holdings  was  permanently 
held  free  of  assessment.8 

Secondly,  the  prices  that  ruled  in  the  markets  of  the 
Madras  Presidency  were  higher  than  those  obtainable  in  the 

7.  Madras  Public  Works  Commission  Report   (1852),  p.  129. 

8.  Nassau  Lees  :  Land  and  Labour  of  India  (1861). 



home  market;  and  the  higher  the  price  in  the  Indian  market 
due  to  scarcity  or  famine,  the  greater  the  incentive  to  export 
from  Arakan.  Thus,  for  instance,  in  1846  rice  was  selling 
at  Arakan  at  1  rupee  per  maund  while  in  Madras  it  fetched 
1  pagoda  per  maund;  in  other  words  it  was  2l/2  times  as 

Thirdly,  the  freight  charges  from  Arakan  to  Madras 
were  not  considerable.  Paddy  ireight  took  the  position  oi: 
a  ballast  to  vessels  which  returned  to  Madras  to  take  salt 
to  Calcutta.  Freight  facility  was  even  a  greater  advan- 
tage in  those  days  when  inland  communications  were  uu- 

Fourthly,  grain  from  Arakan  was  a  commodity  on  the 
free  list,  except  in  tne  port  oi  Maaras,  where  it  was  suoject 
to  a  duty  oi  i>  per  cent.  Tne  home  grown  produce,  on  tne 
other  hand,  was  subject  to  a  duty  oi  «i  per  cent 
ad  valorem  on  ail  mter-porxai  shipments  as  well  as 
on  internal  transit  oi  grain  irorn  one  place  to  another/0  Xiua 
was  an  important  factor  in  keeping  supplies  from  Tanjore 
and  the  southern  districts  ott  the  markets  northward 
of  Madras.  The  "protection  oi  distance"  that  domestic  pro- 
duction would  otherwise  have  enjoyed  was  thus  denied  to 

Finally,  the  frequent  i  amines  to  which  the  country  was 
subject  in  those  times  disposed  the  Goveinment  to  en- 
courage tins  import  trade,  mspite  oi  tne  iact  tiiat  tney  were 
last  wedded  to  iaissez  jaire.  in  1824  when  famine  threat- 
ened the  Presidency,  Sir  Thomas  Munro,  the  then  Governor, 

9.    Friend  oj  India,  8—1—1846. 

10.     CIV  Regulation  II  of  1812  ;  Sections  4  and  17,  clauses  8 
and  13. 


threw  the  official  laissez  faire  policy  to  the  winds  and  said 
that  State  interference  was  permissible  when  "the  lives  of  a 
great  population  are  at  stake."11  He  therefore  recommended 
a  reduction  in  the  price  of  salt  taken  to  Bengal  on  condition 
that  the  controllers  of  the  carrying  trade  agreed  to  return 
with  a  cargo  of  rice.12  This  was  in  effect  a  bounty  to  the 
Arakan  trade.  Next  year,  finding  thib  inadequate,  he 
granted  a  direct  bounty  of  Rs.  30  per  garce  of  rice  imported, 
which  according  to  his  estimate  involved  the  Government  an 
expenditure  of  3  to  4%  lakhs  of  rupees  per  annum.13  This  was 
a  temporary  measure,  but  it  no  doubt  introduced  the  thin 
end  of  Burmese  competition.  When  these  preferences  were 
repeated  in  1832,  as  the  coming  famine  of  Nandana  year 
(1833)  cast  its  shadows  before,14  they  opened  the  flood-gates 
of  foreign  competition. 

The  Arakan  imports  which  thus  came  to  succour  stayed 
to  compete  with  local  production.  Although  the  cheap  im- 
port was  not  a  cause  of  the  depression,  it  was  one  of  those 
factors  that  kept  the  prices  low  and  held  up  economic  re- 
covery unduly.  In  1843  the  Collector  of  Rajahmundry 
drew  the  attention  of  the  Board  of  Revenue15  to  this  disturb- 
ing element  and  the  Board,  convinced  that  it  was  an  import- 
ant factor  deserving  their  consideration,16  addressed  the  Dis- 

H.  Minutes  of  Sir  Thomas  Munro,  23—1—1824.  Also,  vide 
B.  Natarajan  :  Economic  Doctrines  of  Sir  Thomas  Munro,  Father 
Cartv  Commemoration  Volume. 

12.  Ibid. 

13.  Ibid. 

14.  From  the  Government  of  Madras  to  the  Board  of  Revenue, 
In  Consultations,  17—12—1832. 

15.  Settlement  Report  of  Rajahmundry  District  for  Fasli,  1252- 

16.  Proceedings  of  the  Board  of  Revenue,  3    4    1844. 


trict  Collectors  of  Ganjam,  Vizagapatam,  Masulipatam  and 
the  Collector  of  Sea  Customs  at  Madras  to  make  detailed 
enquiries  into  the  subject.  In  1844,  Sir  Henry  Montgomery, 
who  was  appointed  to  enquire  into  the  causes  of  econo- 
mic depression  in  the  Northen  circars,  wrote  in  his  report: 
"The  present  price  of  paddy  will  not  be  exceeded  so  long  as 
the  unrestrained  import  of  Arakan  grain  is  permitted,  for 
no  sooner  does  the  price  of  home  produce  begin  to  rise  to  a 
standard  remunerating  the  landholders  than  the  market  is 
flushed  with  this  foreign  rice  and  home-grown  grain  is  a 
drug.  The  evil  to  this  is  annually  increasing  and  demands 
speedy  correction  by  the  imposition  of  suitable  restrictions 
to  this  importation."17  During  the  10  years  between  1833-34 
and  1843-44,  the  total  value  of  paddy  and  rice  imported  into 
Madras  Presidency  from  Arakan  was  Rs.  1,08,14,248  of 
which  Rs.  62,43,540  was  the  share  of  the  six  ports  north  of 
Madras,  and  Rs.  45,70,708  the  share  of  Madras.18 

The  Arakan  trade  in  rice  just  at  this  time  received  a 
fillip  from  another  source.  The  Supreme  Government  at 
Calcutta  passed  the  Act  VI  of  1844  with  the  object  of  abolish- 
ing the  sayer  or  the  transit  duties  that  were  hampering  in- 
ternal trade  and  of  bringing  the  customs  tariff  at  Madras  in 
a  line  with  the  other  ports  of  India.19  But  this  measure  far 
from  removing  the  inter-portal  duty  within  Madras  Presi- 
dency had  the  effect  of  raising  it  so  as  to  conform  to  the  All- 
India  customs  tariff;  and  therefore  still  kept  off  grain  from 
districts  like  Tanjore  and  Canara  which  could  come  mainly 
by  sea,  as  inland  communication  was  in  a  parlous  condition. 
This  inter-portal  duty  imposed  by  the  new  Act  was  not 

17.  Montgomery  Report,  (Mss)  28—5—1844. 

18.  Madras  Government  consultations,  16 — 2 — 1846. 

19.  Notification  of  the  Government  of  India,  16—3—1844. 


only  inequitable,  being  a  uniform  rate  on  rice  and  paddy, 
it  also  amounted  to  10  to  15  per  cent  ad  valorem  on  rice 
and  20  to  30  per  cent  on  paddy  and  acted  as  "a  tax  heavy 
enough  for  protection  "  to  the  foreign  interests.20  Further, 
although  the  said  act  authorised  the  levy  of  a  higher  duty 
on  foreign  goods  or  goods  brought  in  foreign  bottoms,21 
its  provisions  were  inapplicable  to  imports  from  Arakan 
as  Arakan  was  then  under  Bengal  Government  and  there- 
fore was  a  British  province  and  "not  strictly  foreign." 

The  question  of  giving  the  home-grown  grain  some 
protection  with  a  view  to  relieve  the  distress  of  the  peasants 
thus  received  an  added  force.  But  the  Government  was 
against  it.22  They  held  that  prices  in  the  home  market 
were  not  materially  influenced  by  imports,  "as  foreign  grain 
to  any  extent  has  been  imported  hitherto  only  when  prices 
were  high."23  Further,  they  believed  that  the  inferior 
quality  of  Arakan  rice  as  an  article  of  food  would  always 
act  as  a  limitation  on  its  consumption  on  a  large  scale  The 
most  weighty  consideration,  however,  was  that  such  a  res- 
triction by  cutting  off  the  supplies  of  an  essential  article  of 
food  in  times  of  famine,  would,  they  feared,  aggravate  its 
horrors.  Although  more  than  one  Collector  suggested  that 
at  such  times  the  prohibitive  duties  might  be  relaxed,24  the 
Government  preferred  to  watch  the  working  of  the  Act  VI  of 

20.  From  the  Collector  of  Ganjam  to  the  Board  of  Revenue 

21.  Sections  16  and  17. 

22.  Madras  Government  Consultations,  2 — 2 1846. 

23.  Madras  Government  Consultations,  16 — 2 — 1846, 

24.  From  the  Collector  of  Rajahmundry  to  the  Board  of  Rev- 
enue,   11—12—1845.      In    Consultations    26—12—1845;    from   the 
Collector  of  Vizagapatam  to  the  Board  of  Revenue,  29—11—1845, 
In  Consultation,  8—12—1845. 


1844  for  one  or  two  years  more.  In  1848,  the  continued 
downward  trend  of  agricultural  prices  at  home  convinced 
them  of  the  necessity  to  take  some  action  inspite  of  all 
doctrinaire  opposition  to  Protection.  Hence  the  Act  VII 
of  1848  was  passed,  which  made  the  imports  of  grain  from 
Arakan  liable  to  a  protective  duty.  But  this  did  not  have 
the  intended  effect,  on  account  of  evasions.  Vessels  taking 
salt  to  Chittagong  after  unloading  at  that  port  obtained  port 
clearances  in  anticipation  cf  goods  to  be  shipped  at  some  of 
the  adjoining  ports  and  then  with  great  facility  ran  into 
any  one  of  the  ports  of  Arakan  and  took  a  complement  cf 
rice  cargo.  With  the  document  for  port  clearance  obtained 
at  Chittagong  they  entered  the  Madras  port  free  of  duty.25 
Thus  on  account  of  irregularities  at  the  Customs  Office  at 
Chittagong,  Arakan  rice  evaded  the  duty  imposed  by  the 
Act  of  1848  and  flooded  the  Madras  market  "greatly  to  the 
prejudice  of  the  Madras  grower."26  The  Madras  Govern- 
ment addressed  the  Government  of  Bengal  on  the  subject, 
requesting  the  latter  to  correct  the  irregularities.  But  the 
Act  itself  did  not  remain  on  the  Statute  book  for  long.  In 
1858-59,  the  preferences  and  discriminations  based  on  the 
old  colonial  system  were  done  away  with  and  the  whole 
tariff  underwent  complete  revision.  The  necessities  of  the 
Mutiny  again  raised  the  tariff  wall,  but  all  these  measures 
were  of  little  avail  when  Burma  was  annexed  to  the  Indian 
Empire,  Although  subsequent  growth  of  population  and 
development  of  communications  and  irrigation  works  im- 
proved the  lot  of  the  Madias  ryot,  the  price  for  his  produce 

25.  From  the  Board  of  Revenue  to  the  Government  of  Mad- 
ras, 20—4—1851. 

26.  From  the  Board  of  Revenue  to  the  Government  of  Madras, 


was  determined  by  the  prices  prevailing  in  Burma.27  The 
export  duty  on  rice  levied  in  later  days  undoubtedly  had 
the  effect  of  worsening  the  position  of  Madras  in  relation  to 
Burma.  The  free  import  of  Burmese  rice  in  Madras  had  dis- 
astrous effects  during  the  recent  depression.  But  the  pheno- 
menon is  a  century  old. 

27,    P.  J.  Thomas  :      Recent  Trends  in  the  Price  of  Rice  in 
Madras  (Paper  to  the  Indian  Rice  Committee) . 




District  Judge,  North  Arcot. 

A  university  differs  from  a  high  school,  secondary 
school,  elementary  school,  guild  school,  and  other  sucn  insti- 
tutions engaged  in  the  same  mission  oi  education,  in  that  it 
caters,  or  ought  to  cater,  to  the  cream  of  a  nation's  intelli- 
gentsia, including  therein  of  course,  the  leaders  in  every 
form  of  art,  and  not  merely  people  who  think.  Naturally, 
five  striking  things  will  be  found  in  it. 

The  first  will  be  the  nature  of  its  alumni.  These  will 
be  carefully  selected  in  an  ideal  university,  only  those  fit  to 
profit  by  university  education  being  taken,  and  all  those  lit 
to  profit  being  someiiow  gathered  together.  In  the  univer- 
sity of  Nalanda,  for  instance,  there  was  a  preliminary  test 
of  ability,  corresponding  to  the  responsions  in  Oxford,  in 
which  it  has  been  left  on  record,  by  Yuan  Chwang,  that  70 
or  80  per  cent  would  fail.  There  will,  of  course,  be  no  out- 
cry regarding  the  'slaughter  of -the  innocents/  as,  in  a  well- 
constituted  society,  all  will  agree  that  those  innocent  of 
knowledge  should  be  refused  admission,  at  the  outset,  instead 
of  being  admitted  and  slaughtered,  alter  a  good  deal  of  waste 
of  time,  money  and  energy.  Since  the  idea  will 
be  to  collect  the  very  best  talents  in  the  nation,  even  those 
who  cannot  afford  to  pay,  but  are  eminently  suitable  for 
university  education,  will  be  sent  up  by  local  committees 


to  undergo  the  kind  of  education,  whether  in  arts  or  in 
science  or  in  fine  arts  or  applied  science,  they  are  suited  for. 
In  an  ancient  Indian  University,  the  problem  was  simple,  as 
every  student,  rich  or  poor,  had  to  beg  for  his  food,  as  the 
daily  routine.  It  is  obvious  that  no  modern  country  can 
afford  to  allow  its  geniuses  and  men  of  talents  to  run  to 
waste.  Of  course,  everybody  will  have  a  right  to  be  admit- 
ted to  a  school  and  there  should  even  be  compulsory  educa- 
tion up  to  the  school  final  standard,  for  both  boys  and  girls  in 
a  combined  literary  and  vocational  fashion.  Universities 
alone  will  cater  only  to  select  and  suitable  persons. 

The  second  distinguishing  feature  will  lie  in  the  asking 
and  anwering  of  profound  questions.  Here,  too,  Yuan 
Chwang  remarks  that,  in  Nalanda,  they  engaged  in  discus- 
sions from  morning  till  night,  the  old  and  the  young  mutu- 
ally helping  one  another,  and  tutors  unable  to  answer  ques- 
tions being  obliged  to  hide  themselves,  for  shame.  Natu- 
rally, the  conscript  classes,  common  in  some  Indian  Univer- 
sities, will  disappear,  and  Upanishadic  classes,  of  free  dis* 
cussions  between  tutors  and  pupils,  will  take  their  place. 
It  follows  that  a  professor  cannot  have  a  herd  of  students, 
and  that  the  maximum  he  would  be  allowed  to  attend  to 
would  be  only  10  to  12,  so  that  individual  attention  and 
personal  discussion  would  be  easy. 

Thirdly,  teachers  and  students  will  live  together  in  the 
hostels,  and  have  a  kind  of  family  relationship,  as  in  ancient 
India,  students  attending  on  the  teacher  and  he  on  them, 
mutual  nursing  in  time  of  sickness  being  one  of  the  inci- 
dents. Thus,  they  will  grow  to  understand  and  love  one 
another,  and  the  relationship  will  cease  to  be  one  of 
routine,  as  is  too  often  the  case  now.  Perfect  equality  and 
a  love  of  freedom  and  independence  will  be  the  hallmark 
of  students  and  professors  alike.  Of  course,  several  hygie- 



nic,  moral  and  religious  precepts  would  also  be  thus  taught, 
besides  good  manners,  and  the  ancient  Indian  ideal  of  get- 
ting three-fourths  of  one's  education  (viz.,  one-fourth  from 
the  teacher,  one-fourth  from  the  fellow  students,  and  one- 
fourth  from  oneself,  the  remaining  one-fourth  having  al- 
ready been  supposed  to  have  been  given  by  the  parents  at 
home)  will  be  realised. 

Fourthly,  there  will  be  a  periodical  and  careful  weed- 
ing out  of  the  unfits  and  misfits  among  the  students,  admit- 
ted by  error,  and  of  the  unfits  and  misfits  among  the  profes- 
sors, appointed  by  error.  As  Kautilya  remarks,  a  student 
or  teacher  without  the  requisite  equipment  or  discipline  is 
no  good.  Discipline  is  of  two  kinds,  artificial  and  natural, 
and  the  study  of  arts  or  sciences  can  bring  maximum  profit 
only  to  those  who  are  possessed  of  such  mental  faculties 
as  obedience,  hearing,  grasping,  retentive  memory,  discri- 
mination, inference,  and  deliberation.  A  pupil  not  posses- 
ing  such  faculties  will  not  only  not  profit  by  university 
education,  but  will  also  diminish  the  profit  derived  by  the 
rest,  like  one  rotten  tooth  or  fruit  spoiling  the  healthy  teeth 
or  fruits.  As  Kautilya  remarks  again,  natural  discipline 
alone  will  count  vitally,  artificial  discipline,  that  is,  disci- 
pline by  punishment,  sufficing  only  to  correct  acquired 
errors,  something  like  imported  cases  of  plague  being  cura- 
ble by  superficial  methods,  like  fumigation,  exposure  to 
sun,  etc.,  endemic  cases  not  being  curable  in  those  ways. 
Just  as  unfit  students  should  be  periodically  weeded  out,  by 
notices  to  quit,  which  would  be  no  disqualification  whatever, 
by  itself,  for  civic  or  othei  employment,  professors  and  lec- 
turers who  are  found,  in  practice,  to  be  useless  for  teaching, 
should  also  be  given  notices  to  quit,  from  time  to  time,  un- 
less they  are  found  fit  for  research  work,  in  which  case,  they 
should  be  put  on  that  work.  Even  the  best  of  truths  come 


to  nought,  when  taught  by  incompetent  teachers,  just  as  the 
best  of  seeds  will  come  to  nought  if  sown  at  the  wrong  sea- 
son by  a  person  ignorant  of  cultivation. 

The  fifth  feature  is  that  a  university  education  aims  not 
so  much  at  making  a  man  capable  of  earning  a  living, 
which  very  necessary  job  will  be  taken  on  by  the  high 
schools,  but  at  producing  first-rate  scholars  and  men  and 
women  of  culture  devoid  of  prejudice  of  caste,  class,  colour, 
creed  or  country;  people  who  welcome  knowledge  from 
whatever  quarter  it  is  got;  who  have  no  false  values  either 
regarding  themselves  or  about  things  around  them;  and  who 
are  valuable  members  of  society  and  servants  of  humanity, 
ready  to  place  their  knowledge,  experience,  reason,  wealth 
.,-nJ  ntTenrjth  at  tT'<o  clispr-  ;•]  of  thr;r  MV?\v-boincrs,  and  to 
help  the  poor,  the  ignorant,  the  oppressed,  the  wicked,  the 
degraded  and  the  depressed,  to  get  out  of  their  miserable 
state,  and  thus  leave  the  world  a  shade  better  than  they 
found  it.  They  would  not  swear  either  by  matter  or  by 
spirit,  and  would  be  so  harmoniously  developed  in  body, 
mind  and  soul,  that,  while  regarding  this  life  as  a  field  of 
action  and  sacrifice,  thev  will  not  accept  either  the  extreme 
view  of  one  school  that  life  in  this  world  is  a  myth,  and,  so, 
we  need  not  make  any  effort  to  improve  it,  or  the  extreme 
view  of  another  school  that  death  is  the  end  of  everything 
and  that  we  should  concentrate  merely  on  eating,  drinking 
and  making  merry  or  other  selfish  activity  as  long  as  we 

If  we  survey  the  Universities  of  India  to-day  from  this 
point  of  view,  we  may  be  disposed  to  cry  out  with  Bernier: 
"Is  it  possible  to  establish  m  India  model  academies  and  col- 
leges properly  endowed?  Where  shall  we  seek  for  founders, 
or,  should  they  be  found,  where  are  the  scholars?  Where 
are  the  benefices,  employments,  offices  of  trust  and  dignity 


that  require  ability  and  science,  and  are  calculated  to  ex- 
cite the  impulses  and  hopes  of  young  students,  which  are 
likely  to  be  given  to  the  products  of  these  academies  and 
colleges?"  In  a  nation  like  ours,  overrun  with  a  cry  for 
communal  representation  in  every  benefice,  employment, 
office  of  trust  and  dignity  requiring  ability  and  science, 
where  the  best,  even  though  absolutely  free  from  communal 
prejudice,  caste  superiority  complex,  racial  arrogance  etc, 
are  forced  to  await  their  communal  turn,  and  allowed  to 
rust  till  then,  it  is  obvious  that  the  last  difficulty  mention- 
ed by  Bernier  is  a  colorsal,  and  almost  insuperable,  one. 
Alas,  for  knowledge,  as  Kama  exclaims  in  Kama  Bhara  of 
Bhasa,  mere  lapse  of  lime  is  enough  to  make  it  not  only  use- 
less, but  out  of  date  and  pernicious,  and  while  the  best  man, 
classified  communally  in  spite  of  himself,  is  waiting  for  his 
turn,  he  may  not  remain  the  best  when  his  turn  comes,  and 
may,  indeed,  be  among  the  worst  by  then. 

At  present,  in  many  universities  all  over  the  world, 
more  attention  is  paid  to  the  material  side,  and  less  to  the 
spiritual  side.  Most  research  is  for  destructive  purposes, 
like  the  discovery  of  deadly  weapons  against  present  and 
future  enemies,  than  for  constructive  purposes.  And  nation- 
al or  racial  arrogance  is  tacitly  encouraged,  even  books  on 
history  and  science  being  vitiated  by  this  virulent  germ.  Nor 
is  the  education  imparted  by  the  professors  of  our  modern 
universities  always  of  the  broadest  variety  or  imbued  with 
a  desire  to  expound  Truth  in  its  thousand  facets.  Indeed, 
sometimes,  it  reminds  one  of  the  education  imparted  by 
Aurangazeb's  old  tutor. 

The  emperor  Aurangazeb  had  an  old  tutor,  Mulla  Shah. 
Hearing  that  his  pupil  had  become  the  emperor,  the  old 
Mulla  rushed  to  see  him,  expecting  huge  rewards  and 
appointments.  Aurangazeb  refused  to  see  him  for  3  months. 


Finally,  he  was  so  pestered  by  the  Mulla  that  he  saw  him, 
but  only  to  tell  him  the  following  home  truths:  — "Pray,  what 
is  your  pleasure  with  me,  Mulla ji?  Do  you  pretend  that  I 
ought  to  exalt  you  to  the  first  honours  of  the  State?  Let  us 
examine  your  title  to  any  mark  of  distinction.  I  do  not  deny 
that  you  would  possess  such  title  if  you  had  filled  my  young 
mind  with  suitable  instruction.  Show  me  a  well-educated 
youth,  and  I  will  say  that  it  is  doubtful  who  has  the  stronger 
claim  to  his  gratitude,  his  father  or  his  teacher.  But,  what 
was  the  knowledge  that  I  derived  under  your  tuition?  You 
taught  me  that  the  whole  of  Frankistan  (Europe)  was  no 
more  than  some  inconsiderable  island  of  which  the  most 
powerful  monarch  was  formerly  the  King  of  Portugal,  then 
he  of  Holland  and,  afterwards,  the  king  of  England.  With 
regard  to  the  other  sovereigns  of  Frankistan,  such  as  the 
king  of  France  and  him  of  Andalusia,  you  told  me  that  they 
resembled  our  petty  rajahs,  and  that  the  potentates  of 
Hindustan  eclipsed  the  glory  of  all  other  kings,  that  they 
alone  were  Humayuns,  Akbars,  Jehangirs,  or  Shah  Jahans, 
the  happy,  the  great,  the  conquerors  of  the  world  and  the 
Kings  of  the  world,*  and  that  Persia,  Uzbek,  Kashgar,  Tar- 
tary.  Cathay,  Pegu,  Siam  and  China  trembled  at  the  names 
of  the  kings  of  the  Indies  Admirable  Geographer!  Deep- 
ly-read historian!  Was  it  not  incumbent  upon  my  precep- 
tor to  make  me  acquainted  with  the  distinguishing  features 
of  every  nation  on  earth,  its  resources  and  strength,  its  mode 
of  warfare,  its  manners,  religion,  form  of  government  and 
wherein  its  interests  principally  consist,  and,  by  a  regu- 
lar course  of  historical  reading,  to  render  me  familiar  with 
the  origin  of  states,  their  progress  and  decline,  the  events, 
incidents  or  wars  owing  to  which  such  great  changes  and 

*These  are  the  meanings  of  the  names  of  the  sovereigns. 


mighty  revolutions  have  been  effected?  Far  from  having 
imparted  to  me  a  profound  and  comprehensive  knowledge 
of  the  history  of  mankind,  scarcely  did  I  learn  from  you  the 
names  of  my  ancestors,  the  renowned  founders  of  this 
empire.  You  kept  me  in  total  ignorance  of  their 
lives,  of  the  events  which  preceded  and  the  extraordi- 
nary talents  that  enabled  them  to  achieve  their  extensive 
acquisitions.  A  familiarity  with  the  language  of  the  sur- 
rounding nations  is  necessary  in  a  king,  but  you  insisted 
on  teaching  me  to  read  and  write  Arabic,  doubtless  con- 
ceiving that  you  placed  me  in  an  everlasting  obligation  for 
sacrificing  so  large  a  portion  of  the  time  to  the  study  of  a 
language  wherein  no  one  can  hope  to  become  proficient 
without  10  or  12  years  of  close  application.  Forgetting  how 
many  important  subjects  ought  to  be  embraced  in  the  edu- 
cation of  the  prince,  you  acted  as  if  it  were  chiefly  necessary 
that  he  should  possess  a  great  skill  in  grammar  and  such 
knowledge  as  belongs  to  a  Doctor  of  Law,  and  thus  did 
you  waste  precious  hours  of  my  youth  in  the  dry,  unprofi- 
table, and  never-ending  task  of  learning  mere  words. 
Were  you  not  aware  that  it  is  during  the  period  of 
studenthood  that  the  memory  is  so  retentive  that  the  mind 
receives  a  thousand  wise  precepts,  and  is  easily  furnished  with 
such  valuable  instruction  as  will  elevate  it  with  lofty  con- 
ceptions and  render  the  individual  capable  of  glorious  deeds? 
Can  we  read  our  prayers  or  acquire  knowledge  of  the  law 
and  the  science  onlij  through  the  medium  of  Arabic?  May 
not  our  devotions  be  as  acceptable,  and  solid  information 
communicated  as  easily  in  our  mother  tongue?  You  gave 
my  father,  Shah  Jahan,  to  understand  that  you  instructed 
me  in  philosophy,  and  indeed,  I  have  perfect  remembrance 
of  your  having,  during  several  years,  harassed  my  brain  with 
idle  and  foolish  propositions,  the  solution  of  which  yields  no 


satisfaction  to  the  mind,  propositions  which  seldom  enter 
into  the  business  of  life;  extravagant  reveries  conceived  with 
great  labour,  and  forgotten  as  soon  as  conceived;  their  only 
effect  is  to  fatigue  and  ruin  the  intellect,  and  to  render  the 
man  head  strong,  intolerant  and  insufferable.  Oh,  yes,  you 
caused  me  to  devote  the  most  valuable  years  of  my  life  to 
your  favourifcu  hypotheses  and  systems,  and,  when  i  leiL  you, 
I  could  boast  of  no  greater  knowledge  in  the  sciences  than 
the  use  of  many  absurd,  obsolete,  arid  uncouth  terms  calcu- 
lated to  discourage,  confuse,  confound  and  appal  a  youth 
of  the  most  virile  understanding;  terms  invented  to  cover 
the  vanity  and  ignorance  of  pretenders  to  philosophy;  of 
men,  who,  like  yourself,  would  impose  the  belief  that  they 
transcend  others  of  their  situation  in  wisdom,  and  that  their 
dark  and  ambiguous  jargon  conceals  many  profound  myste- 
ries known  only  to  themselves.  If  you  had  taught  me  that 
philosophy  which  adapts  the  mind  to  reason,  and  will  not 
suffer  it  to  rest  satisfied  with  anything  short  of  the  most 
solid  arguments;  if  you  had  inculcated  lessons  which  elevate 
the  soul  and  fortify  it  against  the  assaults  of  fortune, 
tending  to  produce  that  enviable  equanimity  which  neither 
insolently  elated  by  prosperity  nor  basely  depressed  by 
adversity;  if  you  had  made  me  acquainted  with  the  nature 
of  men;  accustomed  me  always  to  refer  to  first  principles,  and 
given  me  a  sublime  and  adequate  conception  of  the  universe 
and  of  the  order  and  regular  motion  of  its  parts;  if  such,  I 
say,  had  been  the  nature  of  the  philosophy  imbibed  under 
your  tuition,  I  should  be  more  indebted  to  you  than 
Alexander  was  to  Aristotle,  and  should  consider  it  my  duty 
to  bestow  a  very  different  reward  on  you  than  Aristotle  re- 
ceived from  that  prince.  Answer  me,  sycophant,  ought  you 
not  to  have  instructed  me  on  one  point  at  least,  so  essential 
to  be  known  by  a  king,  viz.,  on  the  reciprocal  duties  between 


a  sovereign  and  his  subjects?  Ought  you  not  also  to  have 
foreseen  that  I  might,  at  some  future  period,  be  compelled  to 
contend  with  my  brothers,  sword  in  hand,  for  the  crown  and 
for  my  very  existence,  such  as,  you  must  well  know,  has  been 
the  fate  of  the  children  of  almost  every  King  ot  Hindustan. 
Did  you  ever  instruct  me  in  the  art  of  war,  how  to  beseige  a 
town,  or  draw  up  an  army  in  battle  array?  Happy  for  me 
that  I  consulted  wiser  heads  than  thine  on  these  subjects! 
Go.  Withdraw  to  thy  village.  Henceforth,  let  no  person 
know  either  who  thou  art  or  what  has  become  of  thee." 

How  to  avoid  such  useless  and  pernicious  teaching? 
First  of  all,  incompetent  teachers,  like  this  Mullah,  should 
never  be  appointed  as  professors,  and,  ii  appointed  by  error, 
should  be  weeded  out,  as  unfits  and  misfits  at  the  very 
earliest  opportunity.  Secondly,  proper  text-books,  in  the 
language  of  the  pupils,  carefully  selected  by  well-known 
scholars  of  repute,  should  be  prescribed  in  all  subjects. 
Thirdly,  regimentation  in  education  should  be  avoided,  and 
the  aim  of  education  should  be  clearly  laid  down  as  the  deve- 
lopment of  human  personality  and  culture,  instead  of  pro- 
viding for  future  "hands"  in  factories,  "bayonets"  in  war, 
and  what  not.  Fourthly,  there  must  be  periodic  exchange 
of  professors  between  universities  in  the  same  country  and 
in  different  countries.  And  lastly,  there  must  be  an  inter- 
national board  of  world-famous  scholars  to  periodically 
inspect,  through  some  of  its  members,  and  report  on  the 
workings  of  all  universities  every  five  years,  persistently  bad 
or  useless  universities  being  liable  to  be  closed  down  on  such 




Of  the  several  famous  plays  in  Samskrt,  King  Sri 
Harsa's  Ndgdnanda  stands  unique;  for  it  presents  a  blend  of 
the  principles  of  the  two  great  religions  of  India,  namely, 
Hinduism  and  Buddhism  and  presents  a  hero,  Jimutavahana 
by  name,  whose  dominant  characteristic  is  a  matter  of  dis- 
pute between  two  schools  of  Rasa.  Anandavardhana  finds 
him  a  Santa  hero.  Dhanika  would  have  him  a  Daydvlra. 

Rules  of  Samskrt  dramaturgy  require  fthat  Love  or 
Heroism  should  be  the  dominant  Rasa  in  a  drama.  In  this 
play  neither  is  prominent;  nor  are  they  clean  forgotten. 
Srngara  is  fully  developed  in  the  first  three  acts.  Jimutava- 
hana is  not  desirous  of  conquest.  He  spurns  material  wealth 
and  worldly  pleasures.  Noble  deed  of  benevolence  and  self- 
less acts  of  charity  affl^  and  <ttTwt  are  his  ideals  and  these 
two  virtues  form  the  cardinal  tenets  of  Buddhism  as  well  as 

Srngdra  and  Vlran  not  being  the  main  Rasa,  what  then 
is  the  Rasa  of  the  play  one  has  to  enquire.  The  Ananda- 
vardhana school  claims  Santa  to  be  the  chief  Rasa  but 
Dhanika  claims  Jimutavahana  a  Daydvlra. 

In  this  paper  an  attempt  is  made  to  show  how  the  two 
views  may  be  easily  reconciled. 

A  resume  of  the  story  at  this  point  will  be  helpful. 

Jimutavahana,  a  Vidyadhara  prince,  banishes  himself  from 


his  kingdom  and  spends  his  life  in  the  forest  in  the  service 
of  his  aged  parents.  In  a  Gaurl  temple  there  he  meets 
Malayavati,  a  Siddha  princess.  Love  at  first  sight,  separa- 
tion and  reunion  with  consent  of  parents  occupy  the  next 
acts  of  the  play.  Mitravasu,  the  brother-in-law  of  the 
hero,  butts  in  during  the  honey  moon  with  the  news  of  the 
invasion  of  Jimutavahana's  kingdom  by  Matahga,  his  foe. 
The  loss  is  welcome  to  the  hero.  He  dissuades  Mitravasu 
from  marching  an  army  against  his  enemy. 

One  day,  strolling  on  the  beach,  the  hero  sees  a  ser- 
pent, named  Sankhacuda,  on  his  way  to  satisfy  the  appetite 
of  Garuda.  Moved  with  pity  the  hero  offers  himself;  but 
the  serpent  would  not  permit  the  substitution.  But  fortune 
favours  the  hero.  Sarikhacuda  steps  aside  to  worship 
Siva  preliminary  to  sacrificing  himself  to  Garuda  and 
Jimutavahana  steps  in  quickly,  dons  the  red  garments  and 
is  therefore  taken  up  by  Garuda  for  his  victim.  On  his 
return  Sarikhacuda  finds  Jimutavahana  gone  and  begins  a 
search  with  the  help  of  the  blood  streak  on  the  road  while 
on  the  way  Jimutavahana's  family  join  him  in  his  search. 
They  trace  him  only  to  find  him  all  but  dead.  Sarikhacuda 
tells  Garuda  the  story  of  the  substitution.  Immediately 
Garuda  repents  his  cruelty  and  promises  to  abstain  from 
killing  serpents  thenceforward.  The  Goddess  Gaurl  hears 
the  piteous  moan  of  MalayavatJ  and  helps  Jimutavahana 
back  to  life.  Garuda  for  his  part,  succeeds  in  getting  Indra 
to  bring  back  to  life  the  serpents  he  had  eaten.  With  this 
general  rebirth,  the  prince  becomes  the  king  of  the  Vidya- 

Now  for  the  reconciliation  of  the  two  views.  Ananda- 
vardhana  defines  Santa  as  the  "bliss  arising  from  the  control 
of  desires/'  By  knowing  the  Truth  or  by  Tattvajfiana  (i.e. 


the  transitory  nature  of  all  life)  the  seeker  after  the  Truth 
controls  desires.  He  is  moved  by  compassion  for  others. 
His  frame  of  mind  then  is  that  of  a  Santa  and  therefore  he 
is  prepared  to  sacrifice  his  transitory  life  for  the  good 
of  others. 

This  Santa  is  prominently  present  throughout  the  play. 
The  play  opens  with  a  reference  to  Jimutavahana's  doings 
to  keep  his  people  contented  and  happy.  He  feels  he  has 
done  all  he  should  and  proposes  to  go  to  the  forest  to  render 
service  to  his  parents.  He  crowns  his  deeds  of  charity  with 
the  giving  away  of  the  Kalpaka  tree  and  renounces  his  king- 
ship to  do  his  duty  by  his  parents  in  spite  of  advice  to  stay 
on.  When  his  brother-in-law  gives  him  the  bad  news  that 
his  foe  was  in  occupation  of  his  land  he  is  most  unconcerned. 
He  has  no  foes  other  than  his  passions.  The  brother-in-law 
offers  to  go  upon  the  foe  but  Jimutavahana  answers  that  he 
pities  Matanga,  for  he  has  been  conquered  by  his  passion  for 
wealth  and  adds  he  is  more  to  be  pitied  than  punished.  The 
brother-in-law  receives  this  advice  in  derision  and  is  ad- 
monished by  a  reference  to  the  Sun  who,  even  while  in  the 
act  of  setting,  is  the  object  of  praise  by  many  because  He 
expects  no  return  for  His  services  from  the  several  object? 
He  enlightens  and  His  life-long  endeavour  is  doing  good  to 

The  hero  sacrifices  his  person  to  save  a  serpent.  Here 
again  he  does  so  because  he  knows  life  is  transient.  A 
soldier  dying  in  battle  is  no  hero;  for  he  sacrifices  himself 
in  hope  either  to  get  victory  and  become  more  famous  or 
to  get  to  a  better  Loka.  Even  Sahkhacuda  offering  his  life 
to  Garuda  is  no  hero;  for  he  does  so  in  fear  of  the  royal 
command.  If  he  hesitates  to  permit  Jimutavahana  to  step 
into  his  place,  it  is  because,  as  he  himself  says,  he  wants  to 


safeguard  the  honour  of  his  family.  Without  a  knowledge 
of  the  Truth  none  can  be  a  hero.  Jimutavahana  has 
nothing  but  contempt  for  Vasuki  with  two  thousand 
tongues,  for,  not  even  one  of  the  tongues  was  useful  to 
make  him  say  that  he  would  sacrifice  himself  first  before 
agreeing  to  an  arrangement  for  the  death  of  his  subjects. 
He  ascribed  this  failure  on  the  part  of  Vasuki  to 
love  for  his  own  filthy  and  perishable  body.  Verily  did 
Sarikhacuda  admire  the  conduct  of  the  hero  opposed  as  it 
was  to  that  of  great  sages  like  Visvamitra. 

Jimutavahana  offers  to  be  the  prey  for  Garuda  in  place 
of  Sankhacuda.  When  he  is  away  for  a  minute  he  dons  the 
red  robes  and  offers  himself  to  Garuda.  Garuda  gulps  him 
little  by  little.  Jimutavahana  enjoys  as  more  and  more  bits 
of  his  flesh  are  taken  by  Garuda.  No  pain  results;  but 
great  joy  is  felt  by  the  hero.  His  countenance  beams  with 
gratitude  to  the  devouring  Garuda,  the  benefactor.  Garuda 
marvels  to  see  the  beam  in  the  eye  of  his  victim  and  stops 
eating  further.  But  Jimutavahana  eggs  him  on  to  eat 
the  remaining  flesh  and  drink  the  effusing  blood.  Then 
Sankhacuda  appears.  This  disturbs  the  hero  for  he  is 
afraid  that  he  might  not  succeed  in  sacrificing  his  entire 
body.  His  mother  who  felt  that  his  beauty  was  being  muti- 
lated he  answers  there  can  be  no  beauty  in  what  is  called 
a  'body'  as  a  'body',  according  to  him,  consists  of  nothing 
but  fat,  bones,  flesh  and  blood. 

In  each  one  of  these  points  Jimutavahana  shows  he 
has  mastered  the  Truth  arid  he  is  realising  his  Self.  The 
hero  is  not  content  with  his  own  knowing  the  Truth  and 
acting  thereon.  But  he  would  try  to  convert  others  who 
come  in  contact  with  him  to  the  realisation  of  the  Truth. 
On  this  basis  he  got  Garuda  out  of  the  darkness  of  Ignor- 


ance  in  which  he  was.  The  hero  thus  shows  himself  a 
true  Santa  in  having  realised  the  Truth  and  having  renounced 
first  the  desire  for  wealth,  then  kingship  and  later  sacrificing 
his  body.  Here  is  Santarasa  in  its  perfection. 

Others  argue  that,  though  the  hero  renounced  his 
kingdom  and  sacrificed  his  life  he  cannot  be  called 
a  true  Santa.  A  true  Santa,  according  to  them, 
would  seek  solitude  for  purposes  of  meditation  with  a  view 
to  final  freedom  from  birth.  But  Jimutavahana  does  not 
like  the  solitude  of  the  forest  and  rejects  it  as  it  does  not 
afford  him  an  opportunity  to  serve  and  help  his  fellow  crea- 
tures. He  is  mad  for  a  life  spent  in  duty  to  parents  and 
social  service.  Again,  a  true  Santa,  though  he  would  like 
to  do  good  to  others,  would  never  persist  long  in  any  course. 
But  Jimutavahana  persists  in  doing  good  to  others  from 
first  to  last.  He  insists  on  saving  Sankhacuda  even 
against  his  wish.  He  argues  with  him  and  seeks  every 
means  to  do  him  service.  He  takes  advantage  of  Sankha- 
cuda's  temporary  absence  and  steps  into  the  slaughter-slab 
in  his  place.  When  Sankhacuda  comes  back  Jimutavahana 
feels  his  noble  purpose  was  about  to  be  defeated.  He  prays 
for  thousands  of  births  in  preference  to  final  emancipation 
so  that  he  may  do  social  service. 

Again  a  true  Santa  cannot  be  a  lover.  But  the  hero 
falls  in  love  with  Malayavati  and  his  Srngara  with  her  is 
fully  developed  in  both  its  aspects  (Vipralambha  and  Sara- 
toga) in  the  first  three  acts  of  the  play.  Lastly  if  Jimuta- 
vahana had  been  a  true  Santa  he  should  have  ended  his  life 
and  attained  Moksa.  He  should  not  have  been  restored  to 
life  and  reinstalled  as  king  with  Malayavati  as  his  queen. 

Therefore  Jimutavahana  is  rather  a  Dayavira  (i.e.  a 
cosmopolitan  philanthropist  keen  on  doing  good  to  others) 


and  not  a  true  Santa.  Vlrarasa  is  of  many  kinds.  In  all  types 
of  Vlrarasa  "enthusiasm"  is  a  common  feature.  If  heroes 
like  Rama  in  the  Mahdvlracarita  who  are  keen  on  conquest 
are  called  Yuddhavlras,  Jimutavahana  who  is  persistent  in 
doing  good  to  others  may  be  called  a  Daydvlra. 

The  case  is  thus  one  of  Santa  versus  Daydvlra  in  the 
Ndgdnanda.  But  the  two  views  may  be  easily  reconciled. 
Seen  from  the  view  point  of  the  Mahay  ana  school  of  Bud- 
dhism this  Daydvlra  is  Santa  itself.  King  Sri  Harsa,  the 
author  of  the  play,  lived  when  Hinduism  and  Buddhism  had 
learnt  to  accommodate  each  other  in  the  same  land  and  Harsa 
himself  in  the  latter  part  of  his  life  is  said  to  have  had  a 
leaning  towards  Buddhism,  So  in  this  play,  the  author, 
with  a  view  to  illustrating  the  main  doctrines  of  Buddhism 

3f|flr  and  <rfta$R  —  selected  a  character  reputed  in 
legend  for  his  benevolence  and  generosity  as  the  hero  of 
the  play  and  portrayed  him  as  Bodhisattva  himself.  So  in 
this  Buddhist  play  the  hero's  characteristic  is  Sama  accord- 
ing to  the  Mahayanist  view. 

According  to  Mahayanists,  emancipation  is  achieved  by 
what  they  call  STfrrTRnrcfT  or  Discriminative  Knowledge 
and  this  STfWRftffiT  gets  to  be  strong  by  what  they  call 
wrarcRrar  and  SffiTRfacfl  (i.e.  "acts  of  compassion  and 
benevolence").  A  true  Mahayanist  having  attained  the 
JWroRftar  would  not  desire  Emancipation  for  himself.  He 
would  like  to  have  it  only  after  the  whole  universe  gets  it. 
According  to  the  Mahayanists,  Buddha  himself  has  not  yet 
attained  Emancipation  as  tBe  universe  has  not  yet  got  it. 
Moved  by  unbounded  compassion  to  his  fellow  creatures,  a 
Mahayanist  is  keen  on  deeds  of  charity  and  benevolence  to 
others  for  they  are  only  an  expansion  of  his  Self. 


Viewed  in  this  light,  Jimutavahana  may  be  called  a 
true  Santa  not  only  because  he  has  attained  the  snrnTKfiKTT 
(i.e.  he  has  realised  the  'transcientnes^'  or  the  'voidness'  of 
the  universe)  but  also  because  of  his  great  anxiety  to  find 
out  opportunities  for  social  service.  His  obstinate  persis- 
tence to  work  for  universal  good  and  his  longing  for  newer 
and  newer  births  are  more  easily  explained.  A  Mahayanist 
is  per  force  led  by  his  own  logic  to  court  a  long  series  of 
births  in  order  to  help  the  universe  to  Emancipation. 
Jimutavahana's  perpetual  advice  to  Garuda  who  devoured 
him  is  based  mainly  on  this  Truth.  He  knew  that  Garuda's 
sacrifice  of  his  life  in  the  absence  of  sifRTRfacir  or  True 
Knowledge  would  not  help  him  to  Emancipation.  As  a  true 
Mahayanist  he  was  anxious  that  Garuda  should  live  well, 
reform  himself,  use  his  kingly  influence  on  his  subjects  and 
help  himself  and  them  to  attain  True  Knowledge. 

The  objection  to  the  hero's  wedded  life  may  not  be 
valid.  The  objection  to  wedded  life  is  that  its  distractions 
may  hinder  Tattvajnana.  But  there  are  shining  instances 
like  the  great  Janaka  who  realised  Tattvajnana  even  as  a 
householder  and  a  king  with  all  the  wealth  of  a  great  king. 
Jimutavahana,  endowed  with  a  very  strong  feeling  of  re- 
nunciation from  birth,  enjoyed  married  felicity  in  perfect 
detachment.  When  Mitravasu's  father  told  him  that  he  had 
chosen  Jimutavahana  as  his  son-in-law  did  not  Mitravasu  say 
that  he  was  glad  because  the  bridegroom  was  every 
way  noble;  but  sad  because  he  was  likely  to  abandon  his  wife 
immediately  he  got  an  opportunity  to  do  a  philanthropic 
deed?  True,  Jimutavahana  was  very  much  attracted  by 
Malaya vati;  but  even  within  ten  days  of  the  wedding  he 
abandoned  her  as  he  had  a  noble  chance  of  saving  Sarikha- 
cuda  by  sacrificing  his  life.  Did  he  not  feel  that  his  wed- 
ding with  Malayavati  was  useful  to  him  and  that  it  helped 


him  to  two  red  garments  in  which  he  became  immediately 
acceptable  to  Garuda?  In  this  case  Srngdra  subserved 
Santa  and  ennobled  it.  Again  he  felt  that  the  joy  caused  by 
the  touch  of  the  slaughter-slab  was  superior  to  the  joys  of 
wedded  life.  Who  can  hold  that  in  Jimutavahana's  case 
wedded  life  was  an  obstruction  to  Tattvajfiana?  Though  he 
was  newly  married,  he  rose  above  worldly  temptations  and 
became,  in  Garuda's  words  Bodhisattva  himself.  Perhaps 
this  was  the  truth  the  poet  sought  to  emphasise  when  he 
introduced  the  scene  of  Jimutavahana's  married  life  which 
he  could  have  avoided  with  perfect  ease. 

.  The  objection  that  if  Jimutavahana  were  a  true  Santa 
he  ought  to  have  ended  his  life  and  attained  Nirvana  has 
already  been  answered.  He  was  not  a  Hinayanist  who 
would  care  only  for  his  own  Emancipation.  He  was  a 
Mahayanist  and  so  he  prayed  for  many  births  to  help  others 
also  to  attain  Tattvajfiana.  So  he  was,  at  the  end  of  the  play, 
restored  to  life.  As  in  this  case  so  in  many  other  works 
Indian  writers  do  portray  the  tragic  element  in  life  but  the 
last  scene  does  not  end  in  death;  for  according  to  them,  death 
in  one  life  is  but  the  beginning  of  another  in  a  series  of  lives 
the  soul  has  to  pass  through  before  attaining  Emancipation. 
Further,  the  poet  shows  here  a  truth  that  good  actions  al- 
ways bring  a  reward  greater  than  expected.  Jimutavahana 
sought  to  save  one  serpent  by  sacrificing  his  life;  but  he 
actually  saved  his  own  life  and  also  generations  of  serpents 
of  the  past  and  of  the  future.  Jimutavahana,  the  Dayavlra, 
is  thus  not  different  from  Jimutavahana,  the  Santa. 

Further,  even  without  bringing  in  the  Buddhist  way 
of  thinking,  critics  like  Anandavardhana  establish  that 
Jimutavahana,  in  spite  of  his  great  enthusiasm,  is  only  a 
Santa  and  not  a  Vira.  They  contend  that  the  essence  of 
Santa  is  complete  negation  of  'egoism'  while  the  Vira  is 


essentially  'egoistic.'  Jlmutavahana's  enthusiasm  is  of  a 
peculiar  kind.  It  is  free  from  "egoism"  because  all  his 
actions  are  utterly  selfless.  His  enthusiasm  free  from  'ego- 
ism' is  not  opposed  to  Santa  but  it  nourishes  it.  Jimuta- 
vahana  is  thus  a  Santa  par  excellence. 

Lastly  opinions  that  Santa  cannot  be  a  Rasa  in  poetry 
and  drama  have  no  place  as  many  works  like  the  Nagananda 
have  Santa  not  only  as  one  of  the  Rasas  delineated  in  them 
but  have  it  as  the  dominant  Rasa.  From  the  Nagananda  and 
similar  works  critics  have  established  that  like  Srngara  and 
Vira  Santa  also  may  be  the  main  Rasa  in  poetry  and  drama. 

Jlmutavahana's  is  a  life  consecrated  to  service  for 
others.  As  if  to  remind  us  of  old  world  heroes  the  illustri- 
ous Founder  of  this  University,  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai 
Chettiar,  has  striven  hard  and  saved  well  in  order  to  serve 
nobly.  He  has  been  an  example  of  service  and  sacrifice. 
If  Jimutavahana  gave  away  the  Kalpaka  tree,  the  Rajah 
has  planted  a  tree  of  Knowledge  and  given  South  India  a 
temple  of  Learning  so  that  all  irrespective  of  caste  or  creed 
might  enjoy  the  fruits  thereof.  In  the  service  of  his  coun- 
try and  his  countrymen  the  Rajah  has  established  choultries 
to  feed  the  poor,  provided  filtered  water  to  ward  off  disease, 
built  hospitals  to  restore  those  stricken  with  disease  to 
health  and  happiness  and  renovated  and  con- 
structed temples  to  lift  them  to  God.  Above  all  he  has 
helped  generations  of  people  to  all  kinds  of  education  so  that 
the  thirsty  might  drink  deep  of  the  fountain  of  Learning,  cast 
off  mental  as  well  as  physical  dirt  and  reach  heaven  by  scal- 
ing the  heights  of  Knowledge.  May  he  live  long  to  pro- 
mote the  ancient  culture  of  this  land  and  continue  to  sup- 
port in  an  ever  increasing  measure  all  Samskrt  studies  in 
this  part  of  the  country  ! 



Maharaja's  College,  Ernakulam 

Every  genuine  drama  is  intended  to  be  staged  and  the 
true  dramatist  conveys  his  appeal  through  a  double  medium, 
the  ear  and  the  eye.  He  is  a  complete  master  so  far  as  the 
former  is  concerned;  but  as  regards  the  latter,  the  nature 
and  equipment  of  the  theatre  and  its  varied  accessories  no 
less  than  the  artistic  skill  of  the  artistes  constitute  very 
serious  limitations  on  the  work  of  the  dramatist.  Hence 
every  true  artist  will  certainly  take  stock  of  the  varied 
Visual  aids  he  can  command,  when  he  conceives  and  perfects 
his  work  of  art.  The  appreciation  of  a  drama  cannot  have 
any  pretence  to  completeness,  unless  and  until  one  knows 
also  the  nature  of  the  stage  and  its  equipment  where  the 
drama  is  to  be  presented.  This  aspect  of  the  study  of  the 
drama  it  seems,  has  been  completely  forgotten  and  with  it 
we  have  also  forgotten  our  theatrical  traditions,  even  if  we 
had  any.  The  question  therefore  deserves  to  be  asked:  had 
we  any  such  tradition?  The  answer  to  this  question  is  defi- 
nitely in  the  affirmative.  On  the  theoritical  side  we  have  in 
the  first  place  the  valuable  work  of  Bharata,  called  the 
Natya-£astra  and  in  the  second  place  the  numerous  stage 
directions,  found  scattered  about  in  the  extant  Samskrit 
plays,  though  unfortunately  no  serious  attention  seems  to 
have  been  paid  to  them  in  interpreting  dramas.  On  the  prac- 
tical side  we  have  the  peculiar  mode  of  acting;  Samskrit  dra- 
mas which  is  current  in  Kerala  even  to-day.  These  necessarily 


would  show  that  we  perfected  a  stage  technique  long  long 
ago,  though  we  did  not  care  to  keep  up  the  stage  tradition 
living,  except  in  Kerala.  The  subject,  then,  is  very  import- 
ant and  it  has  a  practical  bearing  in  that  it  helps  us  to  appre- 
ciate our  national  heritage  of  dramatic  literature  better;  but 
it  is  at  the  same  time  not  an  easy  one  to  deal  with.  A  full 
and  detailed  exposition  of  the  subject  requires  an  intensive 
study  of  the  following:  (i)  The  Ndtya  Sastra  of  Bharata; 
(ii)  the  chapters  dealing  with  Natyagrhas,  in  the  various 
Silpa-sastras;  (iii)  a  stud;/  of  the  existing  Ndtyagrhas, 
particularly  those  in  Kerala  figuring  as  an  adjunct  to  our 
temples  (iv)  the  reconstruction  of  the  stage  and  the  theatre 
from  the  stage  directions  available  in  the  older  dramas;  and 
(v)  the  study  of  the  acting,  as  it  now  obtains  in  Kerala. 
It  is  proposed  to  make  an  attempt  in  the  following  pages 
to  set  forth  the  information  that  we  get  from  the  Ndtya 
Sdstra,  so  far  as  our  theatres  are  concerned. 

According  to  Bharata,  the  theatre  may  be  rectangular 
or  square  or  triangular  in  shape.  We  could  easily 
conceive  of  the  former  two  types  of  theatres, 
but  not  the  third  type.  The  triangular  theatre 
must  have  been  very  rare  and  that  is  also  the  im- 
pression that  we  get  from  Bharata.  Following  the  usual 
practice  of  Samskrit  writers,  these  three  types  are  again 
classified  under  three  heads  of  Uttama,  Madhyama  and 
Adhama,  as  well  as  Jyestha,  Kanistha  and  Avara.  The  size 
of  the  theatre  may  vary  widely:  there  are  two  units  of  mea- 
surement laid  down  for  Ndtyagrha,  namely  Hast  a  and  Danda, 
and  of  these  Hasta  itself  varies  from  24  to  32  Angulas.  This 
will  give  us  some  idea  of  the  practical  differences  in  the  size 
of  a  theatre.  It  is  laid  down  that  a  theatre  may  have  one 
of  the  following  measurements:  108  or  64  or  32  Hastas,  the 
breadth  being  given  only  for  the  rectangular  theatre  which 



is  half  the  length.  For  the  square  theatre  there  is  no  need 
to  give  the  breadth  and  from  the  description  of  the  triangu- 
lar theatre  it  appears  to  be  an  equilateral  triangle.  From 
the  measurements  given  it  would  be  seen  that  the  rect- 
angular theatre  may  be  of  three  dimensions:  108  by  54  or 
64  by  32  or  32  by  16  Haslas  or  Dandas;  the  square  theatre, 
108  or  64  or  32  Dandas  or  Hastas  per  side.  The  big- 
gest theatre  will  thus  be  the  rectangular  theatre  of  108  Dan- 
das,  and  the  smallest  one  will  be  the  triangular  theatre  of 
32  Hastas.  Hence  from  the  point  of  view  of  size  we  have 
six  kinds  of  theatres  and  from  the  point  of  shape,  three  types 
or  in  all  we  may  have  eighteen  types  of  theatres.  Of  these 
eighteen  kinds,  Bharata  lays  down  for  human  beings  the 
rectangular  theatre  of  the  medium  size,  that  is  the  theatre 
having  the  measurements  64  by  32  Hastas,  or  the  square  or 
triangular  theatre  of  32  cubits,  while  the  theatre  of  major 
measurements  is  reserved  for  Gods.  And  in  fixing  up  the 
medium  theatre  for  human  beings,  he  is  guided  by  practical 
considerations.  For,  when  the  theatre  is  very  long,  the 
effect  of  intonation  will  be  lost  upon  the  audience  at  the 
extremity,  which,  indeed,  play  a  great  part  in  representa- 
tions. Similarly,  when  the  theatre  is  very  small,  words, 
when  spoken  loudly,  would  be  reverberated  and  echoed.  As 
regards  facial  expression  also  there  is  defect:  when  the 
theatre  is  very  big,  it  is  not  properly  caught  by  the  audience, 
and,  when  too  small,  the  effect  is  lost.  Thus  Bharata's  pre- 
ference of  the  medium  type  of  theatre  is  perfectly  normal 
and  natural. 

All  the  parts  of  the  theatre  with  which  we  are  now 
familiar  are  found  mentioned  by  Bharata  also:  we  have  the 
green-room,  the  stage  and  the  auditorium,  the  size  and  dis- 
position of  which  change  according  as  the  shape  and  size  of 
the  theatre  differ. 


The  green-room  is  locateu  in  ihe  nindermost  extremity 
oi  the  theatre,  as  ii  is  even  now;  ana  it  is  separated  irom  toe 
auditorium  by  the  stage,  and  has  no  direct  entrance  irom 
that.  In  the  rectangular  theatre  of  64  Haslas,  the  green 
room  will  be  16  by  32  Haslas  according  to  one  school,  or  & 
by  32  according  to  anothei  school  (See  Pi.  I  Fig.  i) .  That 
is  to  say  the  breadth  of  stage  will  be  1|8  or  1|4  of  the  whole 
length  of  the  theatre.  The  latter  seems  the  more  authentic 
of  the  two  opinions,  for  the  Samskrit  dramas  have  generally 
a  large  number  of  characters  taking  part  therein  and  second- 
ly only  a  few  characters  are  on  the  stage  at  the  same  time; 
and,  therefore,  unless  the  green  room  is  pretty  big,  it  must 
necessarily  be  very  crowded.  Again,  the  practical  conven- 
tion, obtaining  in  these  parts,  indicates  the  same  thing.  For, 
the  green  room  itself  has  to  be  partitioned  into  two,  one  for 
ladies  and  the  other  for  men;  otherwise  they  have  to  be 
promiscuous  in  the  same  place,  which  is  not  consistent  with 
our  sense  of  decency,  irom  the  green  room  there  are  to 
be  two  entrances  into  stage,  and  between  the  two  entrances 
there  will  be  the  wooden  panel,  composed  of  two  horizontal 
wooden  pieces  and  four  vertical  ones,  as  Abhinavagupta- 
padacarya  would  have  it.  This  wooden  panelling  is  called 
by  the  term  Sad-daruka  (See  PL  I  Fig.  ii)  and  in  actual 
practice  it  corresponds  to  the  pre-scenium  of  the  Grecian 
theatre.  The  Sad-daruka  forms  the  ornamental  background 
against  which  the  actors  act.  In  the  square  theatre  (see  PL 
II  Fig.  i)  the  green-room  has  one-fourth  the  length  of  the 
theatre  as  its  breadth:  that  is,  its  size  will  be  8  by  32  Hastas. 
and  as  before  it  occupies  the  hinder-most  part  of  the  struc- 
ture. As  before  here  also,  there  is  the  Sad-daruka.  The 
shape  of  the  green  room  in  the  triangular  theatre  does  not 
appear  to  be  clear.  Apparently  it  must  be  of  the  shape 
either  of  a  triangle  or  a  trapeze  (See  PL  II  Fig.  iii) .  If  it 


be  the  former,  its  size  will  be  16  Hastas  a  side  and  will  be 
an  equilateral  triangle.  From  the  point  of  view  of  the  refer- 
ence to  doorways,  it  seems  that  the  stage  must  be  located 
right  in  the  centre  of  the  triangle  as  in  the  case  of  the  square 
theatre,  thereby  creating  an  irregular  rectangular  green 
room  behind  at  the  base  of  the  triangle 

The  stage  is  the  most  important  part  of  the  theatre, 
and  about  this  fuller  details  are  available,  thought  it  cannot 
be  said  to  be  complete  or  very  clear.  The  stage  is  found 
divided  into  two  sections,  the  front  called  the  Rangapitha 
and  the  back,  called  Ranga-sirsa. 

The  Rangasirsa  in  the  rectangular  theatre  lies  between 
the  green  room  and  the  Rangapitha  (See  Plate  I,  Fig.  i). 
Regarding  its  size,  there  are  two  opinions.  According  to 
one  commentator,  it  will  be  as  big  as  the  Rangapitha  itself 
and  the  two  together  will  be  as  big  as  the  green  room. 
According  to  the  other  school,  it  will  be  half  the  size  of  the 
green  room  and  these  two  together  will  be  as  big  as  the 
Rangapitha.  Thus  based  upon  this  difference,  the  Rangasirsa 
of  a  rectangular  theatre  will  be  either  8  by  32  or  16  by  32 
Hastas.  Whatever  its  size,  the  Rangasirsa  stands  between 
the  green-room  and  the  Rangapitha,  and  it  serves  as  the 
ante-chamber  for  the  green  room  and  the  back  room  for  the 
stage.  Though  the  actual  function  of  the  Rangasirsa  is  not 
very  clear,  it  appears  evidently  to  be  the  space  where  the 
actors  in  costume  can  await  their  time  of  appearance 
and  from  where  the  actors  could  be  prompted.  In 
other  words,  this  part  of  the  stage  area  gives 
the  actors  some  space  for  taking  rest,  prevents 
them  from  being  exposed  to  the  audience  on  their 
arrival  on  the  stage  and  serves  to  beautify  the  stage,  for  it  is 
flanked  in  front  by  the  elevated  Rangapitha  with  its  wings, 


called  Mattavarini,  (See  Plate  I,  Fig.  i).  Hence  one  may 
assume  that  one  has  to  descend  from  the  Rangapltha  to  the 
Rangasirsa,  which  latter  seems  to  be  on  a  level  with  the 
green-room.  From  the  point  of  view  of  the  audience,  the 
most  prominent  feature  of  the  Rangasirsa  will  be  the  Sad- 
ddruka  which  stands  right  in  the  centre  and  from  the  point 
of  view  of  the  actors  it  serves  as  the  tiring  room. 

The  Rangasirsa  in  the  rectangular  theatre  (See  Plate  II, 
Fig.  i)  differs  from  the  same  in  the  square  theatre,  in  that 
while  it  is  co-extensive  with  the  green  room  and  the  stage  in 
the  former  both  in  front  and  back,  it  is  co-extensive  with  the 
green  room  only  in  the  latter  but  not  with  stage,  if  we 
may  accept  the  interpretation  of  the  commentator.  This 
supports  our  interpretation  to  some  extent  regarding  the 
purpose  of  the  same.  It  may  be  pointed  out  that  the 
Rangasirsa  becomes  a  useless  thing  in  the  square  theatre, 
unless  its  purpose  is  as  we  have  made  it  out.  Here  also  it 
is  said  there  must  be  the  Sad-daruka.  It  will  be  noticed 
that,  while  in  the  rectangular  theatre  the  Rangasirsa  is  co-ex- 
tensive with  the  green  room,  it  is  not  so  in  the  square  theatre 
(See  Plate  II  Fig.  i).  Here  arises  an  interesting  question 
as  to  how  to  screen  off  the  sides  beyond  the  stage  proper.  If 
it  is  not  screened  off,  this  could  be  of  no  use  to  the  actors  con- 
cerned, as  we  have  explained  it,  and  if  it  is  to  be  screened, 
how  is  it  to  be  done  and  with  what  material?  Are  we  to  locate 
here  the  Mattavarini  which  in  the  rectangular  theatre  is  co- 
extensive with  the  front  line  of  the  stage,  but  here  with  the 
back  line?  It  may  possibly  be  that  the  numerous  pillars 
mentioned  in  the  course  of  Bharata's  text  might  serve  as  the 
Mattavarini:  but  presumably  the  subject  is  not  clear. 
Coming  to  the  triangular  theatre,  we  have  no  information 
regarding  the  Rangasirsa.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  Bharata  does 
not  speak  of  any  Rangasirsa  for  this  kind  of  theatre. 


From  what  has  been  said  it  will  be  clear  that  the  Ranga 
consists  of  two  portions,  the  front  portion,  called  the 
Rangapitha  and  the  back  portion  called  the  Rangasirsa  which, 
so  far  as  we  now  could  make  out,  serves  the  purpose  of  a 
tiring  room  for  the  actors  in  costume. 

The  Rangapitha  or  the  stage  proper  is  the  most  import- 
ant part  of  the  theatre.  At  the  back  of  the  stage  the  audi- 
ence sees  the  ornamented  Sad-daruka  and  on  either  side  the 
Mattavarinis  the  ceiling  of  the  stage  being  held  up  by  beauti- 
fully wrought  pillars,  adorned  with  all  the  skill  cf  the 
sculptor  and  the  painter.  We  also  learn  from  the  descrip- 
tion that  the  stage  is  on  a  level  different  from  that  of  the 
green  room  on  the  one  side  and  the  auditorium  on  the  other. 
The  Rangapitha  in  the  rectangular  theatre  (See  Plate  I, 
Fig.  i)  stands  between  the  Rangasirsa  and  the  auditorium 
and  extends  throughout  the  whole  breadth  of  the  struc- 
ture, thirty-two  Hastas  long  and  eight  Hastes  broad.  At 
either  extremity  of  the  same  are  the  Mattavarinis,  (See 
Plate  I,  Fig.  i)  which  are  adorned  with  four  pillars,  eight 
Hastas  square  and  one  and  a  half  Hastas  high.  To  the  height 
of  the  Mattavarini  must  the  stage  be  raised;  and  this  raised 
space,  or  the  front  of  the  stage,  is  to  be  constructed  of  wood 
or  burnt  brick  and  adorned  with  dovecots,  altars  with  rail 
patterns,  floral  designs  etc:  in  other  words,  this  forms  an 
ornamented  foot-board.  It  will  thus  be  clear  that  the 
Rangapitha  will  be  one  and  half  cubits  higher  than  the  floor 
level.  The  question  now  is  this:  whether  the  Rangasirsa  is 
to  have  the  same  level  with  the  Rangapitha  or  with  the 
green  room.  We  have  already  explained  that  ii  ought  to  be 
on  a  level  with  the  green-room,  so  that  it  might  be  used  also 
as  a  tiring  room  for  the  actors.  There  are  of  course  differ- 
ences in  views  on  this  subject,  noticed  bv  the  comir^?tor, 
but  unfortunately  the  text  is  hot  clear.  However  the  text 


makes  one  thing  very  clear:  that  the  actors'  part  of  the 
theatre  must  be  of  two  levels  and  that  the  green-room  must 
be  of  a  lower  level:  it  is  described  as  Sailaguhdkdra. 

The  disposition  of  thf>  siage  in  the  square  theatre  (See 
Plate  II,  Fig.  i)  is  strikingly  dui'erent.  The  stage  is  compos- 
ed of  the  four  square  bits  in  the  centre  when  the  whole  floor 
area  of  the  theatre  is  divided  into  sixty-four  equal  parts;  and 
when  this  marked  out  we  get  a  plot  of  ground,  twelve  by 
thirty-two  Hastas.  Behind  this  and  in  continuation  thereof 
there  is  the  Rangasirsa  (See  Plate  11,  Fig.  i)  measuring  four 
by  Uiiiiy-iwo  Hastas  and  still  behind  is  the  green-room 
adornea  with  the  Sad-daruka  and  measuring  eight  by  thirty 
two  hasias.  It  will  be  seen  thus  that  the  Rangapltha  stands 
right  in  the  centre  in  the  square  theatre,  (See  Plate  II, 
Fig.  ii).  As  regards  the  triangular  theatre,  the  directions 
are  still  meagre.  The  text  lays  down  that  the  Ranga- 
pitha  must  be  located  in  the  centre  and  that  it  must  also  be 
a  triangle  (See  Plate  II,  Fig.  iii).  This  suggests  that  the 
green  room  of  the  shape  of  a  trapeze  will  be  located  at  the 
base  of  the  triangle  and  from  the  inner  side  of  the  trapeze 
will  jut  oat  the  stage  of  the  shape  of  a  triangle.  As  before, 
here  also  there  might  be  two  entrances  into  the  green  room, 
the  interspace  being  flanked  by  the  usual  Sad-ddruka,  cor- 
responding to  the  praescenium  of  the  Grecian  theatre. 

The  auditorium  takes  half  of  the  rectangular  theatre, 
(See  Plate  I;  Fig.  i.)  the  other  half  being  utilised  for  the 
green  room  and  the  stage.  Reference  is  also  found  made  to 
the  different  levels  in  this  half,  the  stage  being  one  and  half 
Hastas  higher  than  the  green  room.  Here,  then,  the  green 
room  and  the  auditorium  will  be  on  the  same  level,  the  stage 
being  on  a  higher  level.  The  elevated  nature  of  the  stage 
thus  enables  the  audience  to  see  clearly  what  happens  on 



the  stage.  In  the  square  theatre  on  the  other  hand,  the 
area  set  apart  for  the  audience  is  slightly  over  a  third  of  the 
whole  structure,  the  area  of  the  same  being  twelve  Hastas 
by  thirty-two,  (See  Plate  II,  Fig.  i).  To  make  up  for  the 
lesser  seating  space  in  this  kind  of  theatre,  provision  is 
made  ior  gallery  arrangement,  (See  Plate  11,  Fig.  i)  each 
tier  rising  by  a  cubit  and  a  half,  (See  Plate  II,  Fig.  iv)  the 
gallery  itself  being  built  of  bricks  and  wood.  This  is  a 
particularly  interesting  feature,  in  as  much  as  here  have  we 
the  earliest  reference  to  a  galleried  seating  arrangement.  In 
the  triangular  theatre,  there  is  no  speciiic  mention  of  the 
auditorium.  There  is  certainly  no  gallery  arrangement  for 
seating;  but  it  is  worth  while  to  mention  the  fact  that  unless 
some  such  arrangement  is  available  the  seating  capacity  will 
be  very  little.  iNow  comparing  the  rectangular  theatre  and 
the  square  theatre  as  regards  the  disposition  of  the  stage  and 
the  auditorium,  it  will  be  found  that  while  the  stage  is  higher 
than  the  auditorium  in  the  former,  the  auditorium  is  higher 
than  the  stage  in  the  latter.  This,  then,  is  a  unique  point  of 

The  stage,  as  has  been  described,  has  clearly  four  divi- 
sions: the  green  room,  the  back  stage,  the  front  stage,  and 
the  auditorium.  We  have  also  seen  that  there  are  two 
speciiic  features  on  the  stage  namely  the  Sad-daruka  and  the 
Mattavarinis,  the  former  figuring  as  the  ornamental  back- 
ground for  the  stage  and  the  latter  figuring  as  the  ornate 
sides  of  the  stage.  We  also  learn  from  the  text  that  the  stage 
has  its  own  roof  and  the  stage  area  is  adorned  by  a  number 
of  graceful  pillars.  There  is,  however,  given  no  direction 
which  would  show  that  the  auditorium  had  any  roofing 
or  that  it  had  any  enclosure.  One  is  inclined  to  think  that 
there  was  none:  otherwise  there  would  certainly  have  been 
some  reference  to  side  doors  from  the  green  room.  In  these 




" h 



j,    r~i**D**n** 

7    /v«s«r*r/f«*~* 

3    &  tint*  A 

C    $AD-D*Xu** 

3    VOC#i 

9     K#f*CjAt>IJ#* 

5   i/£/vt/^ 

"    "«TT»V*»,», 



T  .  « 


^_,9^f—  » 

^o  /v 







'    \* 


'          ^ 





i  'I 


IL  .,. 

,.            "-- 







>»         5"  -*/*> 



^  ^ 


features  our  theatre  bears  some  resemblances  to  the 
Grecian  and  Roman  theatres,  which  we  may  now  notice 

The  arrangement  of  the  Athenian  stage  is  very  simple: 
it  consisted  of  a  round  orchestra,  and  a  low  rectangular 
skene  with  a  projecting  Paraskenia  and  a  low  platform  stage. 
Between  the  skene  and  the  auditorium  lies  what  is  termed 
the  Prosckenium  which  is  understood  as  the  back  wall  of  the 
stage  in  front  of  which  the  actors  act  or  as  pillars  in  front  of 
the  stage  between  the  actors  and  the  audience  or  as  the 
stage.  In  these  respects  this  agrees  with  our  theatre,  parti- 
cularly in  our  having  the  Mattavdrini  and  the  Sad-daruka. 
In  early  days  the  skene  alone  formed  the  stage,  the  audi- 
torium not  forming  part  of  the  theatre:  the  two  were  dis- 
tinct parts.  But,  when  the  Romans  borrowed  the  same, 
the  two  were  connected  together,  the  paradoi — the  passage 
— being  closed  by  what  is  termed  Vomitoria.  In  the  Roman 
theatre  we  find  a  roof  over  the  stage  which  became  an  orna- 
mental one  when  the  whole  structure  including  the  audi- 
torium came  to  have  roof.  In  this  respect  also  this  agrees 
with  our  theatre.  Thus  when  we  compare  our  theatres 
with  the  Grecian  and  Roman  theatres,  there  is  something 
which  is  common  ;  and  the  resemblances  become  striking 
when  it  is  further  pointed  out  that  we  do  not  know  the  exact 
function  of  the  Mattavarmi  and  the  practical  basis  of  the 
differentiation  between  the  Rangaslrsa  and  the  Rdngapltha. 

Bharata's  text  also  emphasises  that  the  structure  must 
be  adorned  with  sculptures  and  paintings.  Ample  provision 
is  found  made  for  music,  both  instrumental  and  vocal,  (see 
Plate  I,  Fig.  i,  for  the  seating  of  musicians) .  The  structure 
must  again  be  accoustically  perfect  and  must  have  excellent 
ventilation.  It  will  thus  be  seen  that  when  Bharata  lays 


down  the  nature  of  the  ancient  Hindu  stage,  he  does  so  with 
a  practical  eye  into  the  details — an  aspect  that  is  proved  by 
the  discovery  of  a  pre-Christian  cave  at  Ramgarh,  (See 
Plate  I,  Fig.  iii)  carrying  an  inscription  which  has  been 
rendered  by  Prof.  Jules  Block  thus: 

Poets  venerable  by  nature  kindle  the  hearts,  who. . . . 
At  the  spring  festival  of  the  vernal  full  moon, 
When  frolics  and  music  abound,  people 
Thus(?)  tie  around  their  neck  garlands 
Thick  with  jasmine  flowers. 

—(ARA.  1903-4). 



We  often  claim  as  original  many  ideas  and  practices 
which  were  known  to  our  ancestors.  Those  who  study  the 
economic  thought  in  the  nations  of  antiquity  are  often  struck 
by  its  'modernism*.  A  sympathetic  study  of  the  ideas  and 
practices  of  the  ancients  is  necessary  for  intelligent  and 
sound  progress.  The  religious  books  of  ancient  India — the 
Ramayana,  the  Mahabharata,  the  Smritis,  the  Puranas  and 
specific  treatises  like  the  Arthasastra  of  Kautilya  are  replete 
with  information  bearing  on  many  a  modern  economic  con- 
troversy. Economic  thought  of  ancient  India,  in  terms  of 
modern  economic  science  is  badly  needed  as  a  service  to 
human  knowledge  in  general  and  as  a  step  towards  a  pro- 
per understanding  of  the  indigenous  problems.  It  will  be 
of  course,  unscientific  to  try  to  reconstruct  a  full  fledged 
economic  science  out  of  material  supplied  by  past  experi- 
ence and  ideas.  But  nobody  can  deny  that  for  the  study 
of  specific  economic  problems  like  collectivism,  currency 
regulation,  Social  Policy  and  Finance,  we  may  refer  with 
advantage  to  past  experience. 

The  Hindus  have  always  taken  a  less  materialistic  view 
of  life  which  has,  therefore,  retarded  their  industrial  pro- 
gress to  a  large  extent.  Moral  or  religious  codes  have 
usually  played  a  greater  part  in  shaping  their  thought  and 
outloook.  Oriental  economic  ideas,  it  is  interesting  to  note, 
were  developed  at  a  time  when  the  civilizaion  of  the  West 
was  in  its  infancy.  The  economic  concepts  of  the  Hindus 


are  the  ideas  of  an  ancient  civilization  based  upon  an  agricul- 
tural economy  and  they  were  drawn  from  the  writings  of 
priestly  law-givers.  The  lives  of  the  people  were  largely 
determined  by  these  writings,  and  these  writings  have  come 
down  to  us  exerting  a  powerful  influence  even  on  our  time. 
A  study  of  Hindu  economic  ideas  and  practices  is  therefore 

The  central  idea  of  Hindu  Government  and  education 
was  the  fulfilment  of  the  law.  Such  a  situation  meant  a 
minute  regulation  of  everyday  life  and  it  follows  that  the 
material  for  this  study  is  mostly  drawn  from  rules  of  conduct 
or  laws.  A  study  of  those  regulations  of  the  Hindus  which 
are  significant  as  indicating  the  character  of  their  economic 
thought  shows  that  the  following  subjects  were  the  most 
important.  Agriculture,  occupations,  interest  and  usury, 
labour  and  wages,  property  taxation,  inheritance,  weights 
and  measures,  adulteration,  monopoly  and  the  poor. 

Among  the  most  striking  regulations  of  the  Brahmanic 
law  were  those  concerning  interest  and  usury.  Money  lend- 
ing by  the  higher  castes  was  closely  restricted.  Brahmins 
and  Kshatriyas  could  not  lend  at  interest.  In  case  of  loans 
made  without  security,  the  following  terms  were  legal;  for 
gold,  double  value,  i.e.,  100  per  cent;  for  grain  treble  the 
original  price;  anything  sold  by  weight  might  be  sold  at 
eight  times  the  original  value.  Various  kinds  of  interest 
payments  were  distinguished;  there  might  be  compound, 
periodical  stipulated,  corporal  and  use  of  pledge — corporal 
interest  bein<5  that  paid  in  labour,  use  of  pledge  referring  to 
cases  in  which  the  lender  made  use  of  some  security  like 
cows,  for  example.  Thus  the  fact  is  apparent  that  among 
the  ancient  Hindus,  interest  was  closely  connected  with  some 
concept  of  a  just  price.  At  the  death  of  the  king  or  the  jubilee 


year  interest  should  cease,  a  tabula  rasa  when  debtor  and 
creditor  should  be  equalised. 

Among  the  ancient  Hindus,  there  were  careful  regula- 
tions against  false  weights  and  measures  and  against  adult- 
ration.  Provisions  against  speculation  and  monopoly  were 
even  more  stringent.  Competitive  markets  were  practically 
impossible,  and  so  we  see  even  to  this  day  that  there  is  no 
one  price  in  the  Oriental  shop,  and  so  these  minute  regula- 
tions about  weights  and  measures  were  necessary  lest  the 
consumers  should  be  exploited.  According  to  the  Insti- 
tutes of  Vishnu,  the  King  was  to  keep  the  whole  produce  of 
mines.  By  Brahmanic  law,  a  hired  workman  who  abandon- 
ed his  work  before  the  term  had  expired,  was  to  pay  the 
whole  amount  of  stipulated  wages  to  his  employer  and  a 
fine  to  the  king.  On  the  other  hand,  if  an  employer  dismiss- 
ed a  workman  whom  he  had  hired  before  the  expiration  of 
the  term  agreed  upon,  he  must  pay  the  full  amount  of  the 
wages  stipulated  and  a  fine  to  the  king,  unless  the  workman 
was  to  blame. 

As  regards  the  economic  significance  of  the  caste  system, 
it  was,  as  an  Italian  economist  puts  it,  'division  of  labour 
gone  to  seed/  It  stood  for  rigidity  of  society  and  for  perma- 
nent inquality  among  social  classes — an  attitude  which 
(means  a  point  of  view  in  economic  thought.  The  four 
castes  had  specific  functions  in  society.  That  some  elasti- 
city was  possible  in  the  social  system  of  the  ancient  Hindus 
appears  from  the  fact  that  in  the  time  of  distress  each  caste 
might  follow  the  occupation  of  one  below  it.  In  general, 
however,  the  most  severe  separateness  was  to  be  maintain- 
ed. In  the  earlier  stages  of  national  development,  the 
principles  underlying  the  structure  of  the  Greeks  and  the 
Romans  were  the  same  as  those  of  the  Hindus.  In  India, 


however  the  distinctions  became  rigid  and  stereotyped;  in 
Europe  society  was  soon  able  to  throw  of?  the  shackles. 

The  growth  of  the  caste  system,  the  organisation  of 
rural  India  on  the  basis  of  village  communities,  and  the 
fatalistic  outlook  on  life  of  the  Indian  cultivator  reflect  the 
strong  influence  of  Geographical  environment,  past  and 

The  insistence  of  the  Holy  Books  of  Hinduism  upon 
the  sacredness  of  the  cow  can  be  traced  back  to  the  time 
when  the  economic  feature  of  the  early  Aryan  pastoralists 
of  India's  savannahs  was  bound  up  with  the  preservation 
of  their  cattle.     Although  with  the  rise  of  cultivation,  this 
early  necessity  has  long  since  vanished,  so  tenacious  is  tra- 
dition that  the  whole  creed  of  cow  worship  with  its  elabo- 
rate ritual  and  legend  still  persists.     A  religion  which  once 
aimed   at  promoting  the  survival  and   betterment   of   its 
devotees,  now  under  changed  conditions  hinders  the  material 
progress  of  India's  agriculturists.  Owing  to  religious  scruples 
concerning  breeding,  control  and  slaughtering,  stock-raising 
on  modern  scientific  lines  for  milk,  beef  or  even  for  hides  and 
tallow  is  almost  unpractised.     In  India  there  are  more  than 
twice  the  number  of  cattle  in  the  U.S.A.  and  yet  except 
for  erratic  and  meagre  supplies  of  milk,  they  are  of  no  use 
as  a  source  of  food.     As  draught  animals,  their  value  has 
been  depreciated  by  centuries  of  uncontrolled  breeding  and 
lack  of  care  and  attention,  and  when  dead  either  through  age 
or  disease,  their  hides  are  small  and  inferior  in  quality. 
Allowed  to  wander  at  will,  they  are  a  nuisance  to  the  far- 
mer and  his  crops. 

Economics,   Geography  and  Religion  are  much  more 
closely  connected  than  we  usually  suppose.     In  India  where 



everything  is  done  on  a  superlative  scale,  religion  has  for 
thousands  of  years  dominated  man's  mind  so  completely  and 
absolutely  that  it  has  become  an  integral  part  of  everything 
the  Hindu  says  and  thinks  and  does  and  eats.  In  other  coun- 
tries, too,  religion  has  often  interfered  with  the  normal  deve- 
lopment of  life  but  not  to  the  extent  we  find  in  India.  The 
priestly  caste  of  the  Brahmans  was  the  first  to  live  upon  the 
products  of  other  people's  labour,  whether  bestowed  as 
voluntary  gifts  or  sacrifices  to  the  gods.  His  was  a  perilous 
life.  For  the  reverence  and  sanctity  accorded  to  him  as 
representative  of  the  god  was  easily  upset.  In  a  very  real 
sense,  his  income  was  'payment  by  results'.  He  must  deliver 
the  goods,  produce  rain  or  fair  weather  when  needed,  for 
the  crops,  stop  pestilences  and  other  troubles.  Something 
could  be  done  by  skilled  prophecy,  e.g.,  he  could  'produce' 
rain  when  rain  was  coming  and  perform  effective  rites  of 
fertilisation  in  spring  time.  But  any  calamitous  failure 
was  taken  to  prove  incapacity  or  malice.  Even  to-day  the 
ordinary  Hindu  agriculturist  recognises  his  dependence 
upon  the  natural  resources  and  the  fecundity  of 
Nature  for  his  successful  livelihood.  It  is  not  too  much 
to  say  that  this  fecundity  of  nature  was  the  first  consi- 
deration in  the  great  religions  of  the  world,  whether  of 
Ra,  Zeus,  Ammon,  Mithra  or  some  other  sun-god  or  some 
female  deity  of  fertility,  such  as  cybele  or  ceres  or  Shakti. 
All  the  chief  Hindu  festivals  relate  to  points  in  the  sun's 
progress  during  the  year  and  this  sun-worship  cannot  be 
detached  from  the  worshipful  regard  to  the  generative  pro- 
cesses in  the  vegetable  and  animal  world.  Earth  has  been 
regarded  by  the  Hindu  as  the  mother-element,  and  the  idea 
of  the  mother-goddess  has  prevailed  in  India  from  ancient 
times.  The  modern  current  slogan  'Bharat  Matha  Ki  Jai' 
points  to  the  persistence  of  this  belief. 


The  account  given  in  the  Golden  Bough  of  the  worship 
of  Adonis  indicates  how  far  the  older  magic  had  survived 
in  the  early  religions  of  the  East.  The  "Gardens  of  Adonis" 
were  "baskets  or  pots  filled  with  earth,  in  which  wheat, 
barley,  lettuces,  fennel  and  various  kinds  of  flowers  were 
sown  and  tended  for  eight  days  chiefly  or  exclusively  by 
women.  Fostered  by  the  sun's  heat,  the  plants  shot  up 
rapidly,  but  having  no  root,  they  withered  as  rapidly  away 
and  at  the  end  of  eight  days  were  carried  out  with  the  images 
of  the  dead  Adonis  and  flung  with  them  into  the  sea  or  into 
springs.  The  rapid  growth  of  the  wheat  and  barley  in  the 
gardens  of  Adonis  was  intended  to  make  the  corn  shoot  up; 
and  the  throwing  of  the  gardens  and  the  images  into  the 
water  was  a  charm  to  secure  a  due  supply  of  fertilising  rain. 
In  India  this  custom  still  survives  and  is  observed  methodi- 
cally all  over  South  India  soon  after  the  harvests.  Thus 
we  find  a  reciprocity  of  services  between  God  and  Mammon 
religion  and  industry.  The  gods  gave  protection  against 
enemies  in  war,  promoted  vegetation  and  animal  fertility  and 
gave  luck'  in  agriculture.  In  return  the  people  got  treasures 
for  their  temples,  food  and  other  necessaries  and  comforts 
for  themselves.  In  India  a  large  increasing  part  of  such 
treasures  as  did  not  rust  or  decay  came  to  be  deposited 
in  the  temples.  The  wealth  and  leisure  thus  secured  to  the 
temples  and  the  priestly  castes  stimulated  among  them  the 
beginnings  of  culture  in  literature,  science  and  the  fine  arts 
of  music,  sculpture,  architecture,  painting,  dancing,  etc.  thus 
laying  the  foundations  of  many  of  the  higher  crafts  and  indus- 
tries that  spread  in  secular  life. 




Atreya  Ramanuja,  popularly  known  as  Appullar,  was 
the  spiritual  guru  and  the  maternal  uncle  of  Vedanta 
Desika,  the  renowned  scholar  and  outstanding  exponent  of 
Vi6istadvaita  Philosophy.  In  the  line  of  Sir!  Vaisnava 
Acaryas  commencing  from  Bhagavan  Ramanuja,  the  author 
of  Sri  Bhasya,  Atreya  Ramanuja  was  the  fifth.  His  pre- 
decessors in  that  office  were  his  own  father,  grand-father  and 
great-grand-fcthcr.  Thus  Atreya  Ramanuja  and  his  lineal 
ancestors  enjoyed  the  proud  privilege  of  being  the  accredit- 
ed exponents  of  Visistadvaitic  thought  to  the  four  succes- 
sive generations  that  followed  Bhagavad  Ramanuja.  Some 
of  the  most  eminent  thinkers  and  men  of  letters  of  later  days 
were  also  scions  of  this  illustrious  stock.  The  celebrated 
Gopala  DeSika  of  Kumbakonam  and  the  poet  Venkatadh- 
varin  may  be  cited  as  examples. 

The  materials  for  writing  the  biography  of  Atreya 
Ramanuja  are  disappointingly  scanty.  It  is,  however,  learnt 
on  reliable  authority  that  he  was  born  at  Conjivaram  in  the 
year  1220  A.D.  (in  the  month  of  citra  of  the  year  Vikrama) . 
At  the  close  of  each  chapter  of  Nydyakulisa  he  refers  to  him- 
self as  the  son  of  Padmanabharya.  His  father  must  also  have 
been  known  as  Rangaraja,  as  is  evident  from  the  traditional 

1.     Caitrardrasambhavam  kancyam  Rangarajagurossutam  | 
Suprati^thamsamatreyam  Bamanujagurumbhaje  1 1 


His  great-grand-father,  Pranatartiharacarya  (also  called 
Kadambi  Accan),  a  nephew  of  the  celebrated  Bhasyakara 
was  his  most  trusted  and  loyal  disciple.  He  was  an  able 
exponent  of  Visistadvaita  Philosophy.  So  great  were 
Pranatartiharacarya' s  scholarship  and  his  powers  of  argu- 
ment and  exposition  that  he  was  named  Veddntodayana  (the 
Udayana  of  Vedantic  thought). 

Along  with  Sudarsana  Bhatta,  whose  Sruta-Prakasika 
(a  commentary  on  the  Srl-Bhdsya) ,  Tdtparya-Dlpikd  (a 
gloss  on  the  Veddrtha-Samgraha) ,  and  Suka-Pakslya  are 
remarkble  for  their  learning  and  polemic  ability,  Atreya 
Ramanuja  studied  the  Srl-Bhdsya  and  other  vedantic  works 
under  the  eminent  Vatsya-Varadaguru.  From  his  own 
father,  Atreya  Ramanuja  learnt  the  inner  significance  oi  the 
mantras  held  sacred  by  the  Vaisnavites.  He  was  a  bold  and 
original  thinker.  In  recognition  of  his  extraordinary  skill  in 
dialectics,  the  title  *  Vadi-Hamsambuvaha '  was  conferred 
upon  him. 

Tradition,  as  preserved  by  his  descendants,  speaks  of 
him  as  che  author  of  three  books,  of  which  Nydyakulisa 
alone  is  now  available,  the  others  having  been  irretrievably 
lost.  It  is  a  matter  for  great  regret  that  even  the  names 
of  these  books  have  been  forgotten.  In  his  Tdtparya- 
Candrikd,  the  famous  gloss  on  Ramanuja's  Gltabhdsya, 
Vedanta  Desika  quotes  in  the  course  of  his  comments  on 
verses  14  and  15  chapter  XVIII,  Acarya  Vadihamsambu- 
vaha  as  saying  : 

Vaisamye  sati  karmanamavisamah  kim  nama  kuryat 
Kimvodarataya  dadita  Varado  vaiichanti  cet  durgatim. 

Evidently  this  is  a  quotation  from  one  of  the  missing 
books.  Judging  from  this  fragment,  one  is  led  to  believe 


that  the  work  from  which  this  has  been  extracted  was,  in  all 
probability,  a  religious  lyric,  (stotra)  in  praise  of  the  Lord. 

Vadi-hamsambuvaha  was  fortunate  in  his  pupil.  His 
nephew  and  disciple,  Vedanta  Desika  again  and  again  speaks 
of  his  own  extraordinary  good  luck  in  having  had  such  a 
preceptor  and  expresses  his  deep  sense  of  gratitude  for  what 
his  guru  had  done  for  him.  In  one  place,  he  says  that  his 
guru  trained  him  as  the  trainer  of  birds  would  train  a  par- 
rot.2 In  another  context  in  the  same  work,  he  owns  that  in 
his  writings  he  is  merely  giving  outward  expression  to 
what  his  Acarya  had  inscribed  in  his  mind.3  Even  when 
due  allowance  is  made  for  Vedanta  Desika's  self-effacing 
modesty,  the  fact  still  remains  that  he  owes  much  to 
Atreya  Ramanuja.  Readers  of  Rahasyatraya-Sara  will 
remember  that  its  author  refers  to  a  great  knack  that 
his  uncle  and  guru  had  of  expressing  highly  abstract 
thoughts  in  an  exceedingly  simple  manner  with  the  aid  of 
homely  similes  that  enabled  the  listener  to  go  straight  to  the 
heart  of  the  matter.  To  explain  the  mystic  significance  of 
the  pranava  he  would  ask  his  pupils  to  remember  the  oft- 
quoted  verse  from  the  Ramayana: 

"  Agratah  pray  ay  au  Ramassita  madhye  sumadhyama    j 
Prsthatastu  dhanuspanih  Laksmanonujagama  ha"|| 
First  went  forth  Rama;  Sita  with  her  delicate  waist,  in 
the  middle;  Laksmana,  bow  in  hand,  brought  up  the  rear. 


(Rahasyatrayasara)  . 

3.      QeveirVefru  uifiQp&ir  GpffajririL  €SffSfr€^u^.Q\un 
w.  —  (Rahasyatrayasara)^ 


The  three  letters    of   the  Pranava,  respectively   stand   for 
the  Lord,  His  consort,  and  the  individual  soul.4 

The  author  of  the  Gitd  declares  that  he  who  shrinks 
away  from  God  thinking  that  He,  by  His  infinite  perfections, 
is  far  above  finite  souls  is  the  worst  of  men  (naradhama). 
Atreya*  Ramanuja  was  likewise  convinced  that  we  should 
approach  the  Lord  in  the  spirit  of  the  gopis  of  old  who  enter- 
tained no  doubts  about  His  accessibility.  He  used  to  express 
his  agreement  with  the  passage  in  the  Gita  which  condemns 
faint  heartedness  on  the  part  of  the  devotee.5 

Nyayakulisa  (the  Thunder-Bolt  of  Reason)  is  a  stan- 
dard work  on  Visistadvaita  Vedanta.  It  is  frequently  refer- 
red to,  and  cited  as  an  authority,  by  Vedanta  Desika  in  his 
Niiaya-Siddhanjana,  Nydya-Parisuddhi,  Tattva-mukta- 
ka!a,pa  and  other  works.  It  is  written  in  stiff  prose  inter- 
snersed  with  karikas  used  whenever  sententious  summaries 
or  pointed  exposition  are  needed.  In  each  of  the  thirteen 
sections  into  which  the  book  is  divided,  the  author  tackles  a 
definite  philosophical  problem  and  establishes  the  stand- 
point of  ViSistadvaita  after  refuting  the  views  of  the  rival 
philosophical  systems.  II  is  highly  polemical  and  shows 
the  author's  mastery  over  the  entire  range  of  Indian 
thought.  A  perfect  master  of  the  art  of  controversy,  his  lo<nc 
is  invincible,  a  veritable  thunderbolt  (kulisa)  to  his  philo- 



—  (Rahasyatrayasara) 


sophical  opponents.  A  brief  indication  of  the  topics  dis- 
cussed may  be  given. 

From  the  point  of  view  of  Vedanta  the  most  important 
problem  is  perhaps  the  question  whether  the  Upanisadic 
texts  which  speak  of  what  exists  as  a  fact  (siddhdrtha) , 
Brahman  or  Atman,  are  authoritative  or  not.  If,  as  the 
Prabhakara  school  of  Mimamsa  maintains,  something  to  be 
done  (kdrya)  is  the  ultimate  significance  of  every  proposi- 
tion, the  Veda  must  have  such  a  thing  (/cdrya)  or  an  action 
for  its  final  import.  The  entire  body  of  the  Upanisadic 
texts  dealing  with  Brahmam  or  Atmam  would  lose  all  valid- 
it^,  and  the  ground  would  be  cut  from  under  the  feet  of  the 
Verlantin.  Hence,  the  first  chapter  addresses  itself  to  the 
task  of  refuting  the  Prabhakara  view. 

To  prove  that  the  Vedas  are  in  their  very  nature 
(svatah)  valid,  the  author,  in  the  manner  of  the  Bhdtta 
Mimamsakas,  seeks  to  establish  m  the  second  chapter  the 
doctrine  known  as  svatah-prdmdnya-vdda  (the  self  validity 
of  knowledge).  In  demonstrating  this  position  the  main 
controversy  is  with  the  Naiyayikas  who  are  advocates  of 
paratah-prdmdnya-vdda  (the  theory  of  validity  from  out- 
side) . 

In  the  third  chapter,  Ramanuja  repudiates  the  Prabha- 
kara and  the  Advaitic  accounts  of  error,  known  respectively 
as  akhydti  and  anirvacamya-khydti,  and  maintains  yathdr- 
tha-khydti,  a  doctrine  peculiar  to  the  Visistadvaitin.  Accord- 
ing to  this  view  all  judgments  reveal  only  what  exists  (sat). 

Vadi-hamsambuvaha  establishes,  in  the  fourth  chapter, 
the  thesis  that  jndna  is  self -luminous  (svayam- 
prakasa).  The  ground  is  prepared  for  this  doc- 
trine by  the  refutation  of  the  views  of  Kumarila 
Bhatta,  Murari  Misra  and  the  Naiyayikas  in  regard 
to  this  matter.  Jndna  is  like  the  lamp  which  dis- 


pels  darkness  and  reveals  objects  and  does  not  require  for 
its  own  manifestation  another  lamp.  By  its  conjunction  with 
objects,  jndna  reveals  objects;  but,  in  regard  to  its  own  mani- 
festation, jndna  does  not  depend  upon  another  jndna. 

Unless  the  view  that  God  is  inferred  (dnumdnika)  is 
abandoned  the  scriptures  would  lose  their  validity.  If  god 
is  known  through  inference,  then,  on  the  well-known  princi- 
ple that  the  £astras  are  valid  only  with  regard  to  matters 
lying  beyond  the  scope  of  the  other  pramanas  (Aprdpte 
sdstram  arthavat) ,  in  respect  of  God,  the  scriptures  would 
become  futile.  To  establish  their  prime  usefulness  Atreya 
Ramanuja  refutes  the  Nyaya  theory  that  God  is  anumanika. 

Next  he  shows  that  the  soul  is  an  entity  different  from 
the  body,  senses,  mind  (manas) ,  vital  breath  (prdna)  and 
intellect  (buddhi),  that  it  is  distinct  from  every  other  soul, 
that  it  is  an  agent  (/cartd),  that  it  is  a  knower  and  the 
object  of  self -consciousness  (aham-pratyaya) .  As  a 
preliminary  to  the  establishment  of  this  thesis,  he  sub- 
jects the  Carvaka  and  the  Advaitic  conceptions  of  the  soul 
to  a  rigorous  examination. 

For  a  proper  understanding  of  Vedantic  passages,  such 
as,  "Satyam,  Jnanam  anantam  Brahma,"  it  is  essential  that 
the  true  nature  of  sdmdnddhikaranya  (the  grammatical  co- 
ordination of  words  in  a  sentence)  must  be  grasped  at  the 
very  outset.  Consequently  the  author  takes  up  for  consi- 
deration the  definition  of  sdmdnddhikaranya  furnished  by 
the  grammarians,  examines  the  interpretations  put  on  it  by 
the  Bhedabhedavadins  and  Advaitins,  and  in  the  end  esta- 
blishes what  he  considers  the  correct  interpretation.  Sdmd- 
nddhikaranya is  defined  by  the  grammarians  as  follows:  — 
Words  having  different  pravrtti-nimitta  (reasons  of  applica- 
tion or  significations),  but  referring  to  an  identical  object 



(i.e.  words  having  connotational  difference  and  denotational 
identity)  may  be  said  to  stand  in  the  relation  of  sdmdnddhi- 
karanya.  Different  words  may  stand  in  the  relation  of  co- 
ordination, if  there  are  different  reasons  for  their  application 
and  if  they  refer  to  one  and  the  same  object.  The  first  part 
of  this  definition  aims  at  showing  that  there  can  be  no  co- 
ordination between  synonyms  like  'pot'  and  'jar';  because  the 
reason  for  applying  the  term  'pot'  to  an  object  is  not  differ- 
ent from  that  prompting  the  use  of  the  word  'jar'.  The 
second  part  serves  to  point  out  that  there  can  be  no  co-ordi- 
nation between  words  referring  to  wholly  different  objects, 
e.g.,  pot  and  cloth.  It  rules  out  such  meaningless  co-ordina- 
tion as  'the  pot  is  cloth/ 

The  problem  of  causality  which  has  evoked  very  keen 
controversy  is  next  tackled.  The  Nyaya-vaisesika  view  of 
causality  known  as  asat-karya-vada  (the  view  that  the  effect 
has  no  existence  before  it  is  brought  into  being,  but  orgi- 
nates  afresh)  is  subjected  to  a  penetrating  criticism  and 
sat-karya-vada  (the  doctrine  that  the  effect  pre-exists  in  its 
cause  in  a  latent  form)  established.  The  upanisadic  text 
declares  that  by  knowing  one  thing  everything  becomes 
known;  and  in  illustration  of  this  it  cites  the  case  of  clay  and 
says  that  by  understanding  it  all  objects  made  out  of  clay, 
such  as  jars  and  cups,  are  understood.  Clearly,  the  idea 
conveyed  here  is  that  when  the  material  cause  is  known  its 
manifold  effects  are  thereby  known.  And  this  would  be 
impossible  if  the  cause  and  the  effect  were  totally  different. 

The  question  of  the  precise  nature  of  samdnya  (uni- 
versal) has  long  been  the  battleground  of  philosophers. 
The  Nyaya-Vaisesika  elevates  jdti  to  the  rank  of  a  distinct 
principle.  On  this  view,  jdti  is  the  generic  property  per- 
ceptible equally  in  all  the  particulars  (vyakti)  of  a  class. 
It  is  eternal,  unitary,  ubiquitous  (anekdnugatam)  and 


directly  apprehended.  It  is  not  a  mere  product  of  the 
imagination  as  the  Buddhists  contend,  but  a  factor  of 
reality  existing  out  there  in  the  objective  world. 

The  tenth  chapter  takes  up  the  question  whether  sakti 
(potentiality)  should  be  recognised  as  a  distinct  category 
or  not,  and  answers  it  in  the  affirmative  after  refuting  the 
Nyaya-vaisesika  arguments  in  favour  of  the  opposite  view. 
In  this  regard,  the  Vsistadvaitin  is  at  one  with  the  Bhattas 
and  the  Prabhakaras. 

In  this  chapter  the  Nyaya  conception  of  abhdva  (non- 
existence,  negation)  is  criticised  and  the  view  that  abhdva 
is  not  distinct  from,  but  is  merely  a  variety  of,  bhdva  (exis- 
tence, affirmation)  is  upheld.  Prdghabhdva  (anterior  non- 
existence)  is  only  another  name  for  the  unending  series  of 
previous  states;  dhvamsdbhdva  (subsequent  nonexistence) 
is  the  name  for  the  unending  series  of  subsequent  states. 
If  this  theory  is  borne  in  mind,  the  scriptural  passage  "In 
the  beginning  this  was  non-existent  (asat)"  could  be 
assigned  its  primary  meaning. 

The  most  prominent  among  the  doctrines  that  differ- 
entiate Visistadvaita  Vedanta  from  all  other  schools  of 
Vedantic  thought  is  its  view  that  the  entire  cosmos  compris- 
ing souls  and  matter  constitutes  the  body  (sarlra)  of  Brah- 
man. Jb'or  understanding  the  exact  significance  of  this 
description  of  the  cosmos  it  is  necessary  to  know  what  pre- 
cisely is  meant  by  the  term  sarlra.  In  the  Sri  Bhdsya  the 
body  is  defined  as  follows:  — 

"That  substance  which,  in  respect  of  the  activities  in 
which  it  can  engage,  is  capable  of  being  completely  con- 
trolled and  supported  by,  and  which  exists  for  the  sake  of, 
a  conscious  entity  is  the  body  of  that  conscious  entity/' 


The  twelfth  chapter  discusses  the  question  whether 
this  is  a  single  definition  or  a  collection  of  three  definitions 
and  concludes  that  it  is  a  single  definition;  for  each  of  the 
three  definitions  into  which  it  is  resolved  is  found  to  be  de- 
fective in  some  respect  or  other.  Adheyatva,  vidheyatva 
and  sesatva  are  all  essential  elements  in  the  definition  of  the 
body.  That  this  is  so  would  follow  from  a  careful  study  of 
the  celebrated  Antarydmi  Brdhmana  where  the  doctrine 
that  the  universe  is  the  body  of  God  is  clearly  formulated. 

Is  it  at  all  possible  for  the  soul  whose  intrinsic  nature  is 
to  be  self-luminous  (svaprakdsa)  to  be  entangled  in  samsara? 
What  is  the  conception  of  ultimate  value?  These  are  the  two 
questions  Vadi-hamsambuvaha  raises  in  the  last  chapter. 



4Race'  is  a  magical  word  which  means  anything  or  noth- 
ing and  which  Hitler  alone,  as  the  supreme  head  of  the 
much-advertised  supreme  race  in  the  world,  pretends  to 
understand.  The  so-called  Nordic  race  has  got  long  skulls 
but  so  have  many  Negroes  and  the  Ainos  and  the  apes.  For 
a  long  time  past  we  have  had  too  much  emphasis  on  the 
physical  basis  of  the  concept  of  race.  Generally  the 
character  of  the  hair  and  the  skin,  and  the  shape  of  the  nose 
and  the  head  and  stature  are  emphasised.  The  famous 
nasal  index  is  the  relation  of  the  breadth  of  the  nose  to  its 
length.  Long  heads  are  called  dolichocephalic  and  round 
heads  are  called  brachycephalic.  We  are  also  told  about 
the  blood  test  and  are  informed  that  there  are  four  different 
kinds  of  blood  when  tested  by  serums.  The  properties  of 
these  four  kinds  of  blood  are  entirely  unknown.  Further 
serologists  say  that  these  tests  do  not  enable  us  to  determine 
race.  Nor  do  we  gain  much  from  the  colour  gradations 
viz.,  white,  yellow,  brown,  and  black.  Further,  there  is 
no  really  white,  or  yellow,  or  brown  or  black  human  being. 
G.  B.  Shaw  says  with  his  usual  cynical  wit  that  a  really 
white  man  would  be  a  horrible  sight.  What  we  have  is  a 
gradation  of  tint. 

This  does  not  mean  that  there  are  no  broad  divergences 
of  physical  features.  But  they  form  a  slippery  basis  for 
classification.  The  mystical  belief  in  race  based  on  such  a 


physical  basis  alone  is  sure  to  lead  us  into  error  and  un- 
proved and  unprofitable  assertions.  We  have  every  reason 
to  stand  aghast  at  the  pompous  and  current  myth  of  the 
Nordic  race.  But  what  shall  we  say  of  the  endeavour  of 
English  thinkers  to  find  the  roots  ot  British  greatness  in  a 
Germanic  past,  though  to-day  Britain  and  Germany  are 
the  bitterest  foes  engaged  in  a  deadly  death-grapple? 
Saxonism  became  almost  a  religion  and  the  phrase  kt Anglo- 
Saxon"  received  unparalleled  and  enormous  propaganda. 
Even  the  battle  of  Hastings  was  rechristened  as  the  battle  of 
Senlac.  Bishop  Stubbs  said  in  his  lectures  on  Early  English 
Hisiory  "It  is  to  Ancient  Germany  that  we  must  look  for  the 
earliest  traces  of  our  forefathers,  for  the  best  part  of  almost 
all  of  us  is  originally  German,  though  we  call  ourselves 
Britons,  the  name  has  only  a  geographical  significance.  The 
blood  that  is  in  our  veins  comes  from  German  ancestors." 
What  is  the  good  of  identity  of  blood  when  there  is  non- 
identity  of  heart? 

The  search  for  racial  traits  has  gone  on  not  only  in  the 
realm  of  politics  but  also  in  the  realm  of  art.  The  Germanic 
races  were  supposed  to  have  a  genius  for  democracy.  And 
yet  Germany  herself  is  under  the  heels  of  a  Dictator!  Taine 
went  so  far  as  to  say;  "vice  and  virtue  are  products  like 
sugar  and  vitriol/ '  This  is  surely  eccentricity  which  has 
gone  beyond  limits.  Once  we  get  into  the  labyrinth  of 
innate  and  inborn  racial  traits,  there  is  no  getting  out  at  all. 
Granting  that  there  are  same  broad  divergences  of  physical 
characteristics  among  the  major  human  groups,  what  can 
any  one  infer  therefrom  about  mental  and  aesthetic  and 
moral  and  spiritual  characteristics  being  derived  from  such 
physical  traits?  How  can  you  affirm  any  relation  of  cause 
and  effect  between  them  even  if  you  are  able  to  show  any 
degree  of  co-existence? 


The  race-enthusiasts  have  their  counter-part  in  climate- 
enthusiasts.  These  pin  their  faith  to  latitudes  and  longi- 
tudes and  altitudes.  They  explain,  everything  in  terms  of 
heat  and  cold.  We  have,  in  addition  to  such  race-mystics 
and  climate-mystics,  a  third  brand  of  mystics — the  food- 
mystics.  These  are  satirised  in  Samuel  Butler's  Hudibras 
in  the  famous  lines: 

"  Was  ever  Tartar  fierce  and  cruel 
Upon  the  strength  of  water  gruel  ? 
But  who  can  stand  his  fire  and  force 
When  first  he  rides,  then  eats  his  horse  ?  " 

In  addition  to  these  mystics  we  have  gland-mysticism. 
The  thyroid  and  other  glands  seem  to  have  taken  the  place 
of  the  goods  of  old.  We  must  thus  steer  clear  of  all  these 
discordant  and  dangerous  types  of  selfish  and  materialistic 
mysticism.  Religious  mysticism  leads  to  gentleness  and 
peace  and  love  but  these  mysticisms,  and  especially  race- 
mysticism,  lead  to  brutality  and  war  and  hate. 

In  fact,  theoretically  speaking  a  race  may  be  composed 
of  many  nations,  and  a  nation  may  be  composed  of  many 
races.  The  race  concept  is  a  museum-concept.  It  is 
not  a  live  concept  at  all.  But  the  nation-concept  is  a 
living  concept.  Sir  Arthur  Keith  says  well  that  several 
hundred  years  of  a  common  history  and  a  common  way 
of  life  have  often  welded  divergent  races  into  one  nation. 
We  must  get  out  of  the  clutches  of  a  merely  materialistic 
anthropology.  We  must  not  try  to  gauge  the  contents  of 
brains  by  measuring  the  length  or  the  breadth  or  the  cir- 
cumference of  the  skull  or  talking  learnedly  about 
diameters  of  skulls  or  cephalic  indexes.  Warring  groups  of 
men  have  often  been  welded  into  a  culturally  homogeneous 
group  by  the  iron-hand  of  Time.  In  such  homogeneity 


cultural   fusion   is   of   greater   importance   than   physical 

The  concept  of  race  is  thus  a  mere  modern  superstition, 
Yet  in  its  name,  thousand?  of  Jews  have  been  massacred  or 
exiled  or  suppressed  in  Germany  and  elsewhere.  In  its 
name,  the  Nordic  race  is  out  to  "civilise"  the  world  and 
build  universal  peace  on  the  basis  of  universal  war!  Ger- 
many is  to-day  a  dreadful  whirlpool  of  racialism  and  nation- 
alism and  militarism.  If  one  admires  the  German,  he  calls 
him  Nordic  ;  if  one  hates  him,  he  calls  him  a  Hun  ! 

I  plead  for  a  recognition  and  realisation  of  the  mental 
and  moral  and  spiritual  elements  as  being  far  more  import- 
ant and  vital  than  the  purely  physical  elements  in  the  con- 
cept of  race.  I  plead  for  the  subordination  of  Kidtur  to 
Culture.  I  plead  for  a  self-manumission  from  the  tyranny  of 
the  absolutist  and  occult  and  mystical  ideas  of  race.  The 
cultural  pattern  is  of  much  greater  importance  than  the 
physical  pattern.  Spinoza  says  well:  "In  regard  to  intellect 
and  true  virtue,  every  nation  is  on  a  par  with  the  rest  and 
God  has  not  in  these  respects  chosen  one  people  rather  than 
another."  Why  should  we  disturb  the  supposed  deceased 
anthropoid  ancestor  of  Homo  Sapiens?  Let  us  get  on  with 
ourselves  as  we  are: 

"  Act,  act  in  the  living  present 
Let  the  dead  Past  bury  its  dead  ". 

I  deprecate  also  the  modern  tendency  to  exalt  in  the 
name  of  science  the  biological  fusion  of  races.  Even  science 
declaims  against  free  and  unrestrained  and  promiscuous 
cross-fertilisation  of  races.  The  data  in  respect  of  this  matter 
are  so  uncertain  that  different  scientists  draw  different  and 
diverse  and  even  contradictory  and  mutually  destructive 
inferences  from  the  same  data.  The  data  themselves  are 


often  so  doubtful  and  unverifiable  and  unreliable.  Even  if 
some  of  them  are  clear  there  are  other  hidden  and  unknown 
factors  whose  efficacy  is  unknown.  Much  more  tangible  and 
effective  than  the  fusion  of  blood  is  the  fusion  of  cultures. 
The  basic  culture,  if  it  is  strong,  assimilates  congruous  ele- 
ments in  other  cultures  with  which  it  comes  into  contact 
and  is  invigorated  and  strengthened  by  such  contacts. 

Let  us  thus  clearly  realise  that  the  race-concept  must 
be  lifted  from  a  Zoological  concept  to  a  cultural  concept. 
The  Zoological  concept  will  lead  to  clashes  and  conflicts. 
The  cultural  concept  will  lead  to  contacts  and  connections. 
The  former  leads  to  such  phrases  as  "the  white  man's 
burden",  "the  yellow  peri]'5  etc.  But  the  latter  leads  to 
mutual  respect  and  mutual  assimilation.  It  does  not  create 
superiority  and  inferiority  complexes  as  the  former  has 
always  done  and  is  doing  and  is  sure  to  do  hereafter  as  well. 
When  very  unequal  cultures  meet  there  may  be  a  possibility 
of  the  domination  or  supersession  of  one  culture  by  another. 
But  where  fairly  equal  but  diverse  cultures  meet,  there  will 
be  no  such  trends  but  there  is  sure  to  be  assimilation  and 

Modern  India  has  come  into  the  clutches  of  the  tentacles 
of  the  race-concept.  It  is  supposed  by  some  persons  that 
all  the  Brahmans  in  South  India  are  Aryans  and  that  the 
rest  are  Dravidians!  But  taking  the  tests  of  hair  and  skin 
and  stature  and  nasal  index  and  cephalic  index,  as  propound- 
ed by  the  anthropological  experts,  many  Brahmins  will 
have  to  be  classified  as  noii-brahmins,  and  many  non-brah- 
mins will  have  to  be  classified  as  Brahmins!  Dr.  Risley 
says  that  the  original  Dravidian  inhabitants  of  India  were 
persons  whose  "stature  was  short,  complexion  very  dark,  hair 
curly  and  nose  broad".  Most  of  the  South  Indian  non- 
brahmins  do  not  correspond  to  this  description.  We  have  got 



Dravidian  (raits  in  North  India  and  Aryan  traits  in  South 
India,  and  we  have  got  Dravidian  similarities  in  Brahmins 
and  Aryan  similarities  in  non-brahmins,  if  we  attach  much 
importance  to  the  anthropological  emphasis  on  physical 
characteristics.  The  "Dravidastan"  protagonists  are  not 
really  supported  by  the  experts  in  the  science  of  anthro- 

I  am  therefore  disposed  to  attach  little  importance  to 
the  physical  patterns  in  the  Indian  race-concept  and  much 
importance  to  the  mental  and  moral  and  spiritual  pattern  in 
the  concept.  Tested  by  such  a  test,  all  the  Indian  commu- 
nities belong  to  one  cultural  pattern,  even  though  different 
sections  pursue  different  religions.  They  pursued  only  one 
religion  viz.,  Hinduism,  till  conversions  to  other  world-reli- 
gions made  headway.  But  the  cultural  unity  has  not  really 
been  broken  by  religious  diversity  in  India.  Ahimsa  and 
Bhakti  and  introspective  meditation  and  deep  faith  and 
spirituality  are  found  in  the  Indians  en  masse  despite  the 
diversities  of  denominational  religion.  Mr.  Jinnah's  reference 
to  two  nations  has  no  real  basis.  It  is  not  religion  that  is  the 
real  basis  of  nationhood.  The  real  basis  is  the  cultural 
nexus.  Thus  the  population  of  India  belongs  to  one  race 
and  one  nation  and  one  culture,  and  Indian  unity  is  indivi- 
sible and  invincible. 



Professor  of  English,  Maharajah's  College,  Ernakulam 

The  subject  of  this  paper  has  several  facets,  of  which  it 
is  proposed  to  deal  with  only  one  at  present. 

In  Malayalam  there  exists  a  peculiar  variety  of  literary 
dialect,  called  "manipravaiam",  the  like  oi  wiucii  has  not  yet 
been  met  with  in  any  other  language  in  India  or  elsewhere0 
Numerous  works  of  superb  poetical  excellence  are  extant  in 
that  dialect,  and  the  period  of  its  heyday  has  been  reckoned 
by  many  scholars  as  the  Golden  Age  in  the  history  of  Mala- 
yalam poetry.  It  is,  however,  significant  that  the  works  so 
far  discovered  in  that  dialect  are  confined  to  certain  parti- 
cular literary  genres,— their  authors  being  mostly  the  Brah- 
mins (Namboodiris)  of  Kerala.  Apart  from  the  appreciation 
of  classical  poetry  in  Malayalam,  a  thoughtful  study  of  the 
dialect  under  reference  would  be  of  help  in  understanding 
the  true  nature  of  the  fusion  of  Aryan  and  Dravidian 
elements  in  the  language  and  literature  of  Kerala. 

The  name  "manipravalam"  is  familiar  to  all  as  connot- 
ing an  admixture  of  Sanskrit  and  Dravidian  works  in  poetic 
diction.  In  Malayalam,  however,  it  has  a  restricted  and 
distinctive  sense.  Here,  for  one  thing,  only  such  words  are 
counted  as  Sanskrit  as  are  used  in  their  original  grammatical 
forms— declined  and  conjugated  exactly  as  in  Sanskrit— all 


Sanskrit  words  shorn  of  tneir  Sanskritic  terminations  being 
treated  just  as  Malayalam  words  merely. 

A  combination  of  "native"  and  "loan"  words  in  their 
original  grammatical  forms  may  sound  somewhat  odd  or 
bizarre  in  other  languages.  Imagine,  for  instance,  the  open- 
ing lines  of  "Paradise  Lost"  written  in  a  dialect  which  is  a 
mixture  of  English  and  Classical  words  inflected  exactly  as  in 
the  respective  languages  from  which  they  are  derived  some- 
thing like  this:  — 

Of  hominis  disobedience  et  the  fruit 

Of  that  forbidden  tree,  whose  mortal  gustus 

introducat  mortem  into  the  world 

HC  #  $  $  $ 

Canta,  Heavenly  Muse  ! 

But  in  the  high-class  "manipravalam"  of  Kerala,  there 
is  absolutely  no  such  discoid  or  clumsiness  ol  enect;  and  tnat 
is  the  beauty  and  wonder  of  it!  Sanskrit  words,  with  their 
original  declensional  and  conjugational  forms  intact,  are  so 
artistically  welded  with  words  of  pure  Dravidian  descent  as 
to  yield  the  effect  of  "linked  sweetness  long  drawn-out."  An 
authoritative  treatise  on  the  subject,  entitled  "Leela- 
tilakam",  which  is  believed  to  have  been  written  nearly  six 
centuries  ago,  sets  forth  in  detail  the  rules  relating  to  the 
choice  and  arrangement  of  Sanskrit  and  Dravidian  words  in 
poetry.  Its  authorship  is  attributed  to  a  Kerala  Brahmin 
(Namboodiri) ,  who  was  evidently  an  illustrious  scholar  in 
Sanskrit  and  Dravidian  language  alike,  and  possessed  an 
intelligent  command  of  the  grammatical  and  critical 
apparatus  of  Sanskrit.  In  the  first  section  of  the  book,  deal- 
ing with  the  characteristics  of  "manipravalam",  he  takes 
special  care  to  emphasize  that  the  selection  and  marshalling 
of  Sanskrit  and  Malayalam  words  should  be  guided  by  con- 


siderations  of  smoothness  and  euphony.  "Manipravalam", 
if  it  should  justify  its  name,  should  present  such  a  pleasing 
array  of  Sanskrit  and  Dravidian  words  as  to  be  hardly  dis- 
tinguishable from  each  other.  It  should  indeed  be  a  neck- 
lace strung  with  rubies  and  corals — the  ruby  (mani-)  being 
Malayalam,  and  the  coral  (pravalam)  Sanskrit,  according 
to  "Leelatilakam".  They  merge  almost  imperceptibly  into 
one  another,  thanks  to  their  mutual  likeness  in  tone  and 
colour.  Such  a  smooth  and  easy  amalgamation  of  Aryan 
and  Dravidian  elements  is  the  supreme  test  of  standard 
"manipravalam".  Rare  or  unfamiliar  words  should  be 
sedulously  avoided  in  both  languages,  and  words  of  common 
occurrence  in  them  should  be  preferred, — the  true  criterion 
of  success  in  diction  being  Rasa  (sentiment) .  It  is  interest- 
ing to  note  in  passing  that  the  best  "manipravalam"  is  that 
which  embodies  more  of  Malayalam  and  less  of  Sanskrit 
words,  and  is  marked  by  outstanding  Rasa.  Such,  be  it 
remembered,  is  the  dictum  laid  down  by  the  Brahmin 
author  of  "Leelathilakam",  and  such  indeed  "manipravalam" 
actually  was  in  its  palmy  days.  Examples  of  it  are  legion  in 
the  literature  of  the  centuries  immediately  preceding  and 
succeeding  "Leelathilakam".  Gradually,  however,  the 
sound  precepts  of  "Leelathilakam"  came  to  be  discarded,  and 
"manipravalam"  deteriorated  into  an  incongruous  medley 
of  harsh-sounding  and  out-of-the-way  words  indiscrimi- 
nately taken  from  Sanskrit  and  Dravidian  languages,  the 
Sanskrit  element  predominating  over  the  Dravidian,  in 
flagrant  violation  of  all  sense  of  proportion  and  harmony. 
It  had  been  explicitly  stated  by  the  author  of  "Leelathila- 
karn"  that  the  diction  in  which  Malayalam  words  were  com- 
paratively small  in  number,  and  rasa  was  deficient,  was 
positively  inferior.  Likewise,  if  either  the  first  half  or  the 
second  half  of  a  quatrain,  or  its  last  line,  were  to  consist 
exclusively  of  Sanskrit  words,  then  too,  the  diction  was  con- 


sidered  to  be  definitely  inferior.  (By  the  way,  the  term  "mani- 
pravalam"  was  generally  applied  to  verses  written  in 
Sanskrit  metres  those  written  in  Dravidian  metres  being 
known  as  'paattu."). 

It  is  a  particularly  unique  feature  01  the  ancient  "mani- 
pravalam"  oi  Kerala  that  it  admitted  pure  ^iaiayaiam  words 
declined  and  conjugated  with,  Sanskrit  terminations,  as  if 
they  were  pure  Sanskrit  words.  This  could  not  have  possi- 
bly happened  in  any  language  in  the  world!  Hlven  the  pecu- 
liarities oi  Sanskrit  syntax  were  copied  in  pure  Malayalam. 
Thus  the  words  for  "food"  and  'sleep  '  m  iviaiayalarn  (oonu, 
and  urakkam)  are  seen  declined  as  a  compound,  Sanskrit 
Dual  Accusative.  .  .  .  uoonurakkauj'.  The  verbs,  ''pokkam- 
chakre",  "pinnitethas",  seen  m  an  old  uSaridesa-kavya?>  are 
really  Malayalam  verbs  conjugated  like  their  counterparts 
in  Sanskrit.  "Kezhantee"  is  a  SansKrit  Present  Participle 
formed  from  the  Malayalam  verb,  "Kezhuka"  (to  weep). 
Sometimes,  the  qualifying  and  the  quaimed  words  are  dec- 
lined alike  as  in  Sanskrit,  instances  of  such  singularity  of 
behaviour  of  "native"  words  in  "manipravalam"  may  be 
seen  scattered  about  in  the  older  poems,  but  not  in  the  later 
ones,  as  the  genius  of  the  Malayalam  language  began  to 
assert  itself  more  and  more  in  the  course  of  its  evolution. 
At  first,  no  doubt,  Sanskrit  Grammar  superimposed  itself 
on  Dravidian;  but  before  long  Sanskrit  came  to  be  stretched 
on  the  Dravidian  '^Procrustes  bed",  from  which,  however, 
it  came  out  well  adapted  to  the  disposition  of  the  Dravidian 

In  other  words,  the  Aryan  with  his  cultural  superiority 
was  domesticated  by  the  Dravidian,  in  this  land  of  Parasu- 
rama.  The  history  of  "manipravalam"  is  the  history  of  the 
fusion  of  the  two  races,  and  it  shows  how  the  Aryan  and  the 
Dravidian  took  to  each  other  more  kindly  in  Kerala  than, 


perhaps,  in  any  other  province  in  South  India.  Here  in 
Kerala,  it  is  abundantly  clear  from  linguistic  and  literary 
evidence  (let  alone,  for  the  present,  evidence  furnished  by 
other  departments  of  human  activity)  that  the  Aryans  and 
the  Dravidians  endeavoured  in  right  earnest  to  come  together 
as  closely  as  possible  in  a  spirit  of  mutual  trust  and  goodwill. 
It  is  their  mutual  adjustments  and  compromises  in  this  pro- 
cess that  are  reflected  in  1he  development  of  our  "manipra- 

Mention  has  already  been  made  of  the  fact  that  the 
authors  of  most  of  the  "manipravalam"  works  hitherto 
known  are  Brahmins  (Namboodiris)  who  are  generally  held 
to  be  Aryan  in  descent.  There  is  ample  internal  proof  in 
their  writings  to  establish  that  they  were  profoundly  erudite 
Sanskrit  scholars,  and  that  nothing  could  have  been  easier 
for  them,  if  they  so  desired,  than  to  give  expression  to  their 
poetic  talents  through  the  medium  of  pure  Sanskrit. 
Equally  easy  would  it  have  been  for  them  to  write  exquisite 
poetical  works  in  pure  Malayalam  (as,  indeed,  the  author  of 
that  most  beautiful  of  all  Malayalam  poems,  "Krishna- 
Gaatha",  did) — the  command  of  pure  Malayalam  displayed 
by  them  in  their  compositions  being  even  to-day  the  envy 
and  despair  of  our  poets.  Yet  they  chose  to  write  their  best 
poems  neither  in  pure  Sanskrit,  nor  in  pure  Malayalam,  but 
in  the  particular  dialect  which  is  a  sweet  admixture  of  both. 
And  they  interlarded  their  diction  profusely  with  words 
in  their  original  Sanskrit  grammatical  forms,  sometimes 
levelling  even  pure  Dravidian  words  to  such  forms.  If 
their  intention  was  merely  to  write  for  the  delectation  of 
members  of  their  own  community,  it  is  obvious,  they 
would  have  more  naturally  written  in  Sanskrit,  just  as  the 
Norman-French  authors  of  England  during  the  twelfth  and 
thirteenth  centuries  generally  wrote  in  the  Norman-French 


language,  rather  than  in  pure  English,  the  language  of  the 
"natives"  of  the  country.  Evidently,  it  was  not  the  object 
of  the  Brahmins  to  write  poems  meant  exclusively  or 
mainly  to  be  read  by  members  of  their  own  community. 
On  the  other  hand,  they  were  presumably  more  interested 
in  leading  by  the  hand  the  other  less  learned  classes  on  to  the 
fair  fields  of  classical  literature.  This  is  the  reason,  as  one 
may  rightly  infer  from  the  peculiar  character  of  the  com- 
position in  "manipravalam,"  why  we  notice  so  many  ele- 
ments of  popular  fascination  in  them.  Sanskrit  vocabulary 
and  grammar,  administered  in  short  and  sweet  doses,  would 
be  taken  in  by  the  average  reader  without  much  effort.  He 
would  thus  be  initiated  into  the  intricacies  of  Sanskrit 
Grammar  in  the  course  of  his  joyous  poetical  studies,  almost 
without  his  own  knowledge.  Who  can  deny  that  it  was  pre- 
cisely what  the  authors  would  have  rejoiced  to  see?  There 
is  a  common  notion  prevalent  among  our  people  that  the 
Brahmins  of  Kerala  were  persistently  hostile  to  the  Sanskrit 
education  of  other  communities;  and  many  traditional  stories 
are  also  current  in  support  of  such  a  notion.  But  the  fact 
about  "manipravalam",  sought  to  be  explained  in  this  paper, 
should  not  be  lost  sight  of  in  any  discussion  of  the  above 
notion.  We  are  not  talking  of  Vedic  studies,  but  only  of 
secular  Sanskrit  education.  And  it  would  be  worth  while  to 
consider  in  a  purely  academic  spirit  how  far  the  Brahmin 
authors  of  our  "manipravalam"  works  could  be  regarded  as 
enemies  of  popular  Sanskritic  studies. 

There  is  one  fact  more  to  be  borne  in  mind  in  a  survey 
of  "manipravalam".  This  literary  kind  has  hitherto 
witnessed  the  output  of  no  serious  epic  or  dramatic  com- 
position, but  only  of  Champoos,  Sandesas  and  other  lovelyrics, 
and  didactic  and  devotional  verses  and  versesequences  galore. 
Champoos  are  Kavyas  written  partly  in  prose  and  partly  in 



verse.  In  the  "  manipravalam"  champoos,  however,  the 
place  of  prose  is  taken  by  verses  composed  in  various  Dra- 
vidian  metres!  This  curious  feature  cannot  reasonably  be 
attributed  to  the  contempt  which  the  Brahmin  authors  of 
Ckampoos  felt  towards  the  Dravidian  verse-forms,  as  some 
critics  nave  alleged,  but  to  their  desire  to  propitiate  Mala- 
yalee  readers  by  offering  them  in  plenty  something  which 
was  familiar  and  dear  to  them  through  long  usage.  To 
them  the  so-called  prose  of  ckampoos  would  thus  be  an  addi- 
tional source  of  attraction.  Above  all,  ckampoos  deal  with 
stories  or  episodes  taken  from  the  Ramayana  and  the  Maha- 
biiarata,  which  were  already  well  known  to  the  people,  or 
with  events  of  topical  interest,  or  with  an  imaginary  story 
intended  merely  as  a  frame-work  for  academic  delineation 
of  the  passion  of  love.  lu  the  Sandesas  (message-poems) 
which  in  technique  are  modelled  exactly  on  Kalidasa's 
"Cloud  Messenger",  the  first  half  is  taken  up  by  poetical  des- 
criptions of  places  and  scenes  of  the  Kerala  country,  so  fami- 
liar to  the  reader,  and  the  second  half  by  a  reminiscential 
delineation  of  all  aspects  of  love.  The  lyric  poetry  in  "mani- 
pravalam"  can,  in  respect  o±  quantity,  quality  and  variety, 
easily  stand  comparison  with  that  of  Elizabethan  English 
literature.  The  heroines  in  most  of  the  lyric  poems  in 
"manipravalam"  (including  the  tiandesas)  are  non-Brah- 
mins. From  all  these  facts,  it  would  not  be  wrong  to  make 
an  inference  about  the  popular  character  of  "manipravalam" 

There  is  a  theory  that  "manipravalam"  is  traceable  to 
the  comic  compositions  of  the  poet  Tolan,  meant  to  be  recited 
by  the  Clown  (Vidooshaka)  in  Koothu  and  Kootiyattam,  as 
old  as  the  first  century  M.E.  But  in  those  compositions  the 
obvious  aim  of  the  author  was  to  produce  comic  mirth  by; 
incongruous  combinations  of  Sanskrit  and  Malayalam  words, 



and  by  the  parody  of  Sanskrit  verses  and  Sanskrit  diction. 
What  a  far  cry  from  such  buffonery  of  Tolan  to  the  poetical 
heights  of  Champoos  like  the  Ramayana,  Bhasha-nyshadha, 
Bana-yuddha,  Kama-dhana,  Chellor-nadhodaya,  Raja- 
ratnavaleeya,  Koti-viraha,  etc.  to  Sandesas  like  Unnu-neeli- 
sandesa,  and  to  the  lyric  fragments  scattered  about  in  "Leela- 
tilakam"  and  others  being  published  and  yet  to  be  published 
from  old-palm-leaf  manuscripts  (some  of  which  the  author 
of  the  present  paper  has  edited  and  is  still  engaged  in  edit- 
ing). Surely,  one  cannot  help  exclaiming  when  face  to 
face  with  this  fertile  field  of  Malay alam  poetry  "Here  is 
God's  plenty". 

The  sweetness  and  harmony  of  "manipravalam"  persist- 
ed right  down  to  the  period  of  Thunchath  Ezhuthachan 
(eighth  century  M.E.)  who  has  been  been  called  the  father 
of  modern  Malayalam  in  the  sense  in  which  Chaucer  has 
been  called  the  father  of  Modern  English.  By  his  time  the 
tendency  had  become  marked  to  free  Malayalam  from  its 
subordination  to  Sanskrit.  "Manipravalam"  had  been  defi- 
nitely vitiated  by  indiscriminate  thrusting-in  of  discordant 
Sanskrit  words,  and  by  the  callous  neglect  of  the  pure  Dra- 
vidian  element.  Naturally  there  followed  a  reaction  in 
favour  of  the  latter.  Thus  in  modern  Malayalam,  the  Dra- 
vidian  element  has  come  to  its  own.  Of  Sanskrit  vocabulary, 
there  is  much  even  to-day  in  the  Malayalam  language — 
much  more  than  in  other  Dravidian  languages.  But  the 
genius  of  the  Dravidian  language  has  ultimately  triumphed 
in  Malayalam  too ! 

Rev.  Caldwell  is  right  when  he  says: — "One  of  the  most 
marked  characteristics  of  the  Malayalam  language,  as  we  now 
find  it,  is  the  quantity  of  Sanskrit  it  contains.  The  proportion 
of  Sanskrit  words  adopted  by  the  Dravidian  languages  is  least 


in  Tamil,  greatest  in  Malayalam."  Likewise,  the  interming- 
ling of  Brahmins  and  non-Brahmins  has  been  more  intimate 
in  Kerala  than  in  the  other  parts  of  the  Dravidian  country, 
whereof  our  "manipravalam"  is  but  an  index.  At  the  same 
time,  it  has  to  be  added,  to  avoid  the  possibility  of  a  misunder- 
standing, that  the  Dravidian  element  is  the  bedrock  on  which 
our  language  and  literature  have  been  built  up  to-day.  What 
Archbishop  Trench  has  said  about  the  respective  contribu- 
tions of  Anglo-Saxon  and  Latin  to  the  making  of  English  is 
applicable  to  Malayalam,  if  we  substitute  Dravidian  for 
Anglo-Saxon,  and  Sanskrit  for  Latin,  and  read  the  passage 
as  follows: — "All  its  joints,  its  whole  articulation,  its  sinews 
and  its  ligaments,  the  great  body  of  articles,  pronouns,  con- 
junctions, prepositions,  numerals,  auxiliary  verbs,  all 
smaller  words  which  serve  to  knit  together  and  bind  the 
larger  into  sentences,  these,  not  to  speak  of  the  grammatical 
structure  of  the  language,  are  exclusively  Dravidian.  Sans- 
krit may  contribute  its  tale  of  bricks,  yea,  of  goodly  and 
polished  hewn  stones,  to  the  spiritual  building,  but  the 
mortar,  with  all  that  holds  and  binds  these  together,  and 
constitutes  them  into  a  house,  is  Dravidian  throughout." 
The  same  is  true  of  the  indigenous  strength  and  importance 
of  our  society  ,  however  much  and  in  whatever  ways  Aryan 
influences  may  have  contributedHo  its  moulding  in  the  course 
of  the  centuries  of  contact  between  the  two  great  races  on 
this  side  of  the  Western  Ghats, 




The  great  Sabhanayaka  Shrine  of  Chidambaram  (par 
excellence,  the  Kail)  round  which  the  ancient  town  has 
clustered  and  to  which  our  Annamalai  University  and  settle- 
ment bear  a  strong  spiritual  filiation,  goes  back  to  the  earliest 
days  of  Saiva  and  Vaishnava  reaction  against  the  dominance 
of  Jainism  and  Buddhism  in  the  land.  According  to  tradi- 
tion, the  temple  was  of  divine  origin,  and  its  nucleus  was 
divinely  installed.  Its  most  ancient  votaries,  Vyaghrapada 
(He  of  the  tiger  foot)  and  Patanjali  (He  of  the  serpent  form) 
held  to  be  an  incarnation  of  the  thousand-headed  Adisesha, 
form  the  earliest  links  in  the  religious  traditions  of  the 

The  legendary  account  of  Patanjali  is  closely  connected 
with  the  mystic  dance  of  the  Lord  Siva,  which  taught  a  les- 
son to  the  proud  Rishis  of  the  Taruka  forest,  puffed  up  with 
conceit  of  Vedic  learning  ( and  held  by  a  commentator  to  be 
followers  of  Mimamsa) ,  made  them  alive  to  the  great  glory 
of  Siva  converted  them  into  His  fervent  devotees.  Vya- 
ghrapada, the  son  of  a  Brahman  hermit  living  on  the  banks 
of  the  Ganges,  was  advised  by  his  father  to  go  to  Tillai,  a 
vast  wilderness  covered  with  trees  of  that  name  (Excoecaria 
Agallocha)  and  find  the  Parabrahma  (Supreme  Spirit)  in 


that  sacred  spot.    He  bathed  in  the  Sivaganga  tirtam  and 
worshipped  a  Lingam  established  under  the  shade  of  a  ban- 
yan tree  by  its  bank,  and  thus  arose  the  shrine  of  the  Muias- 
thana,  the  earliest  nucleus  of  the  temple.  Vyaghrapada  soon 
found  that  he  could  not  climb  the  lofty  trees  in  the  early 
dawn,  to  select  fresh  flowers  for  his  daily  worship  of  the 
God,  prayed  to  the  Lord  and  got  from  Him  the  boon  that  his 
feet  and  hands  might  become  those  of  a  tiger,  armed  with 
strong  claws  and  he  be  furnished  with  tiger's  eyes,  so  that 
he  might  easily  climb  and  see  the  flowers  in  the  dark  of  the 
dawn;  he  thus  became  known  as  Hhe  tiger- footed  and  six- 
eyed';  and  a  part  of  the  present  town  came  to  be  known  as 
Tiru-Puliyur  (Sacred  Tiger  Town) ;  and  also  Perumbarra- 

Some  time  later,  the  great  Adisesha  assumed  the  form 
of  half -man  and  half -serpent,  in  order  to  see  once  again  Siva 
performing  the  mystic  dance  in  Tillai,  and  there  met 
Vyaghrapada.  He  also  made  for  himself  a  hermitage 
nearby  and  installed  a  Lingam  by  a  tank,  which  continue  to 
this  day  as  the  Anantiswara  Shrine  and  the  Nagacheri  tank, 
at  the  west  end  of  the  town.  Likewise,  Vyaghrapada  had 
installed  a  Lingam  of  his  own  at  a  little  distance  towards  the 
south-east  of  the  Mulasthana. 

The  traditions  of  these  two  great  devotees  go  back  to 
times  earlier  than  the  epoch  of  the  legend  of  the  Pallava 
King  who  was  cured  of  leprosy  by  bathing  in  the  Sivaganga 
tank  and  changed  his  previous  name  of  Simhavarman  into 
Hiranyavarman  (the  golden-bodied)  as  a  consequence.  He 
repaired  and  added  to  the  nucleus  shrine.  This  early  royal 
patron  of  the  shrine  has  been  equated  with  the  Pallava  ruler, 
Simhavarman  II,  (or  III)  who  reigned  probably  between  550 
and  575  A.D.1  One  of  the  later  traditions  of  the  place  has 


called  this  king  a  Chola  (Stanza  12  of  the  Koyilpuranam) . 
The  picturesque  story  of  his  being  commissioned  by  Vya- 
ghrapada  to  guard  Vyaghrapura  and  his  being  given  the  flag 
of  the  tiger-crest,  is  embodied  in  the  Koyilpuranam  of 
Umapathi  Sivacharya,  a  Saivite  scoliast  of  the  later 
thirteenth  and  early  fourteenth  centuries.  He  is  said  to  have 
belonged  to  the  Dikshita  community  and  his  samadhi  in 
Korravangudi  (between  the  Chidambaram  railway  station 
and  the  University  campus)  can  even  now  been  seen. 
Umapathi  is  the  author  of  a  good  portion  of  the  basic 
literature  of  Saiva  Siddhanta,  viz.,  the  eight  works  beginning 
with  the  Sivaprakasa;  he  has  also  given  a  graphic  account 
of  the  life  of  the  great  Sekkilar,  the  author  of  the  Periya- 
puranam,  (Liber  Sanctorum)  and  of  the  work  of  Nambi- 
Andar  Nambi  in  his  two  compositions,  entitled  "Sekkilar 
Nayanar  Puranam,"  and  "the  Tirumurai-kanda-puranam." 
The  former  of  these  two  deals  with  an  age  when  the  memory 
of  the  great  Chola  rulers,  Kulottunga  I  (ace.  1070),  and 
Kulottunga  II  (ace.  1133),  must  have  been  relatively  fresh 
in  Umapathi's  mind.  Therefore,  his  account  of  Sekkilar,  who 
was  a  contemporary  of  these  kings,  can  be  held  to  be  much 
more  historical  in  its  perspective  than  the  other  work  deal- 
ing with  Nambi  Andar  Nambi,  whose  age  can  be  fixed  at  the 
early  eleventh  century,  if  not  at  the  close  of  the  tenth. 

Umapathi  became  the  supreme  theologian  of  the  Tamil 
Siddhanta  and  is  held  to  have  learnt  his  wisdom  from  his 
master,  Maraignana  Sambanda,  who  belonged  to  a  lower 

1.  Hiranyavarman  was  a  surname  of  Mahendravarman  I  as 
mentioned  in  an  inscription  at  Conjeevaram — Subject  Index  to 
the  Annual  Reports  on  South  Indian  Epigraphy  1887-1936  (1941), 
p.  27,  Col.  1. 


caste  and  was  expelled  from  his  own  community  for  having 
partaken  of  food  with  his  master.  He  forms  the  last  of  the 
quartette,  known  as  the  Samaya-Kuravar  and  the  Sanihdna 
Achdryas  of  the  Saiva  Siddhanta  Darsana.  His  Koilpurdnam 
embodies  legends  which  are  in  point  of  time  long  antecedent 
to  those  of  the  Saiva  Nayanmars,  described  by  Sekkilar  and 
Nambi-Andar  Nambi  and  may  be  said  to  constitute  a  por- 
tion of  the  oldest  epoch  of  South  Indian  Saiva  legends. 
Arumuga  Navalar  of  Jaffna,  a  great  Tamil  scholar  and  Saiva 
pietist  of  the  last  century,  edited  the  Koilpurdnam  and  gave 
his  own  valuable  commentary  on  the  significance  of  the 
mystic  dance  of  the  Lord.  According  to  one  opinion,  the 
comprehension  of  Patanjali  among  the  earliest  devotees  of 
Siva  indicates  the  absorption  in  the  Saiva  teaching  of  the 
system  of  Yoga  thought  of  which  he  was  the  founder. 


Most  striking  among  the  numerous  associations  of  the 
'Great  Four'  among  the  Saiva  saints,  is  the  legend  connect- 
ing the  temple  with  Manikkavagaga's  victory  over  the 
Buddhists  in  the  great  disputation,  described  in  the  sixth 
canto  of  the  Tiruvddavurai  Purdnam,  which  is  an  amplifica- 
tion of  some  sections  of  the  Madura  Stalapurdnam.  Therein 
we  read  how  the  great  Saint  of  Vadavur  was  summoned 
from  his  retreat  to  confute  the  aggressive  Buddhistic  teachers 
who  had  come  over  to  Chidambaram  with  the  king  of  Ceylon 
at  their  head.  The  Chola  King  urged  the  saint  to  vanquish 
the  Buddhistic  disputants  in  an  irrecoverable  manner, 
saying  that  it  should  be  the  Saint's  care  to  establish  the 
truth  of  the  Saiva  wisdom;  and  afterwards  it  would  be  his 
royal  duty  to  extirpate  the  Buddhists.  Manikkavagaga 
vindicated  the  supreme  power  of  Siva  "seated  as  the  Teacher 
i;i  the  shade  of  the  beautiful  banyan  tree,  teaching  the  laws 


of  right/'  and  as  the  Dancer  in  Tillai's  beauteous  golden 
iiaii  with  the  girdle  of  the  tiger  skin  (i.e.,  human  passion) 
wrapped  round  him  and  wearing  the  serpent  necklace  (i.e., 
the  guile  and  malice  of  mankind)  and  crushing  under  his  foot 
the  Demon  Muyalagan,  which  is  the  embodiment  of  human 
depravity.  This  disputation  might  refer  to  the  last  epoch 
of  the  struggle  of  the  Saivites  with  the  Buddhists  who  con- 
tinued to  linger  for  a  number  of  years  in  isolated  centres  in 
the  Tamil  country,  like  Negapatam,  and  received  frequent 
reinforcements  from  Ceylon.  The  legend  can  be  attributed 
to  about  the  ninth  century. 

\et  another  attractive  and  heartening  legend  which  has 
grown  round  the  shrine  is  that  of  Nanda,  the  Adi-Dravida 
saint,  wiio  obtained  final  beatification  in  front  of  the  Danc- 
ing Lord,  passing  into  eternity  when  in  a  state  of  ecstatic 
devotion.  The  story  of  Nanda's  piety  is  a  very  popular 
theme;  and  snatches  of  songs  from  the  Nandanar  Charitra 
Klrtana  of  Gopalakrishna  Bharati  are  on  everybody's  lips 
in  the  Tamil  country.  The  klrtana  story  has  deviated  in 
several  respects  from  the  version  given  in  the  Periya- 
purdnam.  The  inclusion  of  Nanda  among  the  traditional 
Sixty-three  Saints  should  be  regarded  as  being  supple- 
mentary to  his  inclusion  in  a  decade  of  Sundaramurthi 
.Nayanar's  Tevaram,  which  can  be  ascribed  to  the  first 
quarter  of  the  ninth  century  A.D.  The  legend  is  certainly 
older  than  that  date.  Stressing  on  the  great  moral  value 
of  this  legend,  one  can  repeat  the  words  of  Sir  William 
Wilson  Hunter,  when  extolling  the  shrine  of  Jagannath, 
that  as  long  as  the  towers  of  Chidambaram  exist,  so  long  will 
there  be  in  the  land  "the  perpetual  and  visible  protest  of  the 
equality  of  man  before  God." 

In  addition  to  the  great  prominence  enjoyed  by  the 
shrine  in  the  Tevdram  hymns,  and  particularly  in  the  writ- 


ings  of  Manikkavagaga  whose  Tiruvagagam  (Holy  Utter- 
ance) was  said  to  have  been  first  recited  in  the  temple  itself 
and  whose  Tiruchchitrambalakkovai  was  composed  in  its 
honour,  one  can  note  the  pleasing  and  intensive  association 
of  the  shrine  with  the  redaction  of  the  Tamil  hymnal  literature 
under  the  patronage  of  the  Chola  monarchs.  The  whole  of 
the  Tevdram  hymns,  being  the  first  of  the  collection  of  works 
held  to  be  canonical  by  the  Tamil  Saivas,  was  put  together 
in  one  book  by  Nambi  Andar  Nambi  (cir.?  A.D.  975-1035), 
an  Adi  Saiva  Brahman  of  Tirunaraiyur.  This  collection  is 
known  as  the  Muvar  Adangan  Mural  and  was  divided  into 
seven  books  by  Nambi.  He  comprehended  the  two  works 
of  Manikkavagagar  into  an  additional  eighth  book,  and  a 
number  of  Tiruvisaippds  by  nine  different  authors  and  the 
Tirumandiram  of  Tirumular  as  the  ninth  and  tenth  books. 
The  Chola  king  requested  Nambi  to  put  together  one  more 
book,  consisting  of  miscellaneous  poems  and  including  some 
of  his  own  works.  The  Pcriyapurdnam  was  added,  later  on, 
as  the  twelfth  book.  Nambi  Andar  Nambi  invented  the 
peculiar  metre  and  music  according  to  which  the  great  songs 
of  this  collection  have  since  been  sung.  With  the  help  of 
the  Chola  Abhaya  Kulasekhara  Maharajah,  he  composed,  in 
front  of  the  Kanakasabha,  the  metre  for  all  these — a  divine 
voice  having  proclaimed  that  the  knowledge  of  the  metre  had 
been  already  communicated  to  a  maiden  born  of  the  family 
of  the  blessed  Tirunilakanta  Nayanar,  who  was  thereupon 
brought  before  the  shrine  and  made  to  give  out  the  songs 
with  appropriate  notes  and  music.  The  Chola  monarch  had 
all  these  Tirumurai  songs  with  their  appropriate  pan, 
engraved  on  copper  plates  and  then  had  them  formally 
recited  in  the  orthodox  manner  in  the  shrine  of  God 
Tyagaraja  of  Tiruvarur. 


The  Periyapurdnam  of  Sekkilar  is  replete  with  fanciful 
and  miraculous  legends;  but  it  is  possible  to  trace  in  it  the 
various  epochs  in  the  religious  history  of  early  Saivism. 
The  poet  was  angry  that  the  courtiers  of  the  Chola  monarch 
should  admire  a  heretical  Jaina  work,  the  Jlvaka  Cinta- 
mani  and  the  king  thereupon  requested  him  to  write  down 
the  lives  of  the  Tamil  saints.  Sekkilar  then  went  over  to 
Chidambaram  and  composed  in  the  beautiful  thousand- 
pillard  mantapa  of  the  shrine,  his  famous  Puranam,  which 
reached  a  total  of  4,253  stanzas.  It  was  recited  before  the 
Chola  and  expounded  by  the  author  from  day  to  day  for  a 
whole  year,  it  was  claimed  to  be  a  veritable  Fifth  Veda  in 
Tamil  and  given  its  place  as  the  twelfth  book  in  the  Saiva 
Canon.  The  author  was  honoured  with  title  of  Tondar- 
Slr-Paravuvar  (the  singer  of  the  glories  of  the  saints) — and 
adorned  with  the  crown  of  knowledge  (Gnanamudi)  and 
saluted  by  the  Chola  monarch.  Umapathi's  account  of  this 
must  be  "read  in  the  original  for  one  to  realise  the  gusto 
with  which  that  author  celebrates  this  epoch-making  event  in 
the  history  of  South  Indian  Saivism."  The  Chola  monarch 
referred  to  was  Anapaya  wTho  covered  the  Perambalam  with 
fine  gold  and  who  is  equated  with  Kulottunga  II. 

The  Tiruvilayadal  Puranam  of  Perumbarrapuliyur 
Nambi  can  also  be  associated  with  Chidambaram,  as  its 
author  was  the  spiritual  disciple  of  a  certain  Vinayaka  who 
belonged  to  Maligaimadam  in  Chidambaram  and  who  per- 
haps assumed  the  name  of  Puliyur  Nambi  to  indicate  his 
devotion  to  the  shrine  of  Nataraja.  This  work  is  held  to  be 
far  more  authoritative  arid  truer  to  history  than  Paranjoti's 
much  later  version  of  the  "Sacred  Sports",  as  has  become 
evident  from  its  text  as  edited  by  Dr.  Mm.  V.  Swaminatha 
Iyer,  '  the  Prince  of  Tamil  Scholars.' 


Thus  we  find  that,  in  the  hymnal  age  of  the  history  of 
Saivism,  Chidambaram  played  a  most  important  part.  In 
the  next  age  of  the  development  of  Saiva  Siddhanta  which 
has  been  termed  the  'exegetical  period'  in  the  evolution  of 
Tamil  literature,  we  witness  again  the  close  association  of 
the  shrine  with  one  of  its  four  great  teachers,  Umapathi 
Sivacharya.  The  detailed  complex  of  the  Siddhanta  philo- 
sophy is  very  difficult  to  understand;  but  a  sort  of  incom- 
plete sectarian  organisation  early  grew  round  its  literature 
and  its  monasteries  which  have  been  efficiently  functioning 
as  schools  of  theology  and  learning  in  which  the  monks  are 
trained  and  priests  learn  their  art.  A  number  of  thesef 
monasteries  are  situated  in  the  Tan j ore  delta  and  several  of 
them  have  filiations  with  Chidambaram. 


The  Temple  goes  back  in  its  nucleus  to  Pallava  times 
though  no  records  even  of  the  early  Cholas  of  Tanjore,  not  to 
speak  of  the  Pallavas,  are  forthcoming  from  the  place. 
Copies  of  inscriptions  belonging  to  the  twenty-fourth  year 
of  Rajendra  Chola  I  (1012-1043)  and  the  forty-seventh  year 
of  Kulottunga  Chola  I  (ace.  1070)  are  found  on  the  temple 
walls;  two  short  records  Jhat  are  claimed  to  belong  to  the 
tenth  century  Cholas  have  been  discovered  in  the  local 
Anantiswara  shrine;  but  the  earliest  genuine  inscription 
engraved  in  the  great  temple  is  dated  in  the  third  year  of 
Vikrama  Chola  (1118-1133), 

But  we  have  other  evidence  that  the  earlier  monarchs 
of  the  Vijayalaya  dynasty  of  the  Tanjore  Cholas  were  great 
patrons  of  the  shrine.  The  Brahadisvara  Temple  at  Tanjore 
seems  to  have  been  an  offshoot  from  the  Nataraja  shrine. 
Parantaka  I,  Vira  Narayana  (A.D.  907-947),  the  great 
ancestor  of  Raja  Raja  Chola  (985-1013  A.D.),  was  distin- 


guished  for  his  devotion  to  the  Chidambaram  shrine;  and  he 
either  built  or  repaired  the  golden  hall  at  that  place.  Raja- 
raja  was  equally  attached  to  God  Kanakasabhapalhi;  and 
very  probably  he  owed  his  titles,  Sri  Rajaraja  and  Sivapada- 
sekhara,  to  the  authorities  of  the  Chidambaram  shrine,  which 
is  designated  the  Temple  (Koyil)  in  the  Tevdram  hymns, 
the  Tiruvisaippa  and  the  Periyapurdnam.  The  name  Ada- 
valldn  (one  who  is  able  to  dance)  was  given  to  one  of  the 
principal  deities  in  the  Tan j ore  Temple,  from  that  of  the 
Chidambaram  deity.  Several  variants  of  this  particular 
designation  are  found  in  the  inscriptions;  and  from  two  of 
them  (Nos.  65  and  66  of  the  Tanjore  inscriptions)  it  is  clear 
that  "the  names  of  the  god  as  well  as  of  the  temple  at 
Chidambaram,  and  their  various  synonyms,  were  very  com- 
monly borne  by  men  and  women  during  the  time  of  Raja- 
raja."  The  chief  deity  of  the  Tanjore  Temple  was  known 
as  Adavalldn,  as  well  as  Dakshina  Meru  Vidangan.  These 
two  names  are  applied  in  the  Tiruvisaippa  to  the  Chidam- 
baram deity  and  subsequently  to  the  Tanjore  god. 

The  wall  round  the  innermost  shrine,  comprehending 
the  Rahasya,  the  Chit  Sabha  and  the  Kanaka  Sabha  and  the 
other  prdkdra  wall  enclosing  the  Mulasthdna  shrine,  are 
both  known  by  the  name  of  Vikrama  Solan  Tirumdligai. 
The  inner  of  the  two  walls  is  also  known  as  Kulottunga 
Solan  Tirumdligai  in  four  records;  perhaps  it  was  built  by 
the  father  KulSttunga,  and  either  repaired  or  rebuilt  by  the 
son,  Vikrama  who  might  have  called  it  after  his  father. 
Certainly,  Vikrama  should  be  credited  with  the  construction 
of  the  outer  prdkdra  wall.  Perhaps  also,  the  Mulasthdna 
shrine  was  renovated  about  this  period  and  its  inscriptions 
were  transferred  to  the  prakara  wall  of  the  innermost  en- 

Most  of  the  inscriptions  refer  to  the  Chola  kings  of  the 
twelfth  and  thirteenth  centuries  and  later  dynasties.  Mostly 


they  register  grants  of  lands  for  temple  service  and  offer- 
ings and  for  the  maintenance  of  feeding  houses  and  agra- 
haras  in  the  locality.  All  land  gifts  made  to  the  temple 
were  required  to  be  engraved  on  its  walls.  Up  to  the  time 
of  Vikrama  Chola  these  were  made  out  in  the  name  of 
Chandeswara,  evidently  pointing  to  the  earlier  importance 
enjoyed  by  the  Mulasthdnc  shrine,  with  the  image  of 
Chandeswara  by  the  side  of  its  Linga.  It  may  be  remarked 
at  the  same  time  that  the  Tcvaram  hymns  have  been  always 
sung  only  in  the  shrine  of  the  Mulasthana.  The  prominence 
given  to  the  Nataraja  shrine  in  later  inscriptions  accounts 
for  the  substitution  of  the  caste  committee  of  Dikshita  priests 
in  the  place  of  Chandeswara,  and  this  change  suggests  one 
of  the  reasons  why  the  Dikshitas  have  come  to  be  regard- 
ed as  the  practical  owners  of  the  temple. 

Besides  Parantaka  who  covered  the  Dabhra  Sabha 
with  gold,  we  find  a  Chola  Princess,  Kundavai,  who  belonged 
to  a  later  age,  claiming  credit  for  a  similar  act.  Kulottunga  I 
is  mentioned  by  his  title  of  Jayadhara  in  an  inscription  in 
the  shrine,  which  is  of  some  historical  value.  Kulottunga  II 
is  held  by  his  court  poet  to  have  covered  the  Nataraja  shrine 
with  gold  ;  and  this  credit,  as  in  the  case  of  the  inner  pra- 
kdra  wall,  may  well  be  shared  between  his  father  Vikrama 
and  himself.  The  prasastis  of  Kulottunga  II  tell  us  that  he 
"wore  the  crown  in  such  wise  as  to  add  lustre  to  Tillai- 
nagar."  An  inscription  of  his  seventh  year  from  Tirup- 
purambiyam  (350  of  1927)  explicitly  mentions,  for  the  first 
time,  his  renovation  of  the  temple  and  town  of  Chidam- 
baram, though  in  a  record  of  his  third  year,  he  gets  a  title 
based  on  this  achievement.  Kulottunga  is  said,  in  this  ins- 
cription, to  have  worshipped  the  Dancing  Siva  of  Chidam- 
baram, in  company  with  his  queen,  and  to  have  removed 
the  little  God  Vishnu  from  the  court-yard  of  the  sacred  hall 


of  Tillai;  he  claims  to  have  built  numerous  structures,  in- 
cluding gopurams  with  seven  tiers  and  also  the  shrine  of  the 
Goddess  £ivakami  Amman,  which  "delighted  her  heart  so 
much  by  its  size  and  its  splendour  that  she  did  not  think  any 
more  of  the  sacred  mountain  (Himalaya)  that  gave  birth  to 
her."  These  are  recorded  in  briefer  form  in  the  Rdjardja 
Solan  Via  and  in  the  Takkaydgapparani  and  much  more 
detailedly  in  the  Kulottunga  Solan  Via,  of  the  famous  poet, 
Kavichakravarti  Ottakkuttar,  whose  memory  is  kept  green 
even  to  this  day,  not  only  in  literary  tradition,  but  also  in 
the  name  of  the  village  Kuttanur  on  the  banks  of  the  Arisil 
river  in  the  Tanjore  district. 

The  hundred-pillared  hall  to  the  west  of  the  holy  tank 
is  claimed  to  have  been  built  by  one  Naralokavira,  alias  Pon- 
nambala  Kuttan,  a  feudatory  of  Kulottunga  I  and  of  his  son 
Vikrama,  whose  epigraphs  share  some  of  the  best  literary 
qualities  of  the  Chola  imperial  prasastis.  The  powerful 
Kulottunga  III  (1178-1216)  has  several  inscriptions  of  his, 
engraved  on  the  temple  walls  which  credit  him  with  the  con- 
struction of  the  mukhamantapa  of  the  Nataraja  shrine  and 
the  gopura  and  the  enclosing  verandah  of  the  Sivakami 
Amman  shrine.  Even  in  the  declining  days  of  the  Chola 
power  in  the  thirteenth  century,  we  find  that  Chidambaram 
enjoyed  patronage  at  the  hands  of  both  the  Chola  over- 
lords and  their  vassals.  The  most  prominent  figure  in  this 
connection  is  naturally  Kopperunjinga,  a  contemporary  of 
Raja  Raja  III  (1216-1246)  and  an  over-grown  feudal  vassal 

of  his.  This  chief  who  belonged  to  the  family  of  Kadava- 
rayas  and  ruled  from  Sendamangalam  in  the  middle  of  the 
present  South  Arcot  District,  became  an  independent  ruler 
in  1243  and  counted  his  regnal  years  from  that  date.  His 
titles  included  the  name  of  Alagiyasiyan  and  Kanakasabha- 
pathi  Sabhd  Sarvakdrya  Sarvakdla  Nirvdhaka, — a  title  that 


was  justified  by  his  close  association  with  the  shrine.  Several 
of  his  epigraphs  are  found  on  the  temple  walls.  He  is  credit- 
ed with  the  construction  of  the  east  gopura  of  the  temple 
according  to  a  trilingual  inscription  from  Tripurantaka  in 
the  Kurnool  district,  wherein  we  read  that  he  decorated  the 
four  sides  of  the  tower  with  "booty  acquired  by  subduing 
the  four  quarters."  It  is  on  both  sides  of  the  gateway  of 
this  gopura,  in  the  panels  of  the  projecting  pillars,  that  we 
find  rich  sculptures  of  dancing  figures  depicting  the  108  pos- 
tures, described  in  the  Bharatiya  Natya  Sastra.  93  of  these 
have  descriptive  labels  in  grantha  characters  engraved  on 
them.  These  have  been  illustrated  with  the  corresponding 
verses  occurring  in  the  Sastra,  in  the  Annual  Report  for 
South  Indian  Epigraphy  for  1914.  The  book  on  '  Tandava 
Laksanam  or  The  Fundamentals  of  Ancient  Hindu  Dancing 
(by  B.  V.  N.  Naidu,  P.  S.  Naidu  and  O.  V.  R.  Pantulu, 
1936) ,  gives  a  very  instructive  account  of  the  sculptures  of 
the  dancing  figures  represented  in  the  gateway  of  the  east 
gopuram  as  well  as  those  found  in  the  gateway  of  the  west- 
ern gopuram.  The  108  classic  postures  seem  to  have  been 
sculptured  on  all  the  four  gopurams,  but  the  explanatory 
labels  are  found  only  in  the  eastern  and  western  towers. 

In  this  connection  may  be  mentioned  similar  figures  of 
dancers  and  musicians,  sculptured  in  continuous  relief  all 
round  the  basement  of  the  thousand-pillared  hall  and  in  a 
well-preserved  ring  running  along  the  basement  of  the 
pillared  and  storeyed  corridors  enclosing  the  courtyard  of 
the  Sivakami  Amman  shrine.  Kopperunjinga's  inscriptions 
are  also  found  on  the  walls  of  the  Tillaiamman  temple2  (Sri 

2.     This  ancient  temple  was  renovated  about  three  decades 
ago  by  the  family  of  our  Raja  Sahib. 


K5yil  of  Piclari  Tiruchchitrambala  Makali).  The  tradition  is 
that  the  Goddess  who  represented  an  earlier  indigenous  cult, 
was  danced  out  of  the  Tillai  shrine  by  God  Nataraja  in  his 
famous  Urdhva-Tdndava  dance  in  the  Nritta  Sabha  of  the 
temple  which  has  been  deemed  by  Fergusson  to  be  a  most 
precious  piece  of  workmanship  in  sculpture  and  as  contain- 
ing dancing  figures,  "more  graceful  and  more  elegantly  exe- 
cuted than  any  other  of  their  class,  so  far  as  I  know  in  South- 
ern India."  In  the  Bhimesvara  temple  at  Singarat5pe,  a 
suburb  of  Chidambaram,  we  find  another  inscription  of 
Kopperunjinga.  One  of  his  chiefs  Sola  Kon,  alias  Perumal 
Filial,  set  up  three  pillars  in  the  great  shrine  for  the  merit 
of  his  master. 

The  powerful  Pandyas  of  the  thirteenth  century  who 
overshadowed  the  Cholas,  continued  the  role  of  their  prede- 
cessors. Jatavaraman  Sundara  Pandya  I  (ace.  1251)  was 
anointed  victor-hero  and  celebrated  the  Tulabhdra  cere- 
mony at  the  great  shrine;  and  epigraphs  of  his  found  engrav- 
ed on  the  eastern  and  western  gopuras,  describe  some  of  his 
achievements.  A  few  of  the  succeeding  Pandyas  performed 
likewise  in  Chidambaram  their  abhisheka  and  commemo- 
rated their  victorious  campaigns.  It  is  noteworthy  that  the 
Pandya  fish-crest  is  engraved  in  the  ceiling  of  the  gateway 
of  the  great  southern  gopura. 

Among  the  benefactions  to  the  temple  made  in  those 
days  may  be  mentioned  the  foundation  of  feeding-houses 
and  the  initiation  of  systematic  ceremonial  offerings  of  food 
to  the  God  known  as  pdvddai,  observed  even  to  this  day, 
according  to  which  boiled  rice  of  a  determinate  quantity  is 
spread  evenly  over  a  plank  measuring  about  6'  x  4'.  in  front 
of  the  God  and  distributee!  among  the  priests.  One  of  the 
earliest  feeding-houses  of  which  mention  is  made,  was  the 


Arapperunjelvi  Solai,  in  the  western  street  called  Mudi- 
kondaperumdl  Tiruvldi,  perhaps  named  after  Kulottunga  III, 
who  took  the  crowned  head  of  the  Pandyas.  The  settlement 
of  the  Sola  Saliyars  (or  weavers)  who  are  even  now  a  nu- 
merous community  of  the  locality,  is  mentioned  in  a 
Pandya  record  of  Maravarman  Vlra  Pandya  (ace.  1262). 
Another  grant  of  Jatavarman  Sundara  makes  mention  of  an 
agrahdra  donated  to  108  learned  bhattas  settled  in  a  village 
known  as  Vikrama  Pandya  Chaturvedimangalam  situated 
on  the  western  side  of  Perumbarrappuliyur,  who  were  to 
be  maintained  from  the  income  of  the  village  of  Puliyan- 
gudi.  A  similar  record  mentions  the  grant  of  116  veils  of 
land  m  Adur,  alias  Jananathanallur,  to  108  Brahmans  who 
were  to  pay  four  kalams  per  veli  every  year  to  the  temple 
of  Tiilainayaka.  Yet  another  record  speaks  of  a  shrine  built 
in  honour  of  Alagiya  Tiruchchitrambala  Udaiyar  at  the 
hamlet  of  Korravangudi  (alias  Pavithramanikkanallur) 
near  the  University  campus. 


The  association  of  the  Vijayanagara  monarchs  with  the 
temple  is  sufficiently  striking,  though  not  as  intense  as  in 
the  case  of  the  Cholas  and  the  Pandyas.  King  Devaraya  II 
(1422-1446)  has  an  inscription,  dated  Saka  1349  (i.e., 
1428  A.D.)  on  the  north  wall  of  the  Karpaka  Vinayakar 
shrine  near  the  west  gopuram,  which  should  interest  the 
student  of  history  as  it  embodies  an  account  of  the  method 
by  which  temples  were  then  supported  and  controlled  by 
rulers.  It  should  be  a  matter  of  common  knowledge  that 
the  great  Krishnadeva  Raya  built  the  north  gopura  about 
Saka  1438,  i.e.,  1516  A.D.,  in  commemoration  of  his  vic- 
torious northern  campaign  and  advance  in  triumph  to  Sim- 

hadri-Pottunuru  where  he  planted  a  pillar  of  victory,  after 


which  he  made  a  pilgrimage  to  the  shrine  of  Ponnambalam 
and  ordered  the  building  of  this  tower.  A  striking  and  well- 
formed  stone  image  of  his  is  still  preserved  in  a  niche  on 
the  western  side  of  the  gateway  of  this  gopura.  Achyuta- 
raya  was  noted  for  his  many  benefactions  to  the  shrine  of 
Govindaraja.  The  Pasupatiswara  Temple  at  Tiruvetkalam3 
(renovated  about  a  quarter  of  a  century  ago  by  Diwan 
Bahadur  Rarnaswamy  Chettiar,  an  elder  brother  of  the  Rajah 
Saheb  of  Chettinad)  contains  an  epigraph  dated  Saka  1488, 
recording  the  grant  of  that  village  (the  village  adjoining  the 
University  on  the  east),  by  Achyutappa  Nayak  of  Tanjore 
for  the  merit  of  his  overlord,  King  Tirumala  I.  Later  Vijaya- 
nagara  rulers  like  Sriranga  II  (1578-1586)  and  Verikata  I 
(1586-1614)  are  mentioned  in  some  epigraphs  in  the  temple; 
one  of  them  on  the  south  c/dpura,  dated  Saka  1510  (A.D. 

3.  This  village  is  credited  by  local  tradition  as  being  the 
place  of  Arjuna's  penance  and  the  present  by  God  Siva 
of  the  Pasupatastram  to  the  Pandava  hero.  The  temple  it- 
self dedicated  to  Siva  has  been  sung  by  Saint  Appar  and  Saint 
Sambandar.  The  latter  refers  to  the  village  as  being  situated 
near  the  sea,  where  the  chanting  of  the  Vedas  and  the  perform- 
ance of  the  Vedic  sacrifices  went  on ;  and  the  former  describes  the 
shrine  as  the  abode  of  the  Veianar,  i.e.,  the  Hunter,  Siva  as  Kirata. 
It  is  held  by  learned  opinion  that  the  image  of  Kiratarjunamurti 
in  this  temple  shows  unmistakable  affinity  with  Pallava  stone 
sculptures  of  the  seventh  century  A.D. ;  and  there  is  reason  to 
believe  that  it  is  the  same  image  that  Appar  saw  and  the  presence 
of  which  led  him  to  celebrate  the  temple  in  his  hymns  as  the 
abode  of  Vetandr.  There  are  two  other  images  of  remarkable 
value  and  antiquity  in  the  temple,  namely,  those  of  Arjuna  and 
Parvathi.  The  image  of  Arjuna  is  later,  but  may  not  be  far 
removed  in  point  of  time  from  that  of  the  Kiratarjunamurti 
(Vide  '.Three  South  Indian  Metal  Images— A  Study'  by  T.  B. 
Nayar,  1934,  Annamalai  University  Journal,  Vol.  Ill,  No.  1). 


1588),  makes  mention  of  Namassivaya  Udaiyar,  the  superin- 
tendent of  all  the  small  services  in  the  shrine.  The  student 
of  Tamil  literary  history  may  remember,  in  this  connection, 
Guru  Namassivaya,  who  devoted  himself,  at  the  instance  of 
his  teacher,  Guhai  Namassivaya  to  holy  work  at  Chidam- 
baram and  composed  the  Paramarahasya  Malai,  the  Cfnda???- 
bara  Venba  and  other  works.  The  head  of  the  mutt  found- 
ed by  Guru  Namassivaya  continues  to  enjoy  temple  honours 
even  at  the  present  day. 

A  ruler  of  Cochin,  Maharaja  Rama  Varma  of  the  family 
of  Seraman  Perumal  Nayanar,  has  left  a  record  in  the  tem- 
ple, dated  Saka  1498,  providing  for  food  offerings  to  the  God. 
An  epigraph  of  Saka  1515,  (i.e.,  1593)  informs  us  that  the 
districts  of  Devamandala  Sirmai  and  Viranarayana  Sirmai, 
Terkunadu,  Vadakkunadu,  the  five  villages  grouped  round 
Asuvur,  and  all  others  that  had  been  enjoyed  by  the  temple 
of  Chidambaram  from  early  times,  had  been  made  tax-free 
and  fresh  provision  was  made  for  a  huge  quantity  of  food 
offerings  daily  under  the  name  of  Kondamandyakan  Katta- 

Achyutappa  Nayaka  of  Tan j  ore,  as  mentioned  above, 
made  a  gift  in  1566  of  the  village  of  Tiruvetkalam  to  the 
Tirumulasthana  temple  at  Chidambaram  for  the  merit  of 
the  Vijayanagara  King,  Tirumala  Ray  a  and  also  several 
further  endowments  to  it.  Two  other  epigraphs  of  Saka 
1493,  refer  to  a  gift  of  land  made  by  one  Alagapperumal 
Pillai  to  Chidambareswara  for  the  merit  of  Achyutappa.  It 
can  be  safely  asserted  that  the  temple  received  further  en- 
dowments during  the  lifetime  of  that  Nayak.  Virappa 
Nayak  of  Madura  is  credited  with  having  built  the  outer- 
most stone-faced  wall  of  the  Chidambaram  temple, 
which  is  even  now  called  Virappa  Ndyakan  madil. 



So  the  temple  flourished,  if  any  good  flourishing  could 
have  been  possible  in  the  dark  days  that  followed  the  disrup- 
tion of  Nayak  rule  in  Tanjore  and  Gingee,  the  weakening 
of  the  Maratha  Raj  in  Tanjore  and  the  assertion  of  Muslim 
and  European  dominance  in  the  Carnatic.  During  his  south- 
ern campaign  (1677-78),  Sivaji  is  said  to  have  contemplated 
the  restoration  of  many  Hindu  shrines  that  had  fallen  on 
evil  days;  and  we  have  evidence  that  he  reconsecrated  and 
enlarged  the  shrine  of  Tiruvannamalai  and  restored  the  ce- 
lebration of  the  great  Kdrtliigai  festival.  Sivaji  occupied  the 
Chidambaram  district  in  the  course  of  this  campaign.  He 
stayed  for  some  time  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Chidambaram 
and  Bhuvanagiri  (literally,  Bhuvanekaviran  Pattanam)  for 
effecting  a  reconciliation  with  his  brother,  Vyankoji  of  Tan- 
jore, with  whom  he  spent  some  time  on  the  banks  of  the 
Coleroon;  but  we  do  not  know  of  any  gift  to  or  association 
with  the  shrine  effected  by  him.  In  the  darker  days  of  the 
eighteenth  century  we  have  got  only  to  note  that  the  temple 
suffered  serious  reverses  in  the  course  of  the  Anglo-French 
wars  in  the  Carnatic  and  later  during  the  invasions  of 
Haidar  Ali  of  Mysore. 

In  1749  the  ill-fated  expedition  of  Captain  Cope  against 
Devikottah  had  to  take  shelter  in  the  Chidambaram  pagoda 
on  its  retreat.  In  1753,  the  French  took  possession  of  it  as 
well  as  the  neighbouring  Bhuvanagiri  which  was  then  a  large 
weaving  centre  and  partly  fortified.  They  were  in  occupa- 
tion of  the  shrine  for  several  years  till  1760  and  buttressed  the 
outer  walls  with  bastions  and  embrasures  and  otherwise 
greatly  strengthened  the  western  gopura  gateway.  The  im- 
portance of  the  French  occupation  of  the  temple  lies  in  its 
conversion  into  a  military  base.  A  sketch  of  the  fortifica- 
tions planned,  begun  and  carried  out  to  some  extent  by 
the  French,  is  given  by  the  eighteenth-century  historian, 


Robert  Orme,  (Vide  Vol.  Ill  of  his  History  of  'Indostan,  be- 
ing a  Collection  of  maps  and  plans  to  accompany  that  work .  . 
Plan  entitled  'Chillambarum  and  showing  the  fortifications 
intended  and  begun  by  the  French)  and  is  well  worth  a 
close  study,  as  it  discloses  the  alignment  of  the  bastions  and 
batteries  projected  for  strengthening  the  outermost  wall,  as 
well  as  for  the  utilisation  of  the  storeyed  corridors  that  lined 
the  inside  of  the  second  wall  and  that  have  now  gone  to  ruin 
in  many  portions.  In  January  1754,  there  was  an  abortive 
attempt  made  by  the  English  to  force  the  French  garrison 
which  held  the  pagoda  to  surrender  it;  but  the  attacking 
party  was  completely  routed.  It  was  only  in  1760  (20th 
April)  that  the  English  and  their  Nawab  Muhammad  All 
Walajah  Bahadur,  were  able  to  secure  the  surrender  of  the 
town  and  the  fortified  pagoda.  A  party  of  English  troops 
combined  with  a  body  of  men  under  Krishna  Rao,  the  kille- 
dar  of  Tyagadrug,  pressed  on  the  place  from  the  south  and 
north  respectively,  while  two  eighteen-pounder  cannon  were 
taken  up  the  Coleroon  on  catamarans  from  the  English 
squadron  lying  at  anchor  off  Devicottah.4 

4.  The  chiefs  of  Devicottah,  known  by  the  hereditary  title 
of  Sola  Kon,  corrupted  into  Sdl_agandr  flourished  since  the  time 
of  the  powerful  and  dreaded  Solagan,  chief  of  that  Island  fortress 
under  Krishnappa  Nayaka  of  Gingee  (Cir.  1600) .  He  was  attack- 
ed by  Raghunatha  Nayak  of  Tan j ore  as  being  a  rebel  and  taken 
captive  along  with  his  family  and  thrown  into  prison.  He  was 
very  cruel  in  his  punishment  of  victims  ;  and  his  cruelty  has  been 
described  by  Father  Pimenta,  who  perhaps  visited  his  fortress. 
Yagna  Narayana  Dikshita  has  referred  to  the  sons  and  relatives 
of  this  Solaga  in  his  work.  Solaga  and  his  descendants  had  an 
intimate  association  with  the  temple  and  claimed  the  right  to  be 
crowned  in  the  Rajasabha  in  the  thousand-pillared  mantapa.  The 
present  representative  of  the  family,  who  is  a  poligar,  lives  in 
an  adjoining  village  in  the  jungle  at  the  mouth  of  the  Coleroon, 


We  may  suppose  that  there  was  an  intermission  of  the 
worship,  services  and  festivals  in  the  shrine  during  the 
period  of  its  military  occupation  by  the  French.  Nor  was  it 
destined  to  enjoy  unbroken  peace  even  after  its  recovery  by 
the  English  for  the  Nawab  in  1760.  In  the  course  of 
the  Second  Mysore  War  (1780-1784)  when  Sir  Eyre 
Coote  marched  to  the  southward  from  Cuddalore  in 
June  1781,  preparatory  to  engaging  Haidar  All,  he 
attacked  Chidambaram  whose  fortified  pagoda  had  been  for 
some  time  under  the  occupation  of  the  enemy.  The  latter 
had  taken  care  to  surround  the  pettah  on  the  west  side  of 
the  temple  with  a  mud  wall;  and  the  place  was  garrisoned 
by  about  3,000  poligar  peons.  The  pettah  was  quickly  occu- 
pied by  the  English  who  burst  open  the  outer  gate  on  the 
west  by  a  vigorous  fire  but  found  further  advance  into  the 
pagoda  impossible  (18th  June  1781).  Thus  the  first  attempt 
of  the  English  to  capture  the  fort  failed  and  Coote  retired 
to  the  neighbourhood  of  Porto  Novo,  where  he  gained  the 
glorious  victory  that  turned  the  tide  of  this  critical  war.5 

Devicottah  was  abandoned  after  some  time  and  has  completely 
disappeared  under  water,  except  for  some  small  relics.  It  is  per- 
haps identifiable  with  the  Jalkotta  of  the  Muhammadan  historians, 
who  described  the  Muhammadan  invasions  of  South  India  in  the 
fourteenth  century. 

5.  The  fortified  pagoda  of  Chidambaram  was  the  main 
objective  of  Coote  in  the  campaign  that  culminated  in  the  great 
victory  of  Portonovo.  The  failure  of  the  English  to  carry  the 
pagoda  by  assault  to  which  reference  has  been  already  made  is 
well  described  by  Colonel  H.  C.  Wylly,  C.  B.,  in  his  Life 
of  Sir  Eyre  Coote,  K.B.,  (1922  page  220) .  The  small  number  of 
Europeans  in  his  force  and  his  natural  desire  to  save  them  for 
more  important  enterprises  had  made  Coote  endeavour  to  take 
the  Pagoda  with  sopoys  and  small  artillery.  The  failure  of  Coote 
and  the  repulse  of  his  forces  greatly  elated  Jahan  Khan,  the  cap- 


It  was  in  this  period  of  trouble  that  the  sacred  Idol  of 
Nataraja  was  removed  from  the  Ponnambalam  shrine  and 
taken  over  to  Tiruvarur  for  protection  under  the  Raja  of 
Tanjore.  An  inscription  in  grantha  characters  in  the  form 
of  a  'sloka'  in  the  thousand-pillared  mantapam  refers  to  this 
fact  and  says  that  it  was  in  the  year  Saka  1695,  Kali  4874 
(in  the  month  of  Mdsi  Krishnapaksha,  mula  nakshatra, 
thriyothasi  thithi)  that  Nataraja  came  to  Chitsabha  from 


It  may  be,  perhaps,  instructive  at  this  place  to  trace  the 
fortunes  of  the  twin  shrine  of  Govindaraja  associated  froir. 
the  early  times  with  Sri  Sabhanayaka.  We  know  that  the 
Vaishnava  deity  was  praised  in  song  by  two  of  the  Alwars, 
Tirumangai  and  Kulasekhara  and  that  the  worship  of  the 
God  was  in  those  days  conducted  by  the  Tillai  Muvayiravar. 
The  Vishnu  shrine  was  held  in  veneration  by  the  Pallava 

tarn  of  the  enemy  troops;  and  the  latter  so  magnified  his  success 
that  Haidar  All  at  once  made  up  his  mind  to  destroy  the  English 
power.  He  made  a  forced  march  of  100  miles  in  2%  days  and 
placed  himself  between  Coote  and  Cuddalore  and  began  to  fortify 
a  position,  hemming  in  the  British  army  into  an  equilateral 
triangle  formed  by  his  camp,  by  the  sea  and  the  Porto  Novo  river 
In  the  battle  the  British  fleet  which  was  in  the  roads  could  not 
take  any  part  except  a  small  schooner;  towards  evening  when 
his  troops  had  begun  to  retreat,  Haidar  took  shelter  in  Chidam- 
baram but  Coote's  cavalry  was  numerically  too  weak  to  pursue 
the  enemy. 

It  was  in  Chidambaram  also  that  Haidar  confined  some  English 
prisoners  that  he  later  on  sent  to  his  capital. 

6.  A  connected  account  of  the  Vaishnava  shrine  was  given 
for  the  first  time  by  Dr.  S.  K.  Aiyangar,  the  veteran  historian, 
more  than  two  decades  ago  in  connection  with  an  important  suit. 


monarch  who  was  a  contemporary  of  Tirumangai  and  pro- 
bably Nandivarman  II,  and  was  known  by  the  name  of  Tillai 
Tiruchchitrakutam.  The  Tirukkovaiydr  of  Manikkavacaga 
informs  us  that  the  God  was  in  a  recumbent  posture  and 
rested  on  Adisesha  and  that  his  shrine  was  adjacent  to 
Tiruchchitrambalam  in  front  of  the  Siva  deity.  Further,  we 
learn  from  Vaishnava  literature  that  the  Vishnu  deity  was 
thrown  into  the  sea  and  the  shrine  itself  was  vacated  in 
order  to  enlarge  the  courtyard  of  Sirrambalam  by  a  Chola 
monarch,  who  is  called  SennikulSttunga  in  the  Life  of  Rama- 
nwjo.  by  Pillailokam  Jiyar.  This  monarch  has  been  identi- 
fied with  Kulottunga  II,  known  also  as  Anabhaya  and  Tiru- 
nirru  Sola  (1135-1146)  and  this  act  of  the  Chola  has  been 
described  by  the  poet,  Ottakkuttar  in  two  of  his  works.  The 
date  of  this  act  of  desecration  has  been  proved  by 
an  elaborate  process  of  reasoning  by  Rao  Saheb 
Pandit  M.  Raghava  lyengar,  to  be  1127  A.D.  (Saka  1049). 
The  great  Vaishnava  Apostle,  Sri  Ramanuja,  certainly  heard 
of  this  desecration  of  the  Vishnu  shrine  and  of  the  subse- 
quent transportation  of  the  image  by  some  bhaktas  to  Lower 
Tirupati.  Some  time  after  this,  he  went  over  to  the  latter 
place  where  he  had  the  image  consecrated  and  enshrined. 

We  hear  of  the  next  great  reconsecration  of  the  Vishnu 
shrine  in  the  temple  in  1539,  in  the  reign  of  Achyutaraya, 
under  the  inspiration  of  a  famous  Vaishnava  teacher,  Dod- 
dacharya  alias  Mahdcharya  of  Sholinghur.  This  was  effect- 
ed, according  to  the  Prapannamritam  by  one  Ramaraya  of 
Chandragiri,  incorrectly  supposed  to  be  a  brother  of  Krishna- 
deva  Raya,  but  in  reality  a  lieutenant  of  Achyuta  who  actu- 
ally consecrated  the  shrine.  This  is  further  supported  by  the 
Vdsudeva  Charitai  (composed  in  1543  A.D.)  of  Varadaraja, 
in  which  the  author  says  that  Govindaraja  worshipped  by 
the  devas,  with  Uma's  Lord  dancing  by  his  side,  was  res- 


tored  to  his  former  shrine  and  praised  by  Achyuta  in  some 
verses.  We  know  further  that  Achyutaraya  built  several 
parts  of  the  Vishnu  shrine;  and  the  words  used  by  Varada- 
raja  in  his  book  seem  to  imply  that  it  was  rebuilt  after  the 
old  model,  having  perhaps  been  abandoned  all  the  time. 
This  writer  might  have  actually  witnessed  the  reconsecration 
ceremony  itself.  The  alleged  restoration  of  the  shrine  by 
the  Brahman  general,  Gopanarya,  associated  with  Kumara 
Kampana,  in  the  task  of  the  restoration  of  Srirangam  and 
Madura  in  the  fourteenth  century  is  incorrect. 

In  Saka  1565,  i.e.,  A.D.  1643,  Sriranga  Raya  of  the 
Aravidu  dynasty,  then  ruling  from  Vellore,  renovated  the 
mukhamantapa  and  the  gopura  of  the  shrine  and  the 
vimanas  of  the  goddesses  Pundarikavalli  and  Sudikkodutta 
Nachchiar  and  also  of  the  mantapa  in  front  of  Tiruvazhi 
Alwan  (Inscription  No.  271  of  1913)  and  gave  away  five 
villages  in  rent-free  grant  for  the  benefit  of  the  Sri 
Vaishnavas  of  the  place. 

Krishnappa  Nayak  of  Gingce  (Cir.  1600)  was  a  zealous 
patron  of  Vaishnavism,  like  his  master  Venkatapathi  Raya 
of  Vellore.  He  settled  definitely  the  bitter  controversy  that 
had  been  raging  over  the  question  whether  the  shrine  of 
Vishnu  should  have  the  Vaishnava  symbols  placed  in  front 
of  it,  to  which  the  Saiva  priests  strongly  objected.  Accord- 
ing to  the  Jesuit  writer,  Father  Pimenta,  who  has  given 
a  succinct  account  of  what  he  saw  in  the  temple  when 
he  visited  the  place  in  1597,  the  protest  ended  in  the  violent 
death  of  some  of  the  objectors  and  the  work  of  construction 
was  carried  on  to  its  conclusion.  The  Sanskrit  work,  Pra- 
pannamirtam,  claims  that  the  Vaishnava  scholar  Maha- 
charya  defeated  in  scholastic  disputes  the  Saiva  scholars  of 

Chidambaram,  among  whom  was  included  even  the  famous 


Appayya  Dikshita,  so  well  known  for  his  devotion  to  God 

In  the  last  decade  of  the  eighteenth  century,  tHere  arose 
a  renewed  dispute  between  the  two  shrines,  leading  to  the 
stoppage  of  the  worship  in  the  Vishnu  shrine  for  some  years 
and  even  the  walling  up  of  its  entrance.  It  was  settled  by 
the  arbitration  of  the  Nawab's  faujdar  of  the  district  and 
confirmed  by  a  parwana  of  Nawab  Omdut-ul-Umarah 
Bahadur  of  the  Carnatic,  dated  1797,  which  defined  the 
respective  rights  and  claims  of  both  the  parties. 

After  the  establishment  of  British  rule  over  the  district 
when  swords  were  turned  into  plough-shares  and  battle-axes 
into  pruning  hooks,  the  disputes  between  the  two  shrines 
were  fought  out  in  the  law  courts,  off  and  on,  with  varying 
fortunes.  Now  the  main  points  of  contention  have  been 
settled  fairly  amicably  and  the  managers  of  the  two  shrines 
have  agreed  to  work  harmoniously,  largely  through  the 
mediating  efforts  of  the  Rajah  Saheb  of  Chettinad,  who  reno- 
vated the  ruined  mantapa  in  front  of  the  Vishnu  shnne, 
repaired  the  shrine  itself  which  was  in  a  dilapidated  condi- 
tion, reconstructed  the  qopura  and  the  vimdna  over  the 
Garbagraha  and  reconsecrated  the  sannidhi  itself  in  the 
summer  of  1934. 

Thus  we  may  summarise  the  vicissitudes  in  tKe  fortunes 
of  the  Govindaraja  Shrine  in  these  words  :  "  In  the  eighth 
century,  the  Vishnu  shrine  was  consecrated  by  a  Pallava 
ruler, — most  likely  Nandivarman  II — praised  by  Tiru- 
mangai  Alwar.  In  the  first  half  of  the  12th  century,  it  was 
desecrated  by  a  Chola,  most  likely  Kulottunga  II ;  in  the 
first  half  of  the  sixteenth  century,  it  was  renovated  by 
Achyuta  Raya  of  Vijayanagara;  and  towards  the  close  of  that 
century  it  received  the  patronage  of  Krishnappa  Nayak  of 


Gingee;  and  later  it  was  further  enlarged  by  Sriranga  IV, 
In  1934  the  shrine  itself  which  was  in  a  ruined  condition  was 
renovated  at  a  considerable  cost  through  the  munificent 
generosity  cf  the  Rajah  Saheb  of  Chettinad,  as  noted  above. 

Thus  it  appears  from  the  history  of  the  shrine  that  it  has 
been  fated  to  undergo  a  critical  change  in  its  fortunes  every 
four  centuries. 


Lord  Valentia,  an  English  nobleman  of  high  rank,  who 
visited  the  shrine  in  1803,  gives  a  very  good  picture  of  the 
temple  as  he  saw  it  then:  He  thus  wrote: — "The  gateway 
by  which  we  entered  had  lately  been  repaired  by  a  devout 
widow,  at  the  enormous  expense  of  forty  thousand  pagodas. 
The  whole  of  ilia  architecture  hud  a  more  ancient  appear- 
ance than  Tan j  ore  or  Ramiseram.  Facing  the  entrance  they 
were  erecting  a  portico  of  one  hundred  fluted  pillars,  in  some 
parts  three,  in  others  five  deep;  the  roof  was  not  yet  laid  on. 
We  then  proceeded  in  a  winding  direction  to  the  entrance  of 
the  most  holy  temple.  This  building  is  more  ancient,  and 
the  style  much  purer  than  the  others  around  it;  even  the 
carved  figures  shewed  in  the  artist  a  more  just  attempt  at 
proper  action  than  is  to  be  found  in  the  rest.  A  small  temple 
facing  us  on  our  return,  was  of  the  same  architecture  and  the 
carved  figures  had  equal  merit."  This  last  was  evidently 
the  Nritta  Sabha. 

The  widow  referred  to  above,  was  the  wife  of  the  great 
philanthropist,  Pachaiyappa  Mudaliar  of  Conjeevaram 
(1754-1794),  who  was  Dubash  for  some  years  for  the  East 
India  Company  at  the  T^njore  court  and  who  devoted  his 
extensive  wealth  for  religious  and  educational  charities, 
including  among  them  large  benefactions  and  kattalais  for 
the  Sri  Sabhanayaka  Shrine.  He  started  in  1791-92  the 


second  Brahmotsava  of  the  shrine,  by  name  Ani  Tiruman- 
janam,  which  he  arranged  to  be  celebrated  on  an  equally 
grand  scale  with  the  Arudhra  Darsanam.  He  built  the  car- 
stand,  renovated  the  temple  cars  and  revived  the  car 
festival  which  had  fallen  into  desuetude  for  some  time. 
He  arranged  for  the  starting  of  a  Sanskrit  seminary  at 
Chidambaram  and  persuaded  his  rich  friend,  Manali 
Chinniah  Mudaliar,  grandson  of  the  famous  Dubash  of 
Lord  Pigot,  Manali  Muthukrishna  Mudaliar,  (who  construc- 
ted in  Madras  the  shrine  of  Chennakesava  Perumal  and 
Chennai  Malleswaraswami  about  1763)  to  endow  large 
benefactions  to  the  Sabhanayaka  Shrine,  which  included 
the  maintenance  of  flower  gardens  and  the  plating  with 
silver  of  the  Panchdksara  steps  leading  into  the  innermost 

Pachaiyappa  had  also  planned  the  reconstruction  of  the 
east  gopura  which  had  become  dilapidated;  but  as  he  died 
before  he  could  undertake  the  work,  his  widow  and  his  sister 
who  carried  out  his  will,  took  care  to  complete  that  injunc- 
tion, as  noted  by  Lord  Valentia.  A  stone  image  of  Pachai- 
yappa and  another  of  his  sister  and  mother-in-law,  by  name 
Subbammal,  are  to  be  found  in  niches  on  the  southern  side 
of  the  gateway  of  the  east  gopura.  The  many-sided  chari- 
ties of  Pachaiyappa  were  first  detailed  in  a  number  of  songs 
about  1840  by  great  Tamil  scholars  like  Malavai  Mahalinga 
Iyer,  Head  Tamil  Pandit  of  what  was  then  known  as  the 
Madras  University,  subsequently  the  Presidency  College, 
and  Mahavidwan  Sabhapathi  Mudaliar  of  Conjeevaram. 

Likewise,  the  rich  Nattukottai  Nagarathar  community 
comprehended  a  thorough  renovation  of  the  great  shrine  in 
their  schemes  of  reconstruction  of  South  Indian  temples;  and 
a  considerable  sum  of  money  was  devoted  to  this  purpose  by 
the  family  of  the  Rajah  Saheb  which  began  the  work  of  re- 


construction  in  the  seventies  of  last  century  on  a  lavish  and 
magnificent  scale,  and  the  lesult  has  been  the  renovation  of 
all  the  gopuras,  the  restoration  of  almost  every  shrine  to 
greater  grandeur  of  appearance  and  ornamentatiorif,  includ- 
ing the  gilding  of  the  roof  of  the  Kanakasabha,  the  repair 
of  the  enclosing  walls,  the  broadening  of  the  stone  steps 
and  corridors  of  the  sacred  tank  and  above  all  the  con- 
struction of  the  magnificent  corridors  round  the  second 
prakara,  recalling  to  mind  the  spacious  splendour  of  the 
Rameswaram  corridors.  Besides  these  the  charities  of  the 
family  have  provided  for  a  number  of  ubhayams  and 
kattalais  in  the  temple  and  for  the  reconstruction  of  the  cars 
and  for  the  provision  of  a  great  quantity  of  lamps,  vessels, 
vahanas  and  other  appurtenances,  many  of  them  of  silver, 
for  use  in  the  service  of  the  deities.  There  was  a  great  con- 
secration ceremony  conducted  under  the  auspices  of  this 
noble  charity  in  1891.  The  work  of  renovation  in  several 
other  parts  of  the  temple  was  continued  for  over  a  quarter 
of  century  after  this  date.  Three  generations  of  the  family 
of  the  Rajah  Saheb  have  devoted  themselves  to  this  great 
task  of  the  restoration  of  this  ancient  shrine  to  more  than  its 
pristine  glory.  Metal  images  of  the  parents  of  the  Rajah 
Saheb,  holding  ever-burning  lamps  in  their  hands  have  been 
installed  in  the  Kanakasabha,  in  token  alike  of  their  religious 
devotion  and  magnificent  generosity. 

The  Rajah  and  his  elder  brother,  Diwan  Bahadur  Rama- 
swamy  Chettiar,  have  likewise  developed  the  town  and 
increased  its  amenities  for  cultured  life.  Schools  for  the 
propagation  of  Vedic  and  Agamaic  learning  and  for  the 
revival  of  Tevdram  singing  and  studies,  and  magnificent 
choultries,  which  have  practically  thrown  into  shade  and 
idleness,  by  their  huge  feeding,  earlier  foundations, 


and  Gorakshaialas  and  flower-gardens  may  also  be 
mentioned  among  their  many-sided  benefactions. 
Modern  amenities  like  the  well-equipped  high  school, 
started  a  quarter  of  a  century  ago  by  Mr.  Ramaswami 
Chettiar,  the  protected  water-supply  which  has  scared 
away  foul  diseases  like  cholera  and  elephantiasis  from 
the  town,  also  due  to  his  generosity,  and  the  building  of  a 
town-hall  for  the  expression  of  the  common  life  of  the  citizens 
and  named  after  the  Rajah  Saheb,  as  Annamalai  Town  Hall 
these  show  to  what  extent  the  Rajah's  family  have  devoted 
themselves  for  the  exaltation  of  the  shrine  and  the  improve- 
ment of  the  town,  to  which  has  been  added  practically 
another  town  and  temple  of  learning  in  the  shape  of  the 
University  settlement,  which  may  be  called  the  most  expres- 
sive of  the  Rajah's  innumerable  and  wide-spread  charities 
and  may  be  claimed  to  be  the  most  potential  for  good  as  well 
as  the  most  fruitful  among  them  all.  It  will  not  there- 
fore be  inappropriate  that  the  Rajah  of  Chettinad  should  be 
honoured,  like  his  royal  and  semi-royal  predecessors  in  the 
patronage  of  the  temple,  with  the  titles  of  Sivapada  Sekhara 
and  of  Kanakasabhapathi  Sabha  Sarvakdrya  Nirvdhaka. 
Let  us  hope  that,  under  the  Rajah's  fostering  care,  the  twin 
towns  of  Chidambaram  and  Annamalainagar,  the  one  con- 
serving the  culture  of  the  past  and  the  other  endeavouring 
to  realise  the  aspirations  of  the  Tamils  and  their  cultural 
development,  may  grow  in  strength  and  usefulness  and  ex- 
pand, as  of  old,  so  as  to  take  in  all  the  neighbouring  hamlets 
like  Sivapuri  (reminiscent  of  the  settlement  of  Jaffnese 
Saivites7  taking  refuge  from  persecution  in  their  own 
home)  Vikrama  Sslanallur  and  other  surrounding  villages 
as  it  did  in  the  golden  days  of  Chola  rule. 

7.    A  part  of  Chidambaram,  round  the  tank  of  Gnanaprakasar, 
a  scholar  of  the  17th  century,  has  been  associated  with  a  Jafinese 
settlement ;  and  God  Kanakasabapathi  has  ever  been  their  chosen 


DR.  H.   SUBRAMANIA  AlYAR,  M.A.,   PH.D., 

Professor,  Maharaja's  College,  Trivandram, 

Government  Astronomer 


REV.   0.  R.  WALKEY. 

The  major  problem  in  modern  astronomy  is  that  of  the 
stellar  distribution,  representing  the  form  and  extent  of  our 
Universe — the  great  assemblage  of  stars,  clusters  and 
nebulae  segregating  towards  the  Milky  Way  as  their  funda- 
mental plane. 

The  problem  has  been  approached  in  various  ways:  — 
The  individual  distances  of  special  types  of  stars,  for  inst- 
ance, the  cepheid  variables,  whereof  the  regular  period 
of  variation  is  directly  related  to  their  intrinsic  luminosity, 
which  combined  with  their  apparent  brightness  gives  an 
accurate  measure  of  the  distances  of  these  usually  very 
remote  objects.  Though  lying  near  to  the  galactic  plane  and 
at  great  distances,  their  number  is  too  small  to  fix  the  form 
of  our  Universe.  With  cepheid  distribution  is  associated 
that  of  the  globular  clusters,  wherein  the  periods  of  the  faint 
cepheids  have  determined  the  distance  of  these  remarkable 
objects.  The  globular  clusters,  however,  do  not  exceed 
more  than  some  ninety  in  number  and  are  found  to  lie  in  all 
directions  within  a  sphere  enveloping  our  galaxy,  and  so  are 


no  guide  to  the  actual  form  or  density  prevailing  within  the 
Galaxy.  Another  line  of  study  lies  in  deriving  the  distances 
from  the  known  mean  luminosity  of  stars  of  various  spectral 
types.  Then,  again,  the  stream  motions  found  to  prevail  in 
certain  directions  have  revealed  other  characteristic 
features  of  our  Universe.  Another  promising  method,  and 
that  considered  in  this  paper,  is  the  star  density,  or  num- 
bers of  stars  down  to  various  magnitudes  per  square 
degree,  in  different  parts  of  the  sky.  The  studies  made  at 
Mt.  Wilson  Observatory  have  (contribution  No.  301,  1925) 
been  incorporated  with  the  exhaustive  star  counts  by  Van 
Rhijn  and  published  in  1929  (Pub.  Kapt.  Ast.  Lab. 
Groningen,  No.  43,)  detailing  the  number  of  stars  per 
square  degree  according  to  galatitude  (the  galactic  latitude 
measured  from  the  galactic  equator)  towards  the  north  and 
south  galactic  poles,  and  for  galongitude  (galactic  longitude) 
reckoned  eastward  along  the  galactic  equator  from  its  inter- 
section with  the  celestial  equator  in  Aquila. 

The  abridged  Tables  la  —  e  give,  for  the  photographic 
magnitudes  6,  9,  12,  15  and  18,  the  star  density  in  numbers 
per  square  degree  at  each  30°  interval  of  galatitude  (P)  and 
at  every  30°  in  galongitude  (*),  the  latter  being  the  aver- 
age values  for  the  three  10°  intervals  of  galongitude  centred 
at  the  given  directions.  This  smooths  out  the  effect  of 
local  inequalities,  whether  of  condensations  (bright 
patches)  or  of  obscuring  clouds  (dark  patches).  The  aver- 
age for  each  whole  circle  of  galongitude  round  each  galati- 
tude parallel  is  given  in  the  final  column.  It  may  be 
remarked  that  galactic  latitude  —2°  is  actually  the  richest 
belt;  but,  as  this  is  the  evident  effect  of  the  actual  galactic 
clouds,  the  values  for  P^O0  should  give  the  truer  represen- 


In  order  to  derive  the  forms  of  these  stellar  spheroids, 
it  will  suffice  owing  to  the  uncertainties  in  our  premises  to 
assume  a  generally  uniform  distribution  of  the  stars,  and  we 
therefore  take  the  cube  roots  of  the  density  numbers  to  con- 
note the  relative  boundaries  of  the  respective  spheroids  in  the 
several  directions.  These  values  appear  in  Table  II  a~~e  for 
the  same  magnitudes  as  in  Tables  I  a~~e)  with  the  quantities 
for  the  whole  circles  in  the  final  column,  as  before;  the  inter- 
mediate directions,  however,  in  galongitude  are  confined  to 
the  significant  directions  M5Q°  —330°  and  AGO0  -240°,  viz., 
the  lines  approximately  towards  and  away  from  the  galactic 
centre,  and  those  at  right  angles  thereto.  On  the  assump- 
tion of  average  uniform  distribution  of  these  stars  in  space, 
the  numbers  in  Tables  II  a~e  represent  the  outlines  of  their 
containing  spheroids.  The  ratios  between  the  values  for 
the  corresponding  points  for  the  several  magnitudes  in 
such  case  define  the  relative  proportions  of  the  spheroids 
between  each  three — magnitude  stage. 

Combining  the  like  galatitudes  N.  and  S.  of  the 
galactic  equator,  we  derive  Table  Illy  giving  the  correspond- 
ing ratios  for  each  magnitude  considered.  The  last  two 
columns  give  the  overall  ratios  for  the  range  of  12  magnitudes 
— from  6th  to  18th  pmg — both  for  triple  and  for  single 
magnitude  ranges. 

The  Table  shows  that  the  distance  ratio  has  a  slight  but 
steady  increase  between  each  magnitude  as  the  galactic 
equator  is  approached;  while,  at  the  same  time,  there  is  a 
falling  off  in  this  ratio  with  increasing  distance  down  the 
magnitude  scale. 

The  planes  of  condensations  found  by  Van  Rhijn  from 
the  star  counts  vary  with  their  brightness,  and  hence  with 



their  numbers.  For  the  lucid  stars,  i.e.,  to  6th  (phot) 
magnitude,  the  north  pole  of  their  plane  lies  at  (1900) 
al88°'2(12h--33m),  H-26°'5.  This  difference  indicates  the 
trend  of  the  stars  from  the  local  Cluster  into  those  of  the 
main  galactic  stream,  as  their  distance  increases.  These 
spheroids  are  plotted  in  Figures  1  a—  b  and  2  a— b,  showing 
their  forms  respectively  on  the  galactic  plane  and  that 
vertical  to  it;  the  outlines  for  the  12th  ping  are  repeated  in 
the  "b"  diagrams,  these  latter  being  on  a  smaller  than  the 
"a"  scale,  in  order  to  embrace  the  much  greater  expanse 
in  the  15th  and  18th  pmg  In  both  sets  of  diagrams  the 
actual  X/N  values  have  been  plotted  for  each  10°  intervals 
of  galongitude  and  galatitude  (for  the  latter,  even  closer 
within  the  P±:20°  zone  and  derived  from  the  Van  Rhijn 
tables  for  these  closer  intervals)  rather  than  for  just  the  30° 
intervals  appearing  in  the  abridged  Tables  I  and  II.  The 
vertical  sections  in  Figs.  2  a— b  are  chosen  along  the  per- 
pendicular planes  U50°— 330°,  [approximately  towards  and 
away  from  the  galactic  centre  (A3260)]  and  60°— 240°, 
crosswise,  viz.,  along  the  path  of  galactic  rotation.  The 
noticeable  "dents"  here  and  there  in  the  vertical  sections 
are  evidently  due  to  the  presence  of  obscuring  clouds:  in  the 
12th  pmg  outline,  at  ^330°,  P±10°  (Ophiuchus)  and  ^150°, 
P— 15°  (Taurus);  in  the  18th  ping,  a  like  effect  appears  at 
A240°,  P+20°  (Antlia).  Conversely,  the  apparent  "bulges" 
predicate  bright  galactic  patches  as  that  at  A60°,  P~~10° 
(Lacerta)  for  the  18th  pmg,  and  that  extending  at  A330° 
southward  in  galatitude  from  P-10°  (Sagittarius  to  Grus) 
for  the  12th  pmg.  The  vertical  outlines  for  the  18th  magni- 
tude (Fig.  2  b)  at  X240°  and  330°  are  farther  out  than  their 
opposites  (compare  the  right  and  left  hand  sides  in  the 
figures).  This  shows  a  distinct  "trailing",  due,  may  be,  to 
galactic  rotation  and  also  the  presumed  arm  towards  the 


galactic  centre.    The  same  effect  appears  though  to  a  lesser 
extent,  in  the  15th  magnitude. 

Having  derived  the  comparative  forms,  the  next  step  is 
to  interpret  their  scale  in  distance  units.  In  this  connec- 
tion, we  may  adopt  the  results  obtained  at  Mt.  Wilson 
(Contr.  No.  281,  Seares,  1924)  deriving  Table  IV  (a)  and 
quoted  by  Russel  Dugan  and  Stewart,  "AsLronomy"  p.  665, 
where  the  distances  near  the  galactic  poles  are  stated  to  be 
about  tnree-quarters  of  those  tabulated,  and  at  the  galactic 
equator  an  eighth  greater  than  tabled.  This  table  may  be 
expressed  empirically  by  the  formula  R— 9  (l'46)m, 
where  ra  is  the  tabulated  (visual)  magnitude  and  R  the 
distance  in  radials  ;  a  radial  is  the  distance  represented 
by  a  parallax  of  1"  arc,  or  206,265  astronomical  units 
(19*lbX1012  miles),  and  commonly  known  under  the 
uneuphonious  and  somewhat  inaccurate  term  "parsec".  The 
mean  luminosities  follow  in  the  last  column  from  the 
consequent  relation  L=81/l'2m. 

The  galactic  planar  values  appear  in  Table  IV  b,  where 
the  formula  has  been  extrapolated  down  to  the  18th  (visual) 
magnitude,  while  the  intermediate  values  are  entered  for 
the  photographic  magnitudes  6,  9,  12,  15,  and  18,  for 
which  Tables  I  and  II  are  entered.  The  first  two 
columns  in  Table  IV  b  give  respectively  the  visual  and 
photographic  magnitudes  related  by  the  formula,  visual 
magn.— 0-3+0*9  (phot  magn.).  The  fourth  column  gives 
the  corresponding  parallaxes  (ft).  The  final  column  gives 
the  mean  luminosities  (L)  of  the  stars  of  each  magnitude 
following  from  the  consequent  empirical  rule  L—  100/r  2W  ; 
whence  it  appears  that  there  is  a  decline  of  2% -fold  or  I'D 
magnitude  in  real  brightness  with  every  5  magnitudes 
decline  in  apparent  brightness. 


Though  it  is  well  known  that  the  apparent  brightness 
(magnitude)  of  a  given  star  is  no  index  whatever  of  its 
distance,  yet,  taking  the  stars  in  their  thousands  down  their 
successive  magnitudes,  their  average  distances  may  be  accept- 
ed, as  tabled.  In  order  to  correlate  the  distances  in  Tables  IV 
with  those  implied  in  Table  II  a— e  and  illustrated  in  Figs.  1 
and  2,  we  may  compare  Ihe  star  density  prevailing  in  our 
part  of  the  Galaxy.  By  "star  density"  is  meant  the  number 
of  stars  in  a  given  volume  of  space,  as  distinct  from  "stellar 
density"  which  concerns  the  density  conditions  prevailing 
within  any  given  star  itself.  Recent  studies,  summarized  by 
Bok  (Ap.  Jiil.  Monograph,  "Distribution  of  the  Stars".  Univ. 
Chi.  Press,  1937)  indicate  an  overall  mean  density  from  0*05 
down  to  0'04  solar  mass  per  cubic  radial.  Within  our  Local 
Cluster  (see  later)  the  star  density  ranges  from  about  0*06 
solar  mass  per  cubic  radial  in  our  neighbourhood; 
i.e.,  17  cubic  radials  per  solar  mass  (cp.  "Concise 
General  Astronomy",  Walkey  and  Aiyar  1940,  p.  238) 
down  to  60%  of  this  in  its  outer  regions  (cp. 
Oort's  finding,  0*038  solar  mass  per  cubic  radial,  Bok, 
loc.  cit.).  Adopting  0*04  star  density,  or  25  cubic  radials 
per  star  as  an  overall  value,  we  have,  for  a  5:1  oblate 
spheroid,  the  simple  relation  between  its  volume 
and  its  apparent  superficial  area  as  seen  by  us  from 
within,  viz.,  between  4/i5^R3XO'04=:4^(57-3)2.  Where  R  is 
the  equatorial  radius  of  the  spheroid  (5  times  the  polar 
radius).  This  yields  a  round  value  of  110  radials  repre- 
sented by  a  star  density  of  one  star  per  sq.  deg.  The  conse- 
quent polar  scale  being  64  radials  for  the  same  star  density  in 

the  Tables  I  and  II, 

_  -"» 

The  outline  for  12th  magnitude  approaches  the  bound- 
ary of  our  Local  Cluster,  some  1500  radials  across,  and 
having  its  north  pole  at  (1900)^^178°  (llh-52m), 


S=+31°-2  (Scares,  Mt.  Wilson  Cont.  No.  347,  1927).  This 
assemblage  of  stars  evidently  embodies  an  inner  core 
represented  by  what  is  known  as  Gould's  Belt,  outlined 
mainly  by  the  two  great  helium  (B  type)  star  groups  of 
Orion  and  Centaurus-Scorpio,  and  which  seem  to  indicate 
a  circulation  icund  a  centre  over  200  radials  away  in 
Carina,  and  just  possibly  marked  by  the  supergiant  star 
Canopus  (see  "Concise  General  Astronomy",  as  above, 
pp.  269-272).  The  reality  of  the  group  motion  in  Cen- 
taurus-Seorpio  has  recently  been  questioned  (Smart,  M.N., 
R.A.S.,  Vol.  100  p.  60,  1939).  The  evident  existence,  how- 
ever, of  the  Local  Cluster  should  predicate  the  probability 
of  some  circulatory  motion  within  itself — the  B  type  stars 
in  particular  show  such  a  tendency  (cp.  G.  Stromberg, 
Mt.  Wilson  Cont.  No.  492, 1934) .  This  core,  tilted  some  18° 
with  the  main  galactic  plane,  flattens  this  slope  to  within  13° 
(C.  Me  Cuskey.  Ap.  Jnl.  Vol.  89  p.  575,  1939). 

Though  doubted  by  some,  the  existence  of  such  a  cluster 
is  evident,  a  general  galactic  rotation  has  been  established 
mainly  from  the  apparent  radial  velocities  of  the  globular 
clusters— at  a  speed  of  some  170  jniles  sec.  round  the  galactic 
centre,  10,000  radials  away  in  the  direction  (1900)al7'!-40m, 
S-30°  (^326°,  P0°),  so  Plaskett  and  Pearce  conclude  (M.N., 
R.A.S.,  Vol.  94,  p.  679,  1934).  More  recently,  the  gtobular 
clusters  are  themselves  found  (Camm,  Ap.  Jnl.  Vol.  89,  p.  45, 
1939)  to  rotate  round  this  centre;  allowing  for  this  rota- 
tion, that  of  the  Local  Cluster  is  accelerated  to  some  250 
miles  per  second.  The  shearing  effect  of  this  latter  rotation 
is  apparent  in  the  elongation  and  lopsidedness  in  the  length- 
wise and  crosswise  sections  in  Figs.  2  a-b.,  along  the  path  of 
rotation,  which  is  towards  Cygnus.  This  is  borne  out  by 
the  independent  studies  summarized  by  Bok  (Ap.  Jnl, 


Monograph,  as  above),  finding  our  cluster  to  be  elongated 
in  the  approximately  same  direction,  viz.,  the  line, 

These  studies  also  show  that  the  star  density,  which  is 
constant  up  to  about  600  radials  out  from  the  Sun  in  other 
directions,  drops  rather  suddenly  from  200  radials  until 
800  radials  in  the  perpendicular  direction  line,  i.e.,  towards 
and  away  from  the  galactic  centre.  The  resumption  in  this 
direction  of  the  normal  star  density  at  800  radials  out  marks 
the  main  galactic  densities  beyond  our  Local  Cluster. 

Table  IV(b)  however,  lakes  no  account  of  the  since  dis- 
covered absorption  of  light  within  our  gaiaxy;  tor  wnich  the 
most  acceptable  overall  value  may  be  taken  to  be  that  deriv- 
ed by  Stebbins  (Com.  Nat.  Acad.  Sc.  No.  Ill,  1933)  as 
Orl*o6  (^28%)  loss  for  every  "  Kiloparsec "  viz.,  1000 
radials,  traversed.  Incorporating  this  effect,  the  revised  rule 
for  distance  (in  the  galactic  plane)  becomes  R—10 
X(l-45)  m-°0036  This  relation  is  plotted  in  Fig.  3  to 
derive  the  revised  values  of  Table  V  in  place  of  those  in 
Table  IV  b,  The  luminosities  (Table  IV  a)  remain  unaffect- 
ed since  the  absorption  affects  the  apparent  brightness  only. 

Did  the  absorption  and  distribution  functions  hold  so 
far  the  stars  at  the  galactic  centre,  10,000  radials  away, 
would 'appear  of  22nd  (visual)  magnitude.  Such,  however, 
is  not  the  case.  The  polar  and  equatorial  distance  scales 
have  been  adjusted  in  the  diagrams  Figs.  I  a— b  and  2  a— b 
to  the  relation  pointed  out  under  Tables  IV  incorporat- 
ing the  absorption  distances  given  in  Table  V.  The  resulting 
trend  towards  a  1: 5  flattening  bears  out,  for  our  part  of  the 
Universe,  and  generally,  the  discoid  form  adumbrated  by 
Sir  William  Herschel  for  what  was  then  deemed  to  be  our 
whole  Universe. 


Again,  we  may  derive  from  Tables  II  a—  e  and  V,  the 
(direction  (k)  and  distance  (Re)  of  the  centroids  of  the  dis- 
tribution spheroids  on  the  galactic  plane,  in  Fig.  I  a—  b,  by 
simply  (within  present  limits  of  accuracy)  treating  each  10° 
galongitudinal  sector  as  a  triangle  of  area  N%  with  its  10° 
apex  at  the  Sun  and  its  centroid  f  (N1/3)  out,  whence,  sum- 
ming the  moments  N%XI  (N1/3)=ifN  round  the  circle,  we  get 
tan  AC  in  the  usual  way.  The  distance  Re  of  the  centroid 
follows  by  dividing  the  resultant  by  SN$  (viz.,  the  total  area)  . 
The  results  appear  in  Table  VI,  giving  both  the  direction  and 
distance  of  the  centroid  in  each  case,  together  with  the 
increase-ratio  for  the  last  three-magnitudes  intervals. 

With  the  exception  of  the  9th  phot.  mag.  (where  local 
effects  evidently  prevail  to  deflect  the  direction,),  there  is 
a  progressive  trend  eastward  in  the  galongitude  of  the 
centroid  with  increasing  distance.  This  is  doubtless  due  to 
the  increasing  effect  of  the  main  galactic  distribution  as  we 
leave  the  Local  Cluster.  To  this  is  evidently  due  the 
sudden  outward  shift  of  the  centroid  between  the  12th  and 
15th  magnitudes,  where  the  change  is  about  double  that 
between  the  other  intervals.  This  is  because  the  Local 
Cluster  seems  to  disappear  beyond  the  average  distances 
of  the  12th  magnitude  stars. 

Next,  we  compare  the  mean  "xXN  values  at  the 
galactic  equator  in  Tables  II  a—  e  for  the  five  pmg's  6,  9,  12, 
15  and  18,  the  increase-ratios  in  Table  III,  with  the  Table  V 
values  for  R  corresponding  to  the  equivalent  visual 
magnitudes,  read  from  the  curve  in  Fig.  3,  together  with  the 
increase-ratios  for  these  latter  over  the  same  3—  magn  inter- 
vals. The  comparison  appears  in  Table  VII. 

The  first  two  columns  in  the  Table  give  the  photogra- 
phic and  visual  magnitudes,  the  next  two  columns  give  the 


cube-rooted  densities  and  their  equivalent  distances 
by  the  equatorial  conversion  factor  110  (see  under 
Table  IV  b  value  of  110  for  star  density  of  one). 
The  fifth  column  gives  the  three — magn  increase-ratio 
(Table  III),  while  the  last  two  columns  are  read  from  Fig.  3, 
as  stated,  representing  Table  V.  The  agreement  between 
the  distance  (cols.  4  and  6)  for  these  independent  lines  of 
approach  is  a  measure  of  the  correctness  of  the  adopted  den- 
sity of  0'04  Solar  mass  per  cubic  radial,  and  the  absorption 
factor  ('00036  mag/1000  radials),  while  the  agreement 
between  the  ratios  (cols  5  and  7)  shows  how  far  correct  is 
the  assumption  of  approximately  even  star  density,  taking 
the  stars  on  the  whole  within  their  magnitude  spheroids. 

It  should  be  noted  that,  in  view  of  the  dispersion  in 
actual  parallaxes  about  their  mean  for  a  given  magnitude, 
the  mean  distance  in  radials  for  such  magnitude  is  actually 
greater  than  entered  (Tables  IV,  V)  as  correspondent  to  the 
mean  parallax.  To  give  a  simple  example;  the  mean  of  the 
five  parallaxes  0"' 08,  -09-10,  '11,  '12  (a  dispersion  20%  on 
either  side  of  their  means)  is  O'lO,  corresponding  to  10 
radials  distance;  whereas  the  mean  of  their  corresponding 
distances  12%,  11%,  10,  9Ki,  8%  radials  is  10*235  radials 
or  2*35%  more  than  would  appear  in  the  Tables.  This  dis- 
crepancy lessens  as  the  number  of  intermediate  measures 

In  conclusion,  it  should  be  remembered  that  the 
evident,  but  at  present  unknown,  inequalities  of  light- 
absorption  prevailing  along  the  galactic  belt,  necessarily 
vitiate  any  detailed  findings  which,  therefore,  must  not  be 
pressed  beyond  their  general  aspect. 






^      ^"^   t£*   CO           CO   CO   O5 
">.  O                            III 

•*  +          III 

r""~J    CO     ^*     *^     CO     CO     ^Jl     ^"Tl 



o_  G 










1—  1 














s<^  c 


^  o  o  o  o  o  o 

SI  !>•   GXl  iO   Oi  ^-<  CO 

"*•   OO    CO   ^^    ®^   ^^   OO 

^    ^^    t"H    CO    ^^    ^^    ^* 

00  00   ^f  CO  t^» 

oo  co  ^  *p  ca 

b    rH    CO    rH    b 

eo  t>  i>  oo  ^o 








































rH    ^H   CO    *O   CX| 
O  O  »-»  O  O 









i      1 


CD  CO  rH  Oi  Tfl 
"*f  00   C^l   iQ   Tfl 
O    0    rH    0    O 

O    rH    CM    rH    O 

O  CO   CO   O  O 
O    rH    CO    rH    rH 

Oi    CM    *O    O    O 

*<?  00   ^^   (M  00 
O    O    rH    O    O 

CO   CO  —  «   Oi   (M 
O  O  <N  O  O 

lO   CO   O   O  OO 
00   "^   00   <M   00 

IQ    »O    ^Jl    vH    OO 

O  O  CO  O  O 

O   rH    CO   ^    O 

00  *-O   ^?  1^  O 

t^    *^   00    '''f    Oi 

CD  00  CO   CO   ^ 
O  O   (M  O  O 

O    rH    CM    rH    O 

kO    *™^   00   Oi   *H 
!*•   CO   *O   ^cf   Oi 

0    rH    CO    rli    b 

rH   i/D   ID   CD  00 
00    rH    CO    CXJ    l> 

O    rH    CO   rH   O 

OO    OO    Ci    rH    Oi 
00    (M    CO   CO   l> 

CO    CO   C^3   Is*    ^Jl 
O    O    rH    O    O 

00   C5   O   Oi   CD 
CO    rf   (M  t>-   CO 
O  0   rn   O  0 

•^  Oi  CO  CD  Oi 

0    0    rH    O    0 

O    rH    (M    rH    O 
00    CO    rH    CO    CO 

Op   (M   rH    rp   00 
b   rH   CO   rH    b 

CD  00   «0  ^P   ^ 
00    C^    ^O    C^    00 

O  O  CD  O  »H 
iO    "3*   "^  !>•   CQ 
0   0   rH   0   O 

O  CO   CD  CXI   Oi 

O    0    rH    0    0 

00   CO  (M   CXJ  O5 

2  o  o  o  o  o  o 
«co       «<|    ! 

00   CO  O  *O  Oi 

O    0    rH    O    O 

o      O  O  O  0  0  C 

g  CO  CO          CO   CO   C 

-4-                  1     1 






e    o 

Xs"      & 






o    o 

CO       O5 


%,    o 

s  ° 




o    < 

CO       Ci 

5      G 
5       0 

r-l          « 





10     cq 


10      O 



cq     u 

0    1C 

5    o 

^<       rH 





rP      CO 

rH        rH 

r—  •  ( 

O5       O3 




CO      r 

0       G 

H          r- 




















O5      00 
CO       ^ 
CO         rH 











^     cq 








C5       CO 













•^       r 

























^J*       CJ 

O       C( 

^P          T* 















CO        r 
rH        i/ 










CO       r 





















cq     10 



































r^         C 
















CO          r- 
















rH         T? 

co     cq 



















CO       CO 

tlJD   )uQ 






CJ     ^ 


r—  1 

TH         T1         (73         CM 

(^|                '"H                T—  <                vorf 















C/3    o 

>.rH       ^ 
_.-  ^™' 



i>»         "<fl          GS| 










i  o 






rH     O 




i>»     ^p 

»~H     '«*' 
















o     »- 

CO       f 


c  co 












CO      00 

(M        rH 

CO       rH 


















r^    <O 






rH        Tjl 

CO       CO 

Cq         rH 



s    *<=> 

^    <<         05 







0      0 
CO       O5 


?-s       O 

o     $0 




O        C 
CO       CC 

>      O 
^       O5 


O    QQ.      + 








?s-  °nt 

o  ca 

CO.     O 

o    o    o 

CO      CO 

o    o    o 

CO     co     ca 

I  I  I 










1—  1 









e          O       CO 

rzj    «*    *o 

^     CO      CO 

0       O       CD       CD 
O5       IO       O>       iO 

CO      iO      CO      CO 

















































T—  « 











,—  t 







s      s 
g      » 




J            0                ° 

1  »  f 

CD       kO       O5       CO 
CO       O5       00       *O 
^f      ^      CO      CO 

CD       CO       ^       ^ 
iO       t*»      l>»       CD 
CO      &       CO      CO 















o                    tD 

O                        CQ 

CD      CO      01      O 
CO      05       <M      CO 


bjb  ^2          ^ 

+4*             «M                 •».            _T 

CO      ^r      ^9»      CO 







S                o 










































^      0                 g 

II     ° 

00       rH      CO       CD 
O*      00      l>      CD 

CO      10      CO      CO 

























r—  1 








?—  i 









0  0 

CO  O5 


XJ                        o              <-s 

cx  ^     o    g 

_r«      ^T      ^ 

•S   ^  + 


CO                CO      CD 





CO.     O 

o    o 

T  i 



«      o    o 

o    co    co 

o    o    o    o 

CO      CO      OJ 

I   I  I 

S=3     o 

<3    op 



O  00 

<M  OO 

*p  O      O> 

1-1  ^*      O 

^•^  ?  ^** 











co     ^*     oo 















CO       **• 

op     -f 
C3     esi 


O        ^H 

oo     cq 

O       Oi 


S      -H 








Oi      T-I      cp      O 
O       »^       rH       Al 






O      O      O 





•^    O^       JL 

Ai        + 

CO      CO      O5 

I   I   I 







o    o 

CD      CO 



o    o 

1 1 

o    o 

CD      O 



oooooo  J^oooooo 

<0   CO       CO   <0   O      QCL  S   ^   CO       CO   C0   O 

CO   iO   CQ   CO   CQ  ?-H   CQ   CO   CO   lO   O}   00 

CO   00   1^   *™^   £*  *"!H   *^   ®^   ^^   *^   ®^   ^"* 

cbvHcbio^1  ooocoi^cooi 

1-4  FH        CQ        ^ 

«                    COOOOiO  X  kOOJOO^H 

S                 O*^O5Ci^i  Jj  Cpy'^'OOOp 

CO       lO   CO   rH   t*   lO  CO  O   *^   00   ^f   O> 

TH  rH   <M   i-l 

e                   t^iO^CQCO  %-  tOOOOCO 

O                  OiOCOI>i^  ^  CNICtI>^ 

CQ                 lO      CO       Tfl       CO      lO  CQ  OCOCO*^ 

FH  rH       CO       r* 

bJO%,  ^PiOCOOOO  w-n%.  CfcCOCQiOO 

rrt    ^"^  Jt^       CQ       ^^       ^H       Od  Zj    ^"^  ^^       f^       j^t^       ^^       f{^ 

SrH  ^COOlO^  P^  ob^vHOOO 

i-l  *"•  iH       Csl       rH 

.2  W 

>  > 

00  ir^ 



%.  OiOiOOOO  ?-,                 COCQCOiO^ 

II    CO  ?C??°P?  II     §                 ipt>-C<IOiC« 

.  '^'COrHCO'^'  OCQlOCXIob 

OJO                                   **  h*n  ,-1     <M     fH 

o    o    o    o    o 

<0      CO  -       - 







in  en. 






O      0 







T  11 




^^          CM  ^^          Oi 

CO         CO          CO         CO 







<u                                                                      <o 

CO          CO          ^O 

^P          O          CO 

0     ^                                                  *      « 

r—  1 

g       rH          00           CM          CD 

7^      •            •            •           • 


OO                                                                                        CD 

^?          CD          00 

i—  *                                                                                                  £D 

00          CM          00 


rH          ^4          O 

M         o 




f*          Oi          CM           CO                                              * 

i>       op       o       co                            ° 

^-1           A           CM           CM 




"*                                                                    ^           d 

A       tuo     o 

-H          CM          CO      g 

03           rH 

rH            rH            ^^       r^ 

>             S 


h—  ^ 
*O             rH            CO             *« 

0          rH          CM          CD               rT<, 

_g       (N          «          <N          <M              j 

H       S     ««• 

^            3         (M 

CO          Ok          CD 
CM         i-l          TH 


|S»             QQ             ^3^             Qf£ 

CM          CM          CM          CM 

**""*                                                                                                   fV*            ^ 

CM          00          Ci 

CM          l>          iO 

*H          rH          CM 

t~          j-4          00          00 


CD          t1*          !>•          JC^» 


CM          CM          CM           CM 

O          CM          l>    '^t- 


CM          CD          00    ^, 

*&                                                                        ,            <^ 

00          ^5          CO    v^-. 

•4-»                                                                                                        F  —            »M 

O          O          O 

o                                                                 o 

9      ?      ?  ^ 



•        o 

fl       O         O         O         O 


t)JO       O)          CD          CO 


CO                                                                                                                                         £3 


a  -H   -H   +i               ^  « 

l>              00               Oi        g 




O     O     O     O     O     O 

Ufa   o  iO  O  O  O 

caoooGQi>ioio<<*^  PH    ^  o  co  o  10  10 

i-l  i-l  rH  CM  CM  CO  CO  "<* 

C*  O  00  CO  O  CM 

CO  iiT)  CO  CO  CM  CM 

ooooooooo  oooooo 




i-<l>-iOlOCOCMCMrHrH                                   ^ 


O      CM  CO  "^  O  CO  1> 

^"JOOOOOOOO                                 ">$ 
F-      OoOOOOOOO                              *5 

^    10  co  i>  co  ob  o 

ooooooooo                    -5 


*o  «            '1 

co      o  ^^  O>  *O  O  O 

>-     ^  ib  cb  cb  i>  cb 


"O      O^HOCMCO"tfOCOj>.      || 


£*    cb^ibiocoi>oocbci 


to   § 

.co     OOOOOOOiOOO     § 


MH      ^  iiO  *O  !>•  O  CO 
rH    I-H 

H—  1 

^      (M  CO  CO   "^  iO   CO  CO  I**  00    *r* 

^         rHrHrH~.rH,HrHrHrH       B 

J       > 

iO  00  CO  CO  OS  l> 

<M     ^H    rH    ^H    O    O 

^-      OOOOOO 





••      !>•    ^fl   Oi    ^rfl    <?C|    <^>  |>»    -*ji    ^                -j    PQ      p. 


i_l         -^     _.       _.      ^_                ^_       K 

Q      OOCiOOr^OQ 

r—  1       COCOCMCMcMCNrHrHrH              r^    <^    "^ 

^d       OrHCMCO^lO0 


•  rH                   «^ 


CO        OOrHOOCO£^ 

f^t      CO  CO  I>  OOiOOiOiO              G             3 
rH      00   Oi   CO   O   Cvl  00   CM    CM   CM               *~<              ^* 

j>       OrHrHCMcbcOT1" 

rHcMCMcMTflCOCO                 .              ^ 

O            ""  "—  " 


CO  !>•   CO   O  iO   lO   ^   CO  CO             C]  . 

rHOt^iO^COCMrHrH                (^, 
^=       rHrHOOOOOOO      c       ^ 

ooooooooo  ^^ 



_^      CM  iO  iO   i*O  iO  O 
PH     COOCMCO^t>-      II 

rH    rH    CM    CS1       " 

b  •    •    •     •    m  o 

O                                                                                              Tt" 

O  iO  O  ^?  CO  CO     ^ 
CvJ    O  CO   *O   ^   CO    ^ 
|=      -<-HOOOO     c 

oooooo    c 

o    oco^cooi>oooio2o 

0                                   r° 


~     cocbi>i>.a>di6rHCM    M 

^                                                      rH    rH    rH       ||       fl 
PH     ^      *    ^ 

^  s     ^ 

CO      l>OOO^OOOrH       Gr—  i              -*S 


2    o  oo  ^  co  o  I*- 
(IL,     co  co  i>  i>  o  oa 

^    iocbi>cbcboo^HrH    G    p         ^ 

CO                         ._     ...       -    ^^ 

•^H      f»  O  O  O  TP  O 

^     iO  CO  I>  CO  00  C> 

fe  > 




•  rH 




CO       lO 


•  i--4 











CM       10 

o  o 

10  O 

CO  O 

rH  CO 








O       O  O 

*G       00  ^O 

IQ        O  *O 

CO  00 






o     o     10 

lO       00       00 
O       CM       l> 

00        CO 














10       CO 

10     10 

^        O         rH 


2    ^  o 

^?  lO 

cq  co 






1O       iO 

o       10 




rH       00       IO 

10       00       iH       CO 






co      o 


o     o 

5O       C> 




Fig.  1-a 





Fig.  2-a 

\60o    goo     400   _  »xx     aoo,   too   iufai.    100     200      300      400     500 

100  iOO  JUO  4OO  WO       OOU\ 

athwart         ^  galactic 
away  from   >  centre 


athwart  )  galactic 

330°  towards  )  centre 

Fig.  2-b 

60°  — 

150°  ... 

athwart       I   galactic 
away  from  )   centre 



athwart  I  galactic 
towards  C  centre 


Fig.  3 
(Magnitude — Distance) 

m— 0-00036 

R~10  (1-45)  ;  m= Visual  Mag. 
Photographic  mag.~10/9   (Vis.  Mag.)~y3 
Visual  Mag.=:0-3  +  0-9  (Photo.  Mag.) 



The  left  hand  curve  and  margin 
show  tenfold  enlargement 




Professor  of  Science,  Maharaja's  College,  Trivandrum 

Government  Astronomer 

REV.    O.  R.  WALKEY. 


From  the  first  appearance  of  accurate  star  catalogues, 
star  positions  have  been  recorded  in  the  order  of  their  passage 
across  the  meridian  or  successive  culmination  at  the  highest 
points  of  their  celestial  path — once  every  23  hours  56  minutes 
nearly.  This  so  called  "right  ascension"  is  measured  as 
time  eastward  from  the  point  where  the  Sun's  ecliptic  path 
ascends  across  the  celestial  (i.e.  sky  trace  of  the  terrestrial) 
equator.  The  height  of  each  star's  culmination  marks  its 
declination,  measured  in  degrees  etc.,  north  or  south  of  the 

equatorial  line. 

What  spoils  this  useful  method,  however,  are  the  move- 
ments of  this  equatorial  reference  and  the  secular  drift  of  the 
ecliptic  (terrestrial  orbital)  plane's  intersection  with  the 
celestial  equator,  due  to  the  various  motions  of  our  Earth  and 
their  perturbations.  The?e  entail  some  300  terms  in  com- 
puting the  "ephemerides"  or  reduction  of  a  star's  actual 
position  at  a  given  date.  This  is  the  case  even  after  the 


simplification  by  Bessel's  Tables,  published  early  in  the  19th 
century,  wherein  the  reduction  numbers  provide  for  the 
aberration  of  light,  nutation  in  latitude  and  longitude  along 
the  ecliptic,  and  the  precession  of  the  equinoxes.  These 
tables  welded  the  shackles  of  this  recurrent  toil  of  Sissyphus, 
whereof  the  hill  gets  a  little  steeper  at  every  epoch.  So,  the 
observations  of  Lacaille,  Bradley,  Mayer  and  Lalande 
(1750-1800)  were  imprisoned  within  the  wabbling  cage  of 
terrestrial  co-ordinates  at  mean  epochs. 

In  seeking  an  alternative,  one  might  imagine  a  confer- 
ence of  deputies  from  the  members  of  the  Solar  System, 
presided  over  by  those  from  the  Sun,  to  decide  the  question  of 
star  positions.  In  such  a  conference,  the  claims  for  our 
terrestrial  coordinates  would  soon  be  outvoted  by  the  greater 
claim  submitted  for  the  orbital  plane  of  either  Jupiter  or 
Saturn,  or,  better  still,  the  invariable  plane  of  the  Solar 
System  (lying  in  between  these  two) :  or  again,  the  equato- 
rial plane  of  the  Sun  as  the  ruler  of  our  Solar  system  and 
reckoning  along  from  its  intersection  with  the  invariable 


We  have,  however,  in  common  with  the  other  worlds, 
an  even  more  fundamental  plane  of  reference,  namely  the 
fundamental  plane  for  all  the  solar  systems  in  our  Universe, 
and  marked  out  by  the  Milky  Way  or  Galaxy. 

Reference  to  such  a  plane  would  fix  the  star  positions 
once  for  all,  with  only  their  annual  variations  to  be  worked 
out,  namely,  aberration,  parallax  and  proper  motion;  the 
first  two,  in  virtue  of  our  orbital  revolution,  and  the  third 
due  to  the  stars'  own  motion.  The  Sun's  motion  in  space 
would  set  up  a  cumulative  change,  easily  allowed  for.  As 
things  are  now,  hours,  if  not  days,  of  work  are  needed  to 


disentangle  the  motion  of  a  star,  against  the  work  of  minutes, 
when  referred  to  the  galactic  plane  which  is  the  more 
natural  reference  for  stellar  motions.  To  take  an  example, 
the  laborious  calculations  for  the  century  and  a  half  from 
1800-1950  have  impressed  on  the  star  £  Orionis  a  total  motion 
of  7  minutes  36*85  seconds  in  R.A.  and  &  31  •()"  in  declina- 
tion— a  total  motion  of  114'*  4  or  6864",  whereas  the  actual 
annual  proper  motion  of  this  star  (according  to  the  General 
catalogue  1936)  is  0"' 000— exactly  zero— Whence  the 
labours  of  reduction  through  the  150  years  are  spent  to 
produce  an  entirely  fictitious  result. 

Right  ascension  and  declination  coordinates  are 
unavoidable  for  determining  the  position  of  the  Sun,  the 
Moon  and  the  planets  and  the  "clock"  stars.  A  good  star 
map  suffices  for  the  coordinates  needed  to  find  stars  in  an 
equatorial  telescope.  Though  precise  galactic  positions  are 
needed  for  any  such  star  catalogue  when  replacing  the 
shifting  equatorial  coordinates,  approximate  star  positions 
can  be  derived  from  an  accurate  network  of  galactic 
coordinates  at  conveniently  close  intervals.  We  here  adopt 
the  contractions  "galatitude"  and  "galongitude"  for  the 
galactic  latitude  and  longitude  respectively. 

Sir  John  Herchel  (Outlines  of  Astronomy,  1849)  writes 
thus  of  the  galactic  circle:  "The  circle  is  to  sidereal 
astronomy  what  the  invariable  ecliptic  plane  is  to  planetary 
astronomy".  Unfortunately  this  circle  is  not  precisely 
defined  in  the  sky,  and  various  poles  have  been  found  for  it, 
according  to  the  particular  object  referred  to,  though  these 
are  in  close  agreement. 


The  first  reference  to  the  galactic  plane  was  by 
Sir  William  Hershel  (Phil.  Trans.,  collected  Science  Papers, 


Vol.  1, 1875)  in  his  well-known  section  of  the  sidereal  system 
in  a  plane  at  right  angles  to  the  galactic  circle  having  its 
north  pole  at  the  then  R.A.,  (a)  186°  (12h— 24m),  declina- 
tion (8)  +32°. 

Later  on,  F.  G.  W.  Struve  (Etudes  d'  Astronomic 
Stellaire,  1847),  mainly  using  Bessel's  catalogue  within  the 
zone±15°  decimation  adopted  the  G.N.P.  (1875)  at  R.A. 
12*1— 38m  declination+Sr-S.  Sturve,  as  well  as  Sir  John 
Hershel  (outlines  of  astronomy,  1867),  analysing  the  star 
counts  of  Sir  William  arranged  the  star  gauges  according  to 
the  distance  from  the  north  galactic  pole,  then  taken  to  lie 
at  R.A.  12*-47m  (191%°),  declination+270  (Outlines  of 
Astronomy  1851). 

In  1862,  Argelander  (Bonn  Durchm.  Ill)  adopted  a 
galactic  pole  at  (1800)  R.A.  12h-36m  declination +28° -5 
based  on  the  counts  of  that  notable  catalogue  of  324,000 
stars.  This  however,  limited  to  stars  north  of  declina- 
tion—2°,  covered  only  just  over  half  the  galactic  circle,  omit- 
ting the  southern  and  most  relevant  part  of  the  galaxy. 
Heis,  using  the  Bonn  Durchm,  adopted  (1855)  «12?l-40m 
5+27°  for  his  Atlas  celestis,  and  catalogue  (1872) . 

The  first  extensive  use  of  galactic  coordinates  was  that 
by  A.  Marth  (Mon.  Not.  R.A.S.  33,  1872-73)  who,  setting  the 
G.N.P.  at  (1880)  a!2^40m,  8+30°,  reduced  the  galactic 
coordinates  for  the  leading  stars  in  or  near  the  Milky  Way. 
Twenty  years  later  (Mon.  Not.  R.A.S.  53,  1892-3),  he 
applied  these  same  coordinates  to  all  stars  down  to  6*0 
magnitude  on  the  Harvard  Photometry  and  6 '2  magnitude 
in  the  Uranometria  Argentina,  within  20  degrees  of  the 
Galactic  equator;  Among  others,  K.  Lundmark  and  0.  Jaske 
adopted  Marth's  data  for  their  drawings  of  the  Milky  Way. 


Houzeau  (Uranometria-Generale,  1878)  placed  the 
pole  at  (1880)  ai2h-49m,  8+27° -5;  This  pole  was  adapted 
by  Seeliger  (Sitz.  d.  Math.  Phys  Akad.  Wissen,  14,  1884). 

Next  year,  Gould  (Uranometria  argentina  1879)  made 
his  classic  study,  based  on  the  galactic  clouds,  placing  the 
pole  at  (1875)  al2h-41m,  8+27° -3. 

Two  years  later  Schoenfeld  (Viert.  d.  Ast.  Gesell,  16, 
1881),  revising  Houzeau's  data  placed  the  pole  at  (1880) 
al2h-41m,  8+28° -7. 

Wolf  (Pub.  Ast.  Obs.  Konigstuhl.  Heidelberg  I  1902) 
used  the  galactic  nebulae  to  place  the  pole  at  (1875) 
<xl2h-53m,  8+28° -7. 

Next  in  order,  we  have  Newcomb's  exhaustive  study 
(Carnegie  Inst.  Pub.  No.  10,  1904),  based  on  47  Galactic 
clouds,  together  with  Heis'  star  Atlas  (1872)  and  Gould's 
Uranometria,  whence  he  placed  the  pole  at  (evidently 
1875),  a!91°-l,  8+26° -8  including  the  well-known  Cygnus- 
Aquilae  Branch,  excluding  which  the  42  remaining  galactic 
clouds  gave  al920'8, 8+27°  "2  as  the  pole. 

Two  years  later,  Kobold  (Der  Baudes  Fixsterne — 
systems,  1906)  derived  the  pole  at  (1880)  al910'2,  8+28°  "0 
for  33  bright  galactic  patches,  based  on  Houzeau's  work, 
already  mentioned.  Stroobant  (Annales  del'  Obs.  R.De. 
Belgigue,  11,  1908)  placed  the  pole  at  (1900)  a!2h-46m, 

Professor  J.  C.  Kapteyn  published  (Gron.  Pub.  18, 
1908)  an  extensive  table  of  galactic  coordinates,  using 
Gould's  pole,  above  stated,  reduced  to  epoch  1900,  and  read- 
ing to  the  nearest  whole  degree  at  10W  interval  in  R.A.,  and 
1°  in  declination. 


Prof.  E.  C.  Pickering  (Harvard  Annals  56,  1912)  pub- 
lished galactic  tables  for  each  40m(10°)  in  R.A.  and  10°  in 
declination,  the  coordinates  reading  in  degrees  and  minutes 
of  arc.  A  converse  table  reading  equatorial  coordinates 
from  the  galactic  was  also  giveft  for  the  like  10  square 
degrees  network.  The  pole  adopted  was  at  (1900)  R.A. 
12^-40m(190°),  3+28°;  which  apparently  is  the  adoption  of 
Argelander's  pole  reduced  to  epoch  1900. 

In  the  same  year  E.  Hertzsprung  (Ast.  Nach  4600, 
1912)  published  findings  of  the  galactic  pole  for  various 
celestial  objects  segregating  towards  the  galactic  plane,  such 
as  eclipsing  binaries  types  O  and  N  stars,  giant  (c,  ac  type) 
stars,  cephied  variables  and  the  Gaseous  nebulae.  The 
various  poles  appear  in  Table  I. 

Herschel's  pole  («12/l-47m,  S+27°)  was  adopted  in  a 
compact  galactic  table  by  Walkey  (Mon.  Not.  R.A.S.  74, 
1914)  giving  the  coordinates  to  the  nearest  0°*1  at  intervals 
of  1  hour  around  the  24  hours  in  R.A.  and  at  each  10° 
from+90 °  down  to— 90°  in  declination. 

Un         . 

In  the  following  year,  R.  T.  Innes,  a  consistent  advocate 
of  galactic  coordinates,  and  one  who  published  numerous 
examples  in  their  application,  published  (Union  Obs* 
Johannesberg,  Circular  29,  1915)  a  table  of  galactic  coordi- 
nates in  degrees  and  minutes  at  20  minutes  (5°)  intervals 
in  R.A.  and  5°  in  declination.  Innes  adopted  Newcomb's 
branch-included  pole  viz.,  a!91°*l,  S+26°*8,  assuming  this 
for  the  1900  epoch.  He  gave  also  the  parallactic  angle-viz., 
the  angle  of  intersection  between  the  parallels  of  galatitude 
and  declination  at  each  interval,  or  between  the  vertical  of 
galongitude  and  the  R.A.  meridian  (measured  anticlockwise 
from  the  galactic  to  the  terrestrial  circle) .  While  giving  the 
declination  from+900  down  to— 90°,  the  right  ascensions 



were  condensed  into  the  first  12  hours,  the  coordinates 
for  the  remaining  R.A.  hours  being  derived  by  reversal. 

C.  V.  L.  Charlier  of  Lund  Observatory  (1916)  derived 
the  pole  of  the  B  (helium)  type  stars  at  (1900)  al84°'3, 
8+28° '7;  but  these  stars  belong  rather  to  our  Local 
Cluster  inclined  at  some  13°  from  the  galactic  plane.  Then- 
pole  does  not  enter  into  our  present  consideration. 

W.  Gyllenberg.  (Medd.  Lund,  Ser  I,  IV,  1916)  found 
the  pole  of  the  0  type  stars  at  (1900)  "12"  45™,  8+27°  "1. 

A  Pannekock  published  (Annals  Leiden,  XI,  3,  1920)  a 
table  set  to  Marth's  (1880)  pole  at  «12'1  40m,  8+30°  giving 
the  galactic  coordinates  for  each  20m  (5°)  in  R.A.  and  5°  in 

Graff  (Ast.  Nach  5090,  1921),  basing  his  studies  on 
photometric  measures  of  the  galaxy,  placed  its  north  pole  at 
(1925)  <*12h50TO,  8+26° -7. 

In  a  study  of  star  counts,  F.  H.  Scares  (Mt.  Wilson 
Contr.  347,  1927)  found  the  pole  from  counts  of  stars  (indi- 
cating 143  million  stars)  down  to  the  18th  magnitude,  to  lie 
at  (1900)  «193-6,  s+26°'7. 

These  star  counts  were  reviewed  by  P.  J.  Van  Rhijn 
(Gron.  Pub.  43,  1929)  in  the  light  of  fuller  data  (estimating 
216  million  stars  to  18th  phot,  magn.),  and  he  set  their  pole 
at  (1900)  al2"  55-4'",  S+25°'29'.  Accompanying  tables 
give  separately  the  galatitude  and  galongitude  to  the  nearest 
whole  degree  for  each  hour  from  Qh  to  24h  R.A.  and  every 
degree  in  declination  from  pole  to  pole.  Van  Rhijn's  pole  for 
stars  (say  6000)  down  to  the  6th  phot.  magn.  was  placed  at 
(1900)  al2h33m,  S-H26°-5,  these  bright  stars  are  however 
too  local  to  carry  galactic  significance. 


In  the  same  year,  P.  Emanualli  (Publ  Specola 
Vaticana,  14,  App.  I,  1929)  published  extensive  tables  set 
(as  Inne's  above-mentioned)  to  Newcomb's  branch-included 
pole  al91°'l,  S+26°-8,  taken  to  be  for  epoch  1900,  and  giving 
to  the  nearest  0°'l  the  coordinates  for  each  10m  (2V20)  in 
R.A.,  (together  with  a  subscribed  table  of  interpolation  for 
each  minute)  from  Oh  to  24*1  and  for  each  degree  in  declina- 
tion from  0°  to  +90°  and  then  from  0°  to  -90°.  A  supple- 
mentary table  gives  the  co-ordinates  (to  nearest  degree)  at 
1  minute  R.A.  and  1  degree  declination  intervals  round  the 
N  and  S  galactic  poles  viz.,  R.A.  12  to  13 %  hours,  declina- 
tion+20°  to  +34°,  and  R.A.  Qh  to  1%*,  declination 
-20°  to  -34°. 

A  research  by  R.  Trumpler  (Lick.  Obs.  Bulletin  420, 
1930)  on  334  open  star-clusters,  which  objects  segregate 
towards  the  Milky  Way,  found  their  pole  to  lie  at  (1900) 
a!92°-6,  8+27° -7. 

The  most  extensive  table  published  of  galactic  coordi- 
nates is  one  by  J.  Ohlsson  (Lund  Annals  33,  1932)  giving, 
as  closely  as  0°*01,  the  coordinates  at  each  4m(l°)  of  R.A. 
from  Oh  to  24h  and  for  each  1°  in  declination  from  the  equator 
to  the  pole,  southern  declinations  to  be  obtained  by  reversal 
of  the  tabular  entries.  The  parallactic  angle  also  appears, 
together  with  a  subsidiary  table  for  conversion  to  another 
galactic  pole.  At  the  back  of  the  work  is  reproduced  a 
chart  by  W.  Gyllenberg  showing  stars  down  to  the  4th 
magnitude,  set  to  galactic  coordinates,  the  equatorial  reticule 
being  superposed  for  conversion.  The  mention  of  such 
chart  leads  us,  in  concluding  the  historical  aspect,  to  the  note 
on  other  graphs  or  charts  for  deriving  galactic  coordinates. 

A  graph  published  by  Nort  (Recherches  Utecht,  VII, 
1917)  was  based  on  the  pole  at  (1900)  R.A.  12M3m,  decli- 





+  5* 


gs.q   7.j|.  876        7.f 

85-0  4*5  *7-0  +  I* 

gL-O-V*  W-5--A-8  810-3-0  <?<*  -*« 

oj|    -f*  860      78  M     «•<>  «/•?  ** 

81-1   Si  ***    /**  «*?     '*»  "*  '3'* 

s*i  n  sv*  77.7  **  a*  w  i£ 

rO-l     l-H  »VA      117  «*      ^jrO  «4  AA-f 

•^).0  .^J.O  8^-6  -  37-7  8n  -2^-0  41<  -W 




16- b 

7-2  V** 

+  K  19* 

-2-8  96-5- 

7-7  47-5 

yJL-7  ^^-5 

/7-6  <?•?-«• 

AX- 6  10*7 

-a.7-r  /;v-^ 



-i-3     4f4~/>8  W/.a-l-*  /d3'6^^  /C5?t/.<  ttf-1  +  Xti  H9  +  +  V9     I JC1  v-5T  «»•>  -v  7-2 

7-1    /0fl*     6-fc  /OK?     5-7  /df'7     4-4  /6f«..3-2  //«-7  -  A*  //J-O-a/      /^*.l.f.i;v     ':r/(       ^ 

/!•/    /«/-7    //-3  /ft^-8    '<?-3  /*7-!F    ^7  //^7     74  //»•*     r-f  //*•/      ^' 

/7-0    /03-a   /*-!  /Ofc-6    /^  //^>-0   /*•  6  -'.'3'Al   /A-0  </6  A     /^-/  //?•/       8* 

*,/•?  /Cs'7  S-H  its*  i<w  //A-A  /fr/"  /^-a  /6-a  //^./    /v«a  /«-3  /A-O 

-X4-1?   ^6-3-^7  //0-fr-AAft  //^6-AA-6  I!S>$ ^3.06  Attf  -  /f-1  ISS:S-*i1 

J/i-6-20     ju.iv^F  404 

IIW        S*-ff       |3.'..-f;    ~  S-*. 

/&5^    «?$•   j^-{>     6-a 



//?  3  (5:fl 
y«7  ^-l«- 
/a^J  -0-7 
/S^^6  ^0 


//7.0  4-lAtf 

WT.;    IT./ 

1I7'0  -li 

^*^-   J$7 


a?    /fluf-e 

1/-3    -7(? 

77      718-7 


Another  graph  is  that  published  by  J.  A.  Pearce  and 
S.  N.  Hill  (PubL  Domin.  Astro-Ph.  obsey,  Victoria  B.C., 
Vol.  IV,  No.  4)  based  on  the  Harvard  pole  at  (1900)  <490°, 

Maps  of  the  constellation  boundaries  in  galactic  coordi- 
nates were  published  by  O.  Seydl  (Publ.  Obs.  Prague,  5, 
1928)  using  the  Harvard  pole,  «190°,  H-280. 

An  interesting  set  of  graphs  were  published  by 
Dr.  J.  M.  Baldin  of  Melbourne  (Mon.  Not.  R.A.S.  89,  1929), 
enabling  one  to  read  off  galactic  coordinates,  or  equatorial, 
the  one  from  the  other,  also  the  distance  and  position  angle 
of  the  Solar  apex  (<xl71°,  8+28°).  The  galactic  pole  adopt- 
ed is  again  the  Harvard  one  at  «190°,  8+28°. 


A  table  of  galactic  coordinates  entails  the  choice  of  a 
departure  or  zero  point  for  galongitude.  Various  fixed  points 
have  been  adopted  or  proposed.  Marth,  Kapteyn,  Pickering 
Walkey  and  Van  Rhijn  adopted  the  ascending  node  of  the 
galactic  circle  on  the  celestial  equator  in  Aquila  with  the 
galongitudes  measured  eastward  thence  towards  Cygnus 
Cassiopeia  etc.  along  the  galactic  equator.  This  departure 
point  is  chosen  for  a  fixed  epoch  (1900)  so  as  to  avoid  pre- 
cessional  changes.  Innes  and  Emanuelli,  overlooking  this 
epochal  fixture,  criticised  this  choice  needlessly  on  the  false 
charge  of  precessional  change.  They  chose  their  zero  from  the 
galongitude  of  Prof.  W.  W.  Campbells'  solar  apex  at  (1900) 
<*270°,  s+30°,  as  symmetrically  dividing  as  much  of  the 
stellar  motions  as  reflect  our  Sun's  motion  in  space.  This 
point  lies  some  23  degrees  farther,  along  the  galactic  equator 
from  the  other  zero  point. 

S.  Wicksell,  investigating  proper  motions  (Medd.  Lund 
Ser  II  12,  1915)  and  W.  Gyllenberg,  on  the  distribution  of 


O  type  stars  (Mell.  Lund.  Ser.  II  13,  1915  and  I,  75,  1917), 
measured  their  galongitudes  from  a  point  on  the  Milky  Way 
approximating  to  the  principal  vertex  of  peculiar  motion 
-(1900)al8/l,  8+18°  (so  Charlier,  Cal.  Lect.  1926)— which 
choice  has  the  advantage  of  symmetrical  division  of  the  stars' 
peculiar  motions. 

The  International  Astronomical  Union,  which  in  1922 
(Trans  I  A.U.  Vol.  I,  1922)  adopted  the  ascending  node  of 
the  galactic  on  the  celestial  equator,  changed  their  zero 
galongitude  to  the  star  a  Cygni  (1900),  «20>l  38m,  S+44°'9, 
lying  just  north  of  the  galactic  circle. 

C.  V.  L,  Charlier  (Medd  Lund  II,  14, 1916  and  19,  1918) 
on  the  other  hand  directed  his  zero  galongitude  approxi- 
mately towards  the  anticentre  of  the  Local  Cluster  represent- 
ed by  the  brighter  B  type  stars,  at  (1900)  <*245°  33' 
H-550  37'. 

Lastly  P.  Collinder  (Lund  Annals,  2,  1931)  measured 
the  galongitude  of  the  open  star-clusters  from  Shapley's 
centre  of  the  globular  clusters  (Mt.  Wilson  Contr.  Nos.  152, 
157,  1918)  approximately  at  «17/l  30771,  « -30°. 

Fortunately,  whatever  galongitudinal  starting  point  be 
chosen,  the  conversion  from  one  departure  to  another — with 
the  same  pole — involves  merely  changing  all  the  galongi- 
tudes by  the  difference  in  galongitude  between  the  two 
origins,  the  galatitudes  remaining  unchanged. 


The  fore-going  account  of  various  poles  found  for  the 
galactic  plane,  and  the  consequent  uncertainty  within 
narrow  limits,  entail  the  choice  of  the  most  representative 
position  where  on  to  base  any  table  of  galactic  coordinates. 


The  most  relevant  findings  appear  in  Table  I    (given  at 
p.  445)  all  reduced  to  the  1900  epoch. 

These  points  are  likewise  plotted  in  Fig.  I  following 
covering  an  area  of  8  degrees  (32  min.)  in  R.A.  and 
4  degrees  in  declination.  The  figure  includes  (as  falling 
within  its  area)  some  poles  excluded  from  Table  I,  being 
ineligible  for  deriving  the  mean. 

Considering  the  independence  of  the  researches  and  the 
diversity  of  the  objects  concerned,  the  concordance  in  their 
poles  is  remarkable,  and  indicates  the  cosmical  significance, 
of  the  galactic  concentration  and  fundamental  plane  thereby 
defined.  The  findings  for  the  Galactic  Belt  or  Clouds  (Milky- 
Way)  are  grouped  together  and  yield  a  simple  mean  of 
(1900)  al91°'7,  3+27° -3,  Newcomb's  pole  tabulated  is  the 
weighted  mean  of  his  two  findings,  both  with  and  without  the 
branch,  the  former  being  given  double  weight. 

Next  follow  the  Star-count  poles,  whereof  those  based  in 
the  B.D.  (covering  about  half  the  galactic  circle)  as  also 
Scares'  should  each  carry  half  the  weight,  of  Van  Rhijn's 
revision  (which  includes  that  by  Scares).  These  weights 
yield  a  mean  at  (1900)  al92°'4  S+26°*5. 

The  third  group,  comprising  specific  galactic  objects 
yields  a  mean  pole  at  (1900)  0492° -3,  3+27°  '3.  It  should 
be  remarked  that  the  trend  of  the  eclipsing  binaries,  and 
consequently  their  pole  may  be  the  mere  illusion  due  to  a  pos- 
sible parallelism  of  their  orbital  planes  with  the  galactic  in 
which  the  association  of  these  systems  with  the  galactic  belt 
would  be  the  mere  selection  by  eclipses  due  to  our  line  of 
sight  within  the  galaxy.  Their  pole  therefore,  lying  far 
away  from  the  rest,  has  been  assigned  only  half  weight  in 
the  given  mean.  Combining  these  means,  we  get  a  final 
value  for  (1900)  "192° -1,  S+27°'0.  In  view  of  their 


general  agreement,  the  weighting  of  certain  results  makes 
no  appreciable  difference  from  the  simple  unweighted  mean 
of  the  twenty  entries,  yielding  191°  * 9, +27° '2.  We  may 
therefore  accept  the  north  pole  of  the  galactic  as  lying  for 
epoch  1900,  at  <xl92°  (12h-48w) ,  5+27°  -0.  It  is  noteworthy 
that  the  mean  of  each  group  agrees  with  this  value  in  whole 
degrees.  This  point  appears  (as  it  happens)  at  the  exact 
centre  of  Fig.  I,  the  area  covering  the  various  poles  men- 
tioned. It  is  unfortunate  that  general  usage  of  the  Harvard 
pole  at  a!90°,  8+28°  and  consolidated  by  Ohlsson's  exten- 
sive tables  based  thereon,  led  the  International  Astrono- 
mical Union  (1935)  to  adopt  this  pole  which,  as  shown  by 
the  open  circle  in  Fig.  I,  lies  outside  the  run  of  the  plotted 
poles  and  fully  two  degrees  away  from  what  must  be 
accepted  as  the  true  pole. 


We  may  now  consider  the  process  of  transition  from 
equatorial  to  galactic  coordinates. 

Fig.  II,  illustrates  the  outside  of  the  celestial  sphere 
with  its  north  pole  at  P  and  crossed  by  the  galactic  equator 
with  its  north  pole  at  G.  The  point  C  with  equatorial  coordi- 
nates «,  8,  needs  to  be  transformed  to  its  galactic  coordinates, 
P,  A,  where  A  is  the  galongitude  measured  along  the  galactic 
equator  from  Q  its  zero  point  of  intersection  with  the  celes- 
tial equator.  The  intersection  of  the  latter  with  the  ecliptic 
is  at  Y  the  zero  of  right  ascension  the  positions  of  P,  Q  and  Y 
being  for  the  1900  epoch.  We  need  to  solve  the  spherical  tri- 
angle PCG— whereof  PC— 90 -8,  also  PG,  or  the  inclination 
(0  of  the  galactic  to  the  celestial  equator  being  90°  less  the 
declination  27°  of  G  i.e.,  (90°— 27°)  =63°.  The  R.A.  of  G, 
we  know,  is  192°,  that  of  Q  is  282°,  while  that  of  Y  is  0°  or 
360°.  The  R.A.  (a)  of  C  in  the  figure  is  measured  as  usual 
eastward  from  Y  (hence  round  behind  the  sphere)  to  C. 



Hence  angle  CPG—  «—  192  J  ;  in  our  figure  as  drawn,  the 
R.A.  and  declination  of  C  are  roughly  20h  ;  45°. 

By  the  usual  formulae: 
Cos  CG-cos  CPG-sin  PG'sin  PC+cos  PG'cos  PC 

Q      r^-'sin  CPG^sin  PC 
Sin  PGC  --  :  —  •===?  - 
sm  CCr 

which  in  our  nomenclature  becomes. 

Cos(90°-P)=sin     63°-ccs(a-192°)     sin     (900-8)+; 
cos  63°  -cos  (90°-8). 

Whence  sin  P=sin  63°  -ccs(a-192°)cos  8+cos  63°  sin  3 
=0-89101  cos  (a  -192°)  cos  8+0  -45399  sin  8. 

Also,  Sin(90--*)=      \n(90/p)     -  L 

Cos  i  = 

COS    P 

Introducing  an  auxiliary  angle  v—CP&~(a—  282°) 
or  (<*+78°),  we  may  transpose  these  formulae  into  the  per- 
haps more  convenient  forms: 

tan  x=r  0*45399  tan  y+0'  89101  tan  8  sec  Y  and  sin 
P=0-  45399  sin  8  0'  89101  cos  8  sin  Y  which  is  fully  given  by  its 
sign.  The  quadrant  of  *  ir>  fixed  by  the  sign  of  tan  \  while  *• 
and  Y  both  fall  either  in  the  first  or  fourth  quadrants,  or  in 
the  second  and  third  quadrants. 


In  modern  studies,  the  proper  motions  (!*)  mainly 
according  to  spectral  type,  need  frequently  to  be  referred  to 
the  galactic  plane.  This  entails  the  transposition  of  the 


direction  (ty)  of  the  proper  motions  from  the  celestial  north 
polar  zero  to  the  galactic  (north)  pole.  This  is  simplest  done 
in  correcting  ty  by  the  parallactic  angle-called  <p  by  Ohlsson. 
The  value  of  <P  the  angle  PCG  in  Fig.  2-  or  the  angle  which 
the  R.A.  meridian  makes  with  the  galactic  polar  vertical,  is 
found  directly  by  the  formulae. 

sin  cos^        0-89101  cosA 
smCp^      c~os8  '    =-      cos* 

Hence  we  derive  the  angle  (M)  of  the  direction  of  \l 
measured  anti-clock-wise  form  the  north  galactic  polar 
vertical,  viz.,  co=T|)+cp. 

Otherwise,  the  direction  °>  may  bo  found  direct  (as 
ty  from  resolving  n«  and  n$)  by  getting  the  components  of  M- 
parallel  to  and  vertical  to  the  galactic  equator. 

Thus  \&~(v>a  cos  <P+u8*sin  <P)  Sec.  P. 

and  n(3~(^S  cos  <p-f*a  sin  <p). 

all  symbols  (expressed  in  seconds  of  arc    na— 

cos  8  as  usual. 

Fig.  3  illustrates  the  application. 

Partly  because  the  parallactic  angle  <p  is  actually  needed 
for  proper  motions  and  so  applies  to  individual  stars,  and 
partly  because  if  applied  to  the  R.A.  and  declination  reticule, 
these  would  need  to  be  taken  at  closer  intervals  than  here  to 
be  really  useful,  this  parallactic  angle  has  not  been  computed 
for  the  present  table.  It  can  be  readily  computed  from  the 
formulae  here  given  or  from  the  table  given  in  Ohlsson's 
tables,  already  mentioned. 


Owing  to  limitation  of  time  and  space,  also  pending  the 
verdict  of  Astronomers,  the  coordinates  have  been  calculat- 


ed  to  the  nearest  0  *1  only  and  at  intervals  of  20m  (5°)  in 
R.A.  and  5°  in  declination,  as  suliicient  for  the  present  pur- 
pose. A  general  acceptance  would  then  justify  computa- 
tion to  (say)  5m  intervals  in  R.A.  and  1°  in  declination — it 
should  be  noted  that  4m  (1  )  intervals,  though  closer  would 
involve  only  five-eights  of  the  work,  since  the  whole  degrees 
are  symmetrical  about  the  chosen  pole.  The  galongitudes 
are  measured  from  their  adopted  zero  at  the  intersection  of 
the  celestial  and  galactic  equators  in  Aquila  (4282°  ^0°). 
Adoption  of  the  Solar  apex  ("270  ^30)  reduces  all  galongi- 
tudes by  23  °*  2,  while  <*  Cygnus  as  zero  involves  reduction 

In  order  to  save  space  and  repetition  the  practice  of 
some  previous  tables  has  been  adopted  so  that  the  upper  and 
left  hand  margins  enter  respectively  the  R.A.  arguments  up 
to  12  hours  and  from  the  north  to  the  south  pole  in  declina- 
tion, while  the  lower  and  right-hand  margins  combine  the 
arguments  from  12  hours  to  24  hours  R.A.  and  from  pole 
to  pole  in  declination,  though  with  the  decimation  signs 
reversed.  Hence,  to  use  the  table  beyond  12  hours  R.A. 
(i.e.  using  the  lower  margin) ,  the  ^  values  need  to  be  chang- 
ed by ±180°  and  the  P  values  reversed  in  their  sign.  For 
convenient  use  the  final  R.A.  hours  column  in  each  page  has 
been  repeated  to  open  the  following  page;  whence  too  the 
table  begins  with  the  12  hours/ 24  hours  column  duly  invert- 
ed and  the  changed  ^180  and  P  as  just  described,  so  fol- 
lowing on  into  the  earlier  hours  in  R.A. 

Since  the  popular  adoption  was  confessedly  tentative, 
awaiting  a  more  certain  derivation,  it  is  now  submitted  that 
the  mean  position  here  derived  from  the  numerous  inde- 
pendent researches  may  be  taken  as  good  as  ever  likely  to  be 
found.  Hencc-forth,  popular  usage  need  no  longer  condone 
the  use  of  a  manifestly  wrong  position — however  great  the 


wrench  from  custom  and  laboriously  compiled  tables.  For- 
tunately, the  commendable  fore-sight  in  adding  auxiliary 
tables  in  Ohlsson's  extensive  tables,  abovementioned,  has 
(with  the  implied  provision  of  needful  change)  provided 
for  the  easy  transition  to  any  other  pole  from  that 
(190°,  +28°)  there  given. 

Should,  what  is  at  present  deemed  a  vain  wish,  ever  be 
realised  in  the  adoption  of  galactic  coordinates  for  the  stars 
in  general,  the  order  of  their  cataloguing  should  best  follow 
Sir  J .  Herschei's  method  of  distance  from  the  galactic  north 
pole — though  in  each  star's  order  of  increasing  distance 
there-from,  rather  than  by  zones.  While,  with  the  present 
terrestrial  coordinates,  the  order  of  R.A.  is,  by  its  very 
nature,  the  proper  catalogue  order,  galongitudes  carry  no 
such  significance  in  any  galactic  list.  Whereas  galatitude, 
do  carry  a  real  significance  in  the  steady  increase  of  star 
density  towards  the  galactic  plane,  while  a  like  decrease  sets 
in  onward  to  the  south  galactic  pole. 



a  8 

Galactic  belt  (7) 

1.  Herschel  (1851)  ..  i92°-3  +26°'5 

2.  Houzeau  (1878)  ..  192°*5  27°*4 

3.  Gould  (1879)  ..  190° -6  27° '2 

4.  Schoeiifeld  (1881)  ..  i900-6  28°'6 

5.  Newcomb  (1904)  ..  192° -0  27° '0 

6.  Houzeau-Kobold  (1906)  ..  191°-5  27°'9 

7.  Graff  (1921)  .,  192°. 2  26° '8 


Star  Counts  ( 4)  a  s 

8.  Argelander  B.D.*  (1862)  ..     190° '2         +28° '0 

9.  Heis  B.D.*    (1872)  .  .     190°'3  26°'9 

10.  Scares   (1927)  ..     193°'6  26°'7 

11.  Van  Rhijn  (1929)  ..     193°'9  25°'5 

Galactic  objects  (9j 

12.  Wolf   (1902)   nebulae               ..  193°'6  +28°*6 

13.  Hertzsprung  eclipsing  Binariesf.  188°  * 2  25°  * 8 

14.  Hertzsprung  (1912)  a-ac-stars.  .  18U°'l  26  '3 

15.  Hertzsprung  type  0"                  ..  190°'7  26°'9 

16.  Hertzsprung  gaseous  nebulae  ..  192°  *  7  28°  *1 

17.  Hertzsprung  type  N  stars         .  .  194° '2  27° *4 

18.  Hertzsprung  Cepheid  variables .  .  195°  * 9  26°  * 8 

19.  Gyllenberg  (1916)  type  O  stars.  191° "3  27° '1 

20.  Trumpler  (1930)  Open  clusters.  192° '6  27°*7 

The  entries  of  table  I  above  appear  in  order 
of  their  date  of  investigation,  under  each  of  the 
three  groups,  Galactic  belt,  Star  counts  and  Galac- 
tic objects.  All  positions  are  reduced  to  the  1900 
equinox.  Newcomb's  pole,  presumably  referring  to  1875 
epoch,  has  been  reduced  accordingly  to  1900,  for  which  the 
branch  included  result  is  given  double  weight  (thus  giving 
the  main  stream  3:  2  weight)  Argelander's  and  Heis'  results 
(*)  based  on  the  B.D.,  (so  omitting  nearly  half  the  galactic 
belt  and  that  the  southern  and  most  significant  section)  are 
assigned  half  the  normal  weight.  So  too  Spare's  result 
incorporated  with  Van  Rhijin's  is  assigned  half  the  weight  of 
the  latter.  The  eclipsing  binaries  (f)  pole  too,  for  the  reason 
stated  already  should  carry  alike  reduced  weight.  Hertz- 
sprung's  poles  for  his  six  set  of  galactic  objects  are  entered 
in  their  order  of  increasing  Right  Ascension.  The  simple 
unweighted  means  for  each  group  are  respectively  191  f°7 



+27° -3,  192°  -0+26°  '8,  192°  -0+27°  -2,  combining  to  a  mean 
value  al91°'9  $+27° '0.  The  simple  mean  of  all  twenty 
entries  together  yields  the  virtually  like  value  of 
191° '9+27*  2  the  close  agreement  of  which  with  the 
weighted  mean  (192°-1+27°'0)  quoted  in  the  text,  shows 
the  striking  concordance  in  the  negligible  effect  due  to 

Figure  1 

(Interior  of  Celestial  Sphere) 





189     ia 








D  * 













XIII       56n 

52  rr 


40  rr 


The  above  diagram  (on  polyconic  projection)  shows  the 
twenty  (1900)  polar  positions  entered  in  Table  1,  and 
covers  an  area  of  eight  degrees  in  (1900)  R.A.,  from 
12h  32m  to  13h  4m  (lower  margin)  or  188°  to  196°  (upper 
margin),  by  four  degrees  (+25°  to  +29°)  in  declination. 
The  seven  Galactic  belt  poles  are  denoted  by  squares,  the 
four  star-count  poles  by  stars,  while  the  poles  of  the  nine 
galactic  objects  appear  as  circles;  all  are  shown  solid  and  are 
numbered  in  their  order  of  descriptive  entry  in  Table  I. 
Besides  these,  are  shown  Van  Rhijn's  pole  (12H  33m+26'5°) 
for  the  6th  magn.  star  counts,  also  Stroobant's  pole, 
(12h  46m+28°)  adopted  for  the  galactic  belt  and  evidently  as 
the  mean  of  Houzeau's  (2)  and  Schoenfeld's;  (4)  The  addi- 
tions appear  in  open  figures  and  are  not  numbered  since  they 



are  excluded  from  Table  I,  not  being  original  findings.  The 
I.A.U.  i.e.,  Harvard,  Pole  (12H  40m+28°)  evidently  the  whole 
degree  derivation  from  Argelander's  reduced  to  1900  epoch 
(8)  appears  as  an  open  circle  standing  outside  the  run  of  the 
other  poles.  The  position  finally  adopted  (I2h  48m+27°)  — 
which  as  it  happens,  coincides  with  the  weighted  mean  of 
New-comb's  poles  (5)  is  shown  by  the  large  circle  at  the 
exact  centre  of  the  diagram. 

Figure  2 
(Exterior  of  Celestial  Sphere) 

P  =  North  celestial  pole. 

G  =  North  galactic  pole. 

C  ~  Point  for  transposed  coordinates. 

Q  =  Ascending  node  of  the  galactic  on  the  celestial 

equator  (1900);  *=0. 
*?=  Ascending  node  of  the  Ecliptic  on  the  celestial 

equator  (1900);  a=0. 
a  =  Right  ascension  of  C. 
P  =  Galatitude  of  C, 


f  a  I  Y3° 
Y  =  Auxiliary  angle=    }  a-282° 

8  =  Declination  of  C 

i=  63°  ~  inclination  of  the  galactic  to  the  celestial 


A  =  Galongitudo  of  C. 
<P  =  Galactic  parallactic  angle. 

Figure  3 
(Interior  of  Celestial  Sphere) 

H>  ==  Star's  proper  motion. 
ia  =  „  in  right  ascension. 

M-8  =  „  in  declination. 

^  =  „  in  galongitude. 

f^P  =  „  in  galatitude. 

<V  =  galactic  parallactic  angle. 

^  =  direction  of  ^  in  terrestrial  coordinates. 

CD  =  qp+ip~directiv;n  of  v>  in  galactic   coordinates. 



The   ddtted    lines    illustrate    the    algebraic    equation 
between  terrestrial  and  galactic  coordinates,  thus:  — 

cos  <P-XM+ML. 

\i$~H&  cos  <p-na  sin  q>-  (Mn-nR.) 
Whence  nA2-f|ip2-  (ji8  sin  <p)2+(n<*  cos  q^)2 

+2^8  sin  qpjia  cos  qp+  (u3  cos  qp)2+(Ma  sin 
-2^8  cos  <P  ^sin  q>. 

~^«2  (sin2qp+cos2 


A.    C.    SUBRAMANYAN,   M.A., 

Lecturer  in  English,  Annamalai  University. 

The  Emperor  Aurangzeb  is  said  to  have  complained  to 
his  tutor  Mulla  Shah,  that  the  teacher  had  wasted  precious 
hours  of  the  emperor's  youth  'in  the  dry,  unprofitable,  and 
never-ending  task  of  learning  mere  words/  The  study  of 
the  structure  and  mechanics  of  language  is  not  a  barren  and 
profitless  memorizing  of  dull  declensions  and  confusing 
conjugations.  It  is  not  a  mere  matter  of  musty  documents 
and  mouldy  dialects.  The  devoted  study  of  language  brings 
the  students  into  contact  with  the  living  stream  of  human 
consciousness  whose  beginning  no  man  knows  and  whose 
end  no  human  intelligence  can  predict.  For,  modern  research 
has  conclusively  proved  that  language  is  a  magic  speculum 
in  which  are  mirrored  the  fortunes  of  communities  and  of 
nations,  their  greatness  and  their  littleness,  the  width  and 
variety  of  their  life  or  the  narrowness  of  their  outlook,  their 
tastes  and  their  preferences,  their  beliefs  and  their  doubts, 
their  culture  and  their  degradation. 

Properly  understood  language  is  not  merely  a  means  of 
communication  between  living  beings  including  within  its 
scope  signs  and  gestures.  It  is  neither  the  mere  expression 
of  thoughts  by  means  of  words,  nor  the  instrument  to  hide 
one's  thoughts  as  the  diplomatist,  Talleyrand,  would  have 
us  believe;  nor  the  subterfuge  of  the  emptyheaded  to  hide 
the  absence  of  thought  as  the  Russian,  Soren  Kierkegaard 


maintains.  To  the  logician,  Jevons,  language  is  a  mechanical 
aid  to  thought  and  an  instrument  of  record  and  reference. 
Language  is  no  doubt  a  staff  for  the  average  mind;  but  it  is 
a  constraint  on  genius.  To  Madam  de  Stael,  the  queen  of 
the  Paris  salons,  language  is  a  treasured  toy  which  animates 
the  spirit  like  music  or  strong  liquors.  Often  we  speak  in 
order  to  satisfy  the  craving  for  sociability.  Primitive  peo- 
ple often  regarded  words  as  potent  weapons  which  could 
compel  the  powers  to  do  good  or  evil.  They  believed  in  the 
efficacy  of  charms  and  incantations  to  bring  about  evil  to 
their  enemies  or  prosperity  to  themselves  and  their  belong- 
ings. The  psychologist  regards  language  as  a  form  of  human 
behaviour.  In  short,  language  is  the  sum  of  the  speech 
habits  of  a  nation,  changing  and  varying  in  the  course  of 
centuries,  enriched  by  the  experience  of  individuals  and 
nations,  continuously  flowing  and  growing,  ever  advancing 
to  fresh  woods  and  new  pastures,  a  department  of  human 
activity  as  varied  as  life  and  as  comprehensive  as  human 

The  very  existence,  or  the  reverse,  of  a  refined  and  culti- 
vated language  spoken  over  a  vast  area  throws  light  on  the 
government  and  society  of  a  country.  France  in  the  Eigh- 
teenth Century  was  the  home  of  a  polished  and  brilliant 
language  while  England  in  the  Thirteenth  Century  was  split 
up  into  a  large  number  of  dialect  areas.  This  is  due  to  the 
social  and  political  conditions  that  prevailed  in  the  two  coun- 
tries. In  the  Eighteenth  Century,  France  had  already 
enjoyed  a  long  period  of  settled  and  centralised  government; 
it  had  an  absolute  monarch  at  the  head  whose  court  was 
the  centre  of  art  and  refinement.  The  English  court  of  the 
Thirteenth  Century  looked  for  culture  towards  France  and 
did  not  care  much  for  the  native  tongue.  The  people  lived 
in  isolation,  their  narrow  interests  being  confined  to  their 


parochial  homes.     Small  wonder  then  that  the  English  peo- 
ple did  not  have  a  common  standard  language  at  that  time. 

The  absence  of  a  common  language  indicates  yet  another 
feature  viz.,  the  human  geography  of  an  area.  The  linguis- 
tic configuration  of  South  India  with  Malayalam  west  of  the 
Ghats,  Canarese  in  the  Mysore  plateau,  Telugu  in  the  North 
East  and  Tamil  in  the  Eastern  plains  bears  witness  to  this 

Climate,  social  habits,  religion>  science  and  even  indi- 
vidual genius  have  left  their  unmistakable  traces 
on  language.  Close  and  glottal  sounds  are  more  in 
evidence  in  the  language  of  a  cold  country  while  open  sounds 
are  more  numerous  in  the  speech  of  warmer  lands. 
The  vocabulary  of  a  people  is  necessarily  limited  by  the  facts 
of  their  experience  and  it  is  significant  that  many  Indian 
languages  have  no  word  for  ice  while  they  have  many  for 
the  sun.  An  analysis  of  the  phonological  structure  ot  any 
language  can  prove  without  a  doubt  the  influence  of  cli- 
mate on  human  speech.  The  history  of  language  shows 
that  dialects  have  been  broken  up  and  levelled  into  some 
sort  of  standard  speech,  by  war,  by  large  national  festivals, 
by  an  exogamous  system  of  marriage  and  by  improved 
means  of  communication.  Standard  language  reflects  in  no 
little  measure  the  work  of  Dante  in  Italy,  of  Chaucer  in 
England  and  of  Luther  in  Germany.  Modern  writers  in 
Tamil  and  other  Indian  languages  have  contributed  a  good 
deal  to  the  form  and  expressiveness  of  their  langu- 
ages. Standard  English  is  a  resultant  of  the  songs  of  the 
mediaeval  minstrels  of  the  fall  of  feudalism,  of  the  rise  of 
towns  and  of  the  strong  and  centralised  Tudor  government. 
Standard  speech  in  Germany  bears  witness  to  the  influence 
of  the  common  life  of  the  soldiers  coming  together  from 
different  parts  of  the  country,  to  the  influence  of  the  officials 


transferred  from  place  tc  place  and  even  to  that  of  the 
touring  companies  of  actors  who  wandered  through  town 
and  village.  Universities,  public  schools,  royal  courts  and 
fashionable  society  have  all  helped  to  chasten  and  enrich  the 
language  of  a  nation. 

Social  outlook  and  social  usages  find  a  very  clear  reflec- 
tion in  the  form  and  development  of  the  Sanskrit  langua^. 
Though  Sanskrit  has  to  its  credit  the  first  grammar  in  the 
world  and  the  most  scientific  phonetic  system,  over  no  other 
tongue  docs  the  dead  hand  of  ancient  authority  lie  so  heavy 
as  over  Sanskrit.  Instead  of  setting  forth  the  nature  of  the 
language,  grammar  assumed  powers  of  direction  and  control 
and  enforced  such  rigid  laws  that  a  large  number  of  its 
speakers  were  driven  outside  its  pale.  Authoritarian 
thought  in  matters  of  language  contributed  to  the  rise  of 
languages  derived  from  Sanskrit.  Testimony  to  this  is  borne 
by  the  Sanskrit  drama  wherein  king,  courtiers  and  learned 
men  speak  in  one  tongue,  while  women,  children,  servants 
and  common  people  use  vastly  modified  forms.  The 
stratification  of  class  dialects  and  the  later  rise  of  derived 
languages  prove  the  rigidity  of  the  social  codes  among  the 
speakers  of  early  Sanskrit. 

The  study  of  a  language  reveals  equally  well  the  religion 
and  philosophy  of  a  people.  Words  like  church,  temple, 
mosque,  synagogue,  koil  and  kshetra  throw  a  flood  of  light 
on  the  religious  ideas  of  the  people.  Church  comes  from 
Greek  KuriaJcon,  Lord's  house,  and  the  word  was  probably 
taken  into  Germanic  by  the  mercenaries  who  served  in  the 
East,  Temple  comes  from  Greek  through  Latin.  In  Greek 
Temeros  meant  a  sacred  enclosure,  a  piece  of  ground  cut  off. 
Synagogue  again  comes  from  another  Greek  word  meaning 
congregation.  The  word  mosque  comes  into  English  from 
Arabic  through  French  and  Spanish  ;  the  original  Arabic 


word  Masjida  means  a  place  of  prayer.  The  Tamil  koil  means 
a  prince's  house,  while  the  Malayalam  kshetra  denotes  a  field. 
A  place  or  an  abode,  a  place  set  apart,  a  place  of  prayer,  a 
meeting  place,  a  congregation  are  therefore  found  implied 
in  these  terms.  In  English,  the  influence  of  Latin  Christia- 
nity is  most  clearly  marked.  It  is  evident  in  a  large  number 
of  loan  words,  in  the  changes  in  the  meaning  of  indigenous 
words,  in  new  coinages  and  in  the  very  structure  and  syntax 
of  Old  English  prose.  It  is  not  surprising  to  find  that  Eng- 
lish as  it  is  to-day  has  been  profoundly  affected,  by  the  great 
religion  which  its  speakers  profess.  But  when  we  think  of 
the  debt  of  modern  English  to  the  philosophy  of  Greece  and 
especially  to  the  genius  of  Plato  we  are  filled  with  wonder. 
The  English  word  'quality'  goes  back  to  the  Latin  qualitas 
which  is  the  translation  of  a  Greek  word  qoiotes  coined  by 
Plato  to  mean  "whatness  or  of-what-kind-ness"  i.e.  the  con- 
cept represented  by  the  Sanskrit  word  guna.  By  this  Plato 
separated  in  thought  the  characteristic  feature  from  an  ob- 
ject of  which  it  formed  the  distinctive  sign.  Again  Plato 
was  the  first  to  use  the  Greek  equivalent  for  analogy,  anti- 
podes, dialectic,  enthusiasm  (the  state  of  being  filled  with  a 
god),  mathematical,  synthesis  and  system.  Method,  music, 
philosopher,  sophist,  theory,  type  and  irony  (simulation  of 
ignorance)  will  not  mean  what  they  do  but  for  the  genius  of 
Plato.  But  the  new  meanings  he  gave  to  the  words  'idea' 
and  'ideal'  are  the  most  remarkable  of  all.  Before  Plato  the 
word  'idea'  meant  the  form  and  semblance  of  a  thing,  being 
cognate  with  idein,  to  see.  Cicero  translated  this  into 
'species'  a  word  connected  with  specere,  to  sec  and  speculum, 
a  mirror.  By  an  extraordinary  effort  of  thought  Plato 
made  it  possible  for  us  to  separate  our  ideas,  notions, 
thoughts  and  semblances  of  them  from  the  things  themsel- 
ves. According  to  Plato  matter  is  but  an  imperfect  copy  of 


the  ideas  or  archtypes  or  perfect  spiritual  types.  These 
alone  persist  for  ever  and  these  alone  are  real 

Just  as  language  sets  forth  the  good  points  of  a  people 
it  also  lays  bare  their  ignorance,  worldliness,  contempt  and 
hatred.  The  degeneration  of  meaning  which  words  like 
knave  (lad),  villain  (peasant),  boor  (farmer),  varlet  (serv- 
ing man)  and  menial  (one  of  the  household)  show,  is  elo- 
quent of  the  treatment  that  peasants  and  labourers  received 
at  an  earlier  time.  The  present  meaning  of  'prejudice'  re- 
minds us  of  man's  proneness  for  wrong  impres- 
sions while  '  resent '  and  '  retaliate '  show  that  he  is  more 
keen  to  take  offence  at  injury  than  to  be  alive  to  benefits  done. 
The  disrepute  into  which  the  words  'simple'  and  'innocent' 
have  fallen  show  how  ready  the  average  man  is  to 
deceive  rather  than  be  deceived.  The  word  'miscreant' 
(misbeliever)  shows  the  Westerner's  animus  against  the 
Moslem  and  'assassin'  is  only  another  form  of  'hashashin' 
a  Moslem  fanatic  intoxicated  with  hashish.  The  word  'dunce' 
is  derived  from  the  name  of  the  wittiest  of  school  divines, 
Duns  Scotus,  and  records  merely  the  popular  prejudice 
against  schoolmen.  It  is  no  credit  to  Hindu  humanity  that 
it  should  have  given  to  English,  the  word  'pariah*  and  a  new 
meaning  to  the  word  'untouchable.' 

If,  therefore,  language  furnishes  us  with  a  dependable 
key  for  unlocking  the  treasures  of  past  thoughts,  manners, 
habits  and  ideas;  if  it  preserves  for  us  the  inner,  living  his- 
tory of  man's  soul  and  the  evolution  of  his  consciousness; 
if,  in  short,  language  is  a  mirror  not  only  of  the  outer  circum- 
stances but  also  of  the  inner  working  of  individual  and  na- 
tional life;  then,  the  study  of  language  can  never  be  barren 
or  poor  in  interest;  nor  can  it  be  lacking  in  great  humanising 
and  cultural  valuo  to  those  who  devote  themselves  to  its 
study  with  patience  and  enthusiasm. 





The  indigenoub  bankers  play  a  very  important  part  in 
the  economic  life  of  India.  The  indigenous  banking  busi- 
ness is  a  purely  family  concern  and  has  become  a  hereditary 
calling  in  particular  classes  and  communities.  The  Nattuk- 
kottai  Chettiars  are  one  of  the  most  remarkable  banking 
communities  in  this  presidency  ana  most  of  them  live  in 
the  Ramnad  District  and  the  Pudukkottah  State.  The  most 
important  centre  is  Cheilinad.  ^Geographically  this  tract 
is  an  undefined  area;  but  in  the  regulations  that  bind  the 
caste  of  the  Chetti  community,  it  is  mentioned  as  the  area 
lying  soui/ij  of  the  Vellar  river,  east  Piranamalai — a  moun- 
tain peak  that  has  given  its  name  to  the  neighbouring  vil- 
lage in  the  north-west  corner  of  the  Ramnad  district — and 
west  of  the  sea.  A  look  at  the  map  shows  that  this  tract 
which,  the  Ciiettis  say,  they  selected  for  their  home  from 
the  time  of  their  migration  from  the  Chola  kindom,  lies 
partly  in  ike  Pudukkottah  State  and  partly  in  the  Ramnad 
district.  They  have  settled  down  in  78  villages,  20  of  which 
are  in  Pudukkottah  and  58  in  Ramnad."1  The  Chettiars 
are  called  Nagarathars  from  the  fact  that  they  are  grouped 
for  social  purposes  into  nine  Nagarams  or  townships.  At 

1.    Madras   Banking   Enquiry   Committee — Evidence   Volume 
III— page  1170. 


the  head  of  each  of  these  townships  there  is  one  temple. 
The  nine  temples  are:  — 

Ilayaihakudi,  Mattur,  Vairavankoil,  Iraniur,  Pillayar- 
patti,  Neiuam,  Iluppakudi,  Suraikudi  and  Velangudi.  Their 
population  according  to  1921  census  was  40,500  and  the 
caste  is  divided  into  twenty  five  'golhrams'  for  purposes  of 
marriage  and  adoption. 

They  have  extensive  banking  business  in  various  places 
in  the  Madras  Presidency  and  in  the  City  of  Madras,  Ceylon 
Indo-China,  the  whole  of  Burma,  the  whole  of  the  Malay 
Peninsula  and  in  parts  of  Sumatra.  Nattukkottai 
Chettiars  have  been  conducting  their  business  for  centuries 
on  certain  well-recognised  principles  and  methods.  They 
have  high  reputation  for  honesty  and  the  fact  that  their 
methods  fiave  stood  the  test  of  time  clearly  proves  that 
they  have  been  conducting  their  business  on  right  princi- 
ples. They  are  born  bankers  and  in  the  words  of  Mr.  E. 
Thurston  "the  Nattukkottai  Chcttis,  in  organization,  co- 
operation and  business  methods  are  as  remarkable  as  the 

European  merchants the  simple  but  strict  training 

which  they  give  their  boys,  the  long  and  tedious  apprentice- 
ship which  even  the  sons  of  the  richest  among  them  have  to 
undergo,  rmke  them  very  efficient  in  their  profession  and 
methodical  in  whatever  they  undertake  to  do." 

The  young  Chc-tti  bo>s  from  the  age  of  eight  get  train- 
ing in  tiie  double  entrv  system  of  book-keeping.  The 
banks  are  known  in  Tamil  as  'Thavanaikadai'  or  'Vaddi 
kadai.'  Agents  am  appointed  to  branches  every  three  years 
and  they  arc  paid  salaries  in  addition  to  bonuses  on  profits. 
A  few  months  prior  to  the  expiry  of  the  period  of  an  agent, 
his  successor  is  sent  to  him  to  take  charge  and  learn  the 
work.  The  agent  who  is  relieved  returns  to  Chettinad, 


settles  account  and  after  a  period  of  rest  seeks  re-employ- 
ment. The  agents  and  staff  live  in  the  place  of  business  in 
close  proximity  to  the  borrowers  and  are  in  constant 
touch  with  the  private  lives  of  the  borrowers.  Hence  they 
are  able  to  lend  to  persons  without  security.  In  a  paper 
read  at  the  Royal  Society  of  Arts,  London,  Mr,  M.  M. 
Gubbay,  C.S.I.,  late  Controller  of  Currency  and  Financial 
Secretary  to  the  Government  of  India  spoke  of  Nattuk- 
kottai  Chettiars  as  follows:  — 

A  special  type  (of  indigenous  bankers)  is  that  of  the 
Chetti  community  in  Madras.  It  is  known  that  in  many 
cases  accounts  can  be  maintained  with  these  Indian  banks 
on  which  operations  by  cheques  are  permissible  and  that 
funds  lie  with  these  bankers  on  time  deposits  at  rates  much 
above  those  which  are  available  from  the  banks.  I  see 
no  reason  to  doubt  the  commonly  accepted  view  that  both 
because  these  private  bankers  can  afford  to  pay  attractive 
rates  of  interest  as  well  as  because  their  requirements  as 
to  security  aro  less-  rigid,  their  participation  in  the  finan- 
cial life  of  the  community,  as  a  whole,  must  be  on  a  very 
extensive  scale.  Further,  they  are  in  intimate  daily  touch 
with  those  with  whom  they  transact  business  and  follow 
the  doings  of  their  clients  with  a  closeness  which  is  deni- 
ed to  the  banjcs.  There  must  be  accumulated  with  these 
private  bankers  a  store  of  knowledge  and  experience  of 
the  standing,  the  moral  as  well  as  financial  capacity  of 
individual  Indian  traders  and  Indian  trading  firms,  their 
business  connections  and  relations  on  which  if  fully  organis- 
ed and  systematised  might  possibly  quite  suitably  rest  an 
expansion  of  credit  facilities  from  the  banks.  Thus  they 
fulfil  one  of  the  three  postulates  of  credit,  namely,  proxi- 
mity of  the  lender  and  borrower.  They  lend  money  to  agri- 
culturists for  payment  of  their  kists,  domestic  expenses  and 


they  also  finance  merchants  and  traders.  They  are  able  to 
do  extensive  business  because  "they  grant  easy  conditions, 
lend  at  any  time  of  the  day  without  reference  to  hours  of 

business They  also  collect  money  according  to  their 

convenience  but  do  not  insist  on  the  prompt  and  punc- 
tual payment  on  the  due  dates  as  the  banks." 

Chettiar  firms  in  Burma  and  Malay  States  are  large 
concerns  carrying  on  banking  in  several  places.  There  are 
about  95  firms  working  in  Burma,  and,  as  a  class,  Chettiars 
in  Burma  have  no  appreciable  business  apart  from  bank- 
ing and  money-lendinc;.  They  have  given  money  for  vari- 
ous charities.  They  have  founded  a.  residential  school  at 
Kaube  (1929")  near  Rangoon  and  they  have  endowed  a 
lectureship  in  Banking  and  Commerce  in  the  Rangoon  Uni- 
versitv.  Chettiars  in  Burma  set  apart  a  definite  percent- 
age of  thoir  commercial  profits  for  private  charity  and  for 
making  gifts  to  temples. 

In  December,  1927,  when  Sir  Heroourt  Butler  was  the 
Governor  of  Burma  ho  said  in  a  public  speech  that  Burma 
owed  a  groat  deal  to  the  Chettiars.  Addressing  them  he  said, 
"You  represent  a  verv  important  factor  indeed  in  the  life  of 
this  province.  Without  the  as?*istaneo  of  the  Chettiar 
bankiiv  svstem  Burma  would  never  have  .achieved  the 
wonderful  advance  of  the  last  25  to  30  years.  The  Burman 
to-day  i?  a  much  wealthier  man  than  he  was  25  years  ago; 
and  for  tins  state  of  affairs  tho  Chettiar  deserves  his  share 
of  thanks."2 

In  December,  1929,  the  public  of  Rangoon  in  their 
address  presented  to  the  Hon'ble  Rajah  Sir  Annamalai 
Chettiar  of  Chettinad  referred  to  the  part  played  by  the 

2.    Report  of  the  Burma  Provincial  Banking  Enquiry  Commit- 
tee, 1929-30  Volume  I  page  189. 


Chettiar  in  the  growth  and  development  of  agriculture  and 
trade  in  Burma  in  the  following  terms:  — 

"None  can  realize  better  than  the  people  of  this  pro- 
vince the  part  which  Chcbtiyars  have  silently  played  in  the 
development  of  agriculture  and  business  and  it  is  a  tri- 
bute to  the  upright  system  of  Chettiyar  banking  and  money- 
lending  that  no  other  system  of  finance  has  yet  been  evolv- 
ed which  is  capable  of  giving  to  agriculture  and  business 
in  this  province  the  impetus  and  stability  which  Chetti- 
yars  have  achieved." 

The  Committee  appointed  by  the  Government  of  the 
Federated  Malay  States  in  Kuala  Lumpur  observed  about 
Nattukkottai  Chettiyars'  banking  in  their  report  in  con- 
nection with  the  failure  of  the  scheme  of  Government 
loans  for  purely  agricultural  business  as  follows:  — 

"These  people  have  an  apparently  inexhaustible  capi- 
tal; their  sole  reason  for  existing  is  to  borrow  and  lend 
money;  they  are  mild  and  gentle  in  disposition;  among 
Europeans  and  Asiatics  they  bear  a  good  name  for  honesty 
and  even  for  kindliness  to  borrowers.  It  is  a  well  known 
fact  that  where  those  money  lenders  know  a  Malay  of  good 
standing,  they  often  lend  him  money  merely  on  a  note 
with  no  security  at  all.  As  they  have  been  bankers  for 
centuries  they  know  their  business.  No  government  fund 
can  hope  to  compete  with  them  except  to  a  very  restrict- 
ed extent.  They  live  or  their  agents  live  amongst  their 
borrowers  and  can  lay  a  finger  on  the  pulse  of  any  man's 
business  should  they  care  to  lay  it.  They  are  men  of 
business,  not  a  Government  Department,  and  they  know 
their  business  as  professionals  and  not  as  amateurs."3 

3.    Written  Evidence  of  the  Nattukkottai  Nagarathars  Associ- 
ation, Madras. 


The  Assistant  Commissioner  of  Income-Tax,  Madura, 
supplied  to  the  Banking  Enquiry  Committee,  information 
about  the  wealth  of  the  Nattukkottai  Chcttiars  and  he 
estimated  the  total  at  about  Rs.  80  crores.4 

(a)  Money-lending   (own  capital)   employed  in  business:  — 


Karaikudi  First  Circle  . .       9%     crores 

Ka^aikudi  second  circle 
Karaikudi  third  circle 
Sivaganga  Circle 


(b)  Investments  in  houses  and  jev/els:  — 

"The  Nattukkottai  Chetti  invests  largely  in 
houses  and  jewels,  although  this  is  practically  dead  capi- 
tal, the  reason  being  that  his  credit  is  built  on  a  peculiar 
tasis.  It  is  the  value  of  his  house,  the  jewellery  he 
possesses  and  the  lands  that  he  owns  that  determine  his 
credit  in  the  eyes  of  his  own  caste-men  as  well  as  of 
others  who  wish  to  invest  their  savings  with  him.  The 
first  instinct  of  a  Chetti  who  hns  amassod  money  is  to  con- 
struct as  1-i  s  a  house  as  he  can.  Wo  mav  see  numerous 
massive,  spacious  and  fine  buildings  in  Chcttinad,  in  an 
architectural  style  uniqu^  in  its  own  way.  In  Devakottai 
alone  thc^o  ?rc  said  to  bo  300  houses  costing  not  less  than 
a  lakh  each  and  the  Officer  has  seen  personally  not  less  ~, 

than  100  or  them.    The  total  amount  so  spent  in  houses  is  £>f 

estimated  al  6  crores  and  in  jewels  another  amount  of  4 
crores  . .     10  croar,, 

(c)  Money-lending     capital     of  the   Chettis     in 
Pudukkottnh  State,  many  of  whom  do  business  in  British 
India,  i.e.,  :n  Burnui  and  aho  in  this  Presidency. 

There  are  20  villages  with  a  population  of 
12,000.  They  are  exceedingly  rich  and  finance  businesses 
in  South  India,  Burma  and  other  places.  Capital  esti- 
mated at  14  crores  , .  14  crores 

Houses  2%  crores  and  jev/els  2  crores     . .     4%  crores 

4.     Written  Evidence    o{  Mr.  A.  Savarinatha  Pillai,    Assistant 
Commissioner  of  Income-Tax  Southern  Range.    M.B.E.C.  Vol.  III. 


Rs.  Croro.s 

(d)  Investments  in  agricultural  lands,  house  pro- 
perties, rubber  gardens,  tea  estates,  coconut  plantations, 
etc.,  in  Federated  Malay  States,  Ceylon,  Burma  and  other 

The  ownings  in  distant  places  can  not  even  be 
approximately  fixed  as  there  is  no  information  available, 
but  it  is  understood  that  the  Chettis  have  very  valuable 
possessions  abroad  in  the  shape  of  rubber  plantations,  tea 
gardens,  coconut  gardens  in  Federated  Malay  States,  Sai- 
gon, Ceylo :  and  in  Burma  where  agricultural  lands  are 
also  extensively  owned.  In  this  Presidency  the  landed 
properties  owned  by  Chettis  and  acquired  by  them  mostly 
in  the  course  of  money-lending  business  arc  scattered  about 
in  numerous  districts.  Some  of  them  have  large  carda- 
mom plantations  in  Iravancore  hills.  Once  upon  a  time 
there  was  a  craze  among  Chettiyars  to  invest  in  lands 
and  the  sentiment  of  being  landed  magnates  appealed 
to  them  and  they  acquired  portions  of  zamindari 
estates,  etc.  Now,  however,  they  have  stopped  this  kind 
of  investment  as  they  do  not  iind  it  profitable.  Many 
Devakottai  assessees  have  a  large  portion  of  their  assets 
locked  up  in  this  form  and  ere  at  a  disadvantage.  The 
total  asset,*  in  the  shape  of  immovable  landed  properties 
can  be  taken  at  Rs.  15  crores."  . .  15  crores 

Total     . .  79Vfe  or  80 


The  aggregate  amount  of  owned  capital  rolling  in 
business  among  Nattukkottai  chettis  is  Rs.  50  crores.  The 
borrowed  capital  is  estimated  roughly  at  50%  of  owned 
capital  or  at  Rs.  25  crorcs  of  which  Rs.  8  crores  belong  to 
Chettiar  men  and  women.  Hence  owned  capital  is  Rs.  58 
crores  and  borrowings  is  Rs.  17  crores.  The  working  capital 
of  indigenous  banks,  on  the  whole,  both  in  the  Presidency 
and  outside  is  estimated  at  Rs.  75  crores. 

The  Assistant  Commissioner  of  Income-Tax  gives  the 
number  of  assessees  in  the  four  circles  of  Karai- 
kudi  I,  II,  III  and  Sivaganga,  who  with  their  owned  and 
borrowed  capital  do  business  locally  and  outside.  The 

5.    M.  B.  E.  Report:  Evidence  Volume  III;  page  1173. 



owned  and  borrowed  capital  for  2882  assessees  are 
Rs.  2483-19  lakhs  and  Rs.  1481-62  lakhs.  The  difference  of 
nearly  13  crorcs  between  the  figures  arrived  at  through 
investigation  and  by  regular  assessment  to  income  tax  may 
be  due  to  the  inclusion  in  investigation  of  those  who  are  not 
assessed  to  income-tax. 

The  amount  invested  in  business  in  the  Presidency  can 
be  seen  from  the  following  statement  submitted  to  the 
Committee  by  the  Assistant  Commissioner  of  Income- 

Name   of 

Number  of 


Amount  of 
invested  in 

in  lakhs. 

Volume   of 
in  lakhs. 

in  lakhs. 


locally  . 





Karaikudi      I 















53  43 















Trichinopoly    I            21 



66-30             2-59 

do.            U            12 



14-65             0-79 

Dindigul                         19 



37  20             1-99 

Madura,  North               4 



2  95             0-22 

South               8 



36-46              4-52 

Virudhunagar                10 



11-68              0-78 

Tuticorin                         22 



28  58              1-52 

Tinnevelly                     H 



40-64              2-69 

Total                      107 



283-46            15-10 

Grand  Total            243 



1,096-78             48-14 

*Distribution  — 


Local  money  lending 

217-54  lakhs 


313-64      „ 

Federated  Malay  States, 


265-19      „ 


•  •  • 

61-85      „ 


Thus  the  amount  invested  in  this  Presidency  by  243 
Nattukkottai  Chettiar  Bankers  is  Rs.  456  lakhs.  The 
major  portion  of  the  capital  of  those  who  do  local  business 
in  Karaikudi  and  Sivaganga  is  invested  in  Burma,  F.M.S. 
and  Ceylon. 

An  indigenous  banker  who  was  questioned  in  the 
Coimbatore  District  said  that  generally,  if  about  a  lakh  of 
rupees  is  to  be  the  out-turn  of  business  at  least  Rs.  75,000 
should  be  the  investor!  capital.  In  his  case,  that  has  been 
the  proportion.  His  bank  is  now  fifteen  years  old  but  the 
origin  cannot  be  traced  exactly  to  ihe  correct  date.  The 
maximum  expenditure  incurred  by  this  banker  per  year  is 
Rs.  3,500.  He  employs  many  clerks  on  decent  salaries.  In 
the  year  1929-30,  Ins  invested  capital  was  Rs.  120,000  and 
the  out-turn  of  business  was  Rs.  2J,£  lakhs.  Gradually  this 
amount  began  to  dwindle;  and  the  capital  and  business 
out-turn  for  the  years  1935  and  1938-39  respectively  were 
Rs.  80,000  and  Rs.  125,000,  and  Rs.  60,000  and  Rs.  100,000. 
The  banker  who  was  examined  was  able  to  estimate 
roughly  the  business  done  in  the  Coimbatore  District. 

Year.  Business  done. 


1929-30  ..  l%  crores. 

1935  ..  50     lakhs. 

1938-39  . .  20  to  30      lakhs. 

The  Agriculturists  Relief  Act  of  1938  affected  the 
Chettiar  banking  business  adversely.  Roughly  estimated 
the  loss  incurred  owing  to  the  operation  of  the  Act  is  Rs.  3% 
lakhs.  The  loss  was  great  in  the  Coimbatore  District  where 
almost  all  the  borrowers  were  agriculturists.  Now  busi- 
ness with  the  agriculturists  has  been  reduced  considerably. 
Loans  are  given  only  to  'A'  class  persons  whose  credit  can  be 
relied  upon. 




Besides  his  own  capital,  the  Nattukkottai  Chettiars' 
capital  consists  mainly  of  deposits  received  from  their  own 
relations  and  friends  and  to  a  small  extent  from  the  out- 
side public.  In  times  of  stringency  they  are  helped  with 
loans  by  the  Imperial  Bank  and  other  big  joint  stock  banks. 

A  feature  of  deposits  made  by  persons  of  the  Nattuk- 
kottai Chctty  community  is  the  depositing  of  their  funds 
in  different  shops  to  avoid  any  risk.  Deposits  received  by 
various  Nattukkottai  Chettiars  are  mostly  from  their  own 
community.  The  Commissioner  of  Income-Tax  Madura, 
calculated  from  the  figures  given  by  officers  in  Chettinad 
that  the  number  of  persons  who  derived  income  from  inte- 
rests on  deposits  alone  were  823  and  the  amount  so  depo- 
sited by  them  was  Rs.  4*/2  crores.  If  the  deposits  of  those 
doing  business  were  included,  total  deposits  amounted  to 
nearly  8  crores.  It  is  difficult  to  estimate  the  amount  of 
total  deposits  of  the  Nattukkottai  Chettis.  It  is  only 
recently  that  the  deposits  from  the  public  have  dwindled. 
The  deposits  are  made  in  urban  areas  but  not  in  rural 
parts.  In  Madras  and  other  places  legal  practitioners  and 
others  who  have  dealings  with  Chettiars  deposit  their 
moneys  with  the  Chetti  firms  as  a  higher  rate  of  interest 
can  be  obtained.  As  in  other  banks,  the  normal  rules  of 
keeping  a  proportion  of  deposits  in  cash  or  in  forms  readily 
convertible  into  cash  are  not  observed  by  Chettiars.  So 
long  as  the  debtors  were  keeping  up  their  credit,  the 
Chettiars  found  no  difficulty  in  meeting  the  obligations  of 
their  depositors.  But  when  the  borrowers  began  to 
delay  inordinately,  the  Chettiars  found  it  difficult  to  meet 
their  obligations  and  slowly  gave  up  the  system  of  taking 
deposits.  Enquiry  in  Devacottah  has  shown  that  the  Chet- 


tiars  take  deposits  only  occasionally;  even  then,  deposits  are 
taken  only  from  persons  known  to  them  and  from  their  rela- 
tions, who  hold  positions  in  the  social  sphere.  The  rate  of 
interest  herein  differs  from  the  rate  of  interest  on  loans. 
The  one  reason  for  their  inability  to  take  deposits  is  due  to 
the  fact  that  they  always  entertain  a  genuine  fear,  unlike 
joint  stock  banks,  with  regard  to  conditions  of  payment  and 
the  impossibility  of  keeping  the  necessary  fluid  resources. 

The  deposits  of  Chettiars  are  of  two  kinds — (1)  the 
current  deposit  in  which  the  'Nadappu'  rate  of  interest  is 
allowed  (2)  the  'thavanai'  deposit,  that  is  loans  repayable 
after  a  definite  'thavanai'  or  period  of  rest.  The  period  is 
two  months  in  Madras  and  Burma  and  three  months,  six 
months  or  one  year  in  the  Federated  Malaya  States  and 
Ceylon.  If  the  'thavanai'  deposit  is  not  demanded  after 
the  expiry  of  rest,  interest  is  added  after  completion  of  each 
period  of  'thavanai.1 

The  Chettiars  adopt  a  current  rate  of  interest  ana- 
logous to  the  Imperial  Bank  Rate  and  fix  it  every  Tamil 
month  at  each  of  the  important  centres — Madras,  Rangoon, 
Singapore,  Penang  and  Colombo — at  a  meeting  of  the  lead- 
ing Chettiar  bankers.  The  dealings  between  Chettiars 
themselves  are  governed  by  the  current  rate  of  interest. 
These  rates  are  much  higher  than  those  of  the  Joint  Stock 
banks.  The  rates  charged  on  'thavanai'  or  fixed  deposits  are 
called  'thavanai'  rates  of  interest.  "The  relation 
between  parties  in  a  thavanai  transaction  is  that  of  a 
lender  and  borrower,  the  loan  is  made  for  a  fixed  and  cer- 
tain period  of  two  months  at  a  rate  of  interest  which  is  fixed 
weekly  by  members  of  the  chetti  community  for  transactions 
which  may  be  entered  into  during  the  ensuing  week;  the 
lender  cannot  demand  repayment  before  the  end  of  two 


months  for  which  he  has  lent  the  money;  if  he  does  not  de- 
mand it  at  such  time  and  the  borrower  does  not  elect  to  repay 
it,  the  loan  is  deemed  to  be  extended  for  another  full  two 
months  at  the  rate  of  interest  fixed  by  the  weekly  meeting 
of  the  community  for  the  then  period  and  so  on  until  the 
money  is  repaid."  Thus  the  thavonai  deposits  have  con- 
tinued in  Nattukkottai  Chetti  accounts  for  a  number  of 
years.  As  regards  'thavanai'  rates,  Rangoon  'thavanai'  rates 
are  fixed  for  each  week,  while  the  F.M.S.  'thavanai'  rate  is  a 
matter  for  settlement  by  the  parties  concerned  in  each  indi- 
vidual case.  Thus  there  is  no  fixed  rate  for  deposits  as  in 
Joint  Stock  banks. 


It  is  generally  said  that  the  indigenous  bankers 
lend  only  indirectly  to  agriculturists — i.e.,  through 
the  village  moneylenders  but  finance  trade  and  industry 
directly.  This  is  truo  of  the  Multanis,  Marwaris  and  the 
Kalladaikurichi  Brahmins.  They  finance  a  considerable 
portion  of  the  inland  trade  on  tho  personal  credit  of  the 
merchants,  who  in  turn  give  loans  to  ryots.  They  also  ad- 
vance on  produce  and  discount  liundis.  But  the  Nattuk- 
kottai Chettis  lend  to  agriculturists  direct  and  also  finance 
trade  and  industry.  The  Assistant  Commissioner  of  Income- 
Tax,  Mad::ra,  in  his  evidence  to  the  Madras  Banking  En- 
quiry Committee  swl  "It  cannot  be  said  that  in  South  India 
the  Nattukkottai  Chetti  class  of  money  lenders  assist  in  any 
specific  manner  the  agricultural  or  trade  enterprise.  The 
needy  and  the  poor  go  to  them  for  loans  and  if  the  borrower 
happens  to  be  an  agriculturist,  in  that  sense  the  Chetti 
finances  agriculture;  or  if  he  be  a  trader  or  shop  keeper  in 
that  sense  alone  the  Chetti  finances  trade.  There  is  no  sys- 
tem followed  by  Chettis  to  help  agriculture  or  trade  as  a 


profession  in  the  Presidency,  although  in  Burma  Agricul- 
tural enterprise  is  backed  up  by  Chetti  finance."  But  en- 
quiry at  Devacottah  and  Coimbatore  has  revealed  that  in 
nine  cases  out  of  ten,  the  Chettiars  lend  to  agriculturists. 
About  10%  of  the  borrowers  are  traders.  That  industry 
also  is  financed  by  these  bankers  is  true  from  the  fact  that 
many  cotton  spinning  and  weaving  mills  in  the  Coimbatore 
District  have  as  their  managing  agents  Chetti  bankers. 

The  Chettiars  have  no  set  of  rules  or  regulations  in 
common  for  being  followed  in  the  matter  of  loans.  They 
study  the  condition  of  borrowers  carefully  and  this  they 
are  able  to  do  because  they  are  in  close  proximity  to  the 
borrowers  From  the  enquiry  it  is  found  that  their  methods 
of  lending  are  as  various  as  those  of  money-lenders. 

In  the  case  of  the  agriculturists  as  in  the  case  of  all 
others,  the  bankers  lend  most  commonly  large  sums  of 
money  by  means  of  pronotes  which  form  the  primary  credit 
instruments.  There  are  printed  forms  of  promissory  notes 
in  Tamil  and  the  borrower  fills  up  the  form  and  signs  across 
the  revenue  stamp  affixed  to  the  pronote  at  the  right  end. 
No  specific  period  of  return  is  found  in  the  pronote  but 
'thavanai'  (the  period  of  rest)  is  noted  down.  Generally 
'thavanais'  are  for  one  year  or  half-year  for  purposes  of 
calculating  compound  interest.  Sometimes  two  or  three 
persons  jointly  execute  the  bond.  If  after  repeated  persua- 
sion by  the  banker  the  debtor  does  not  return  the  loan,  the 
former  filo^  a  suit  in  a  court  of  law.  Usually  the  agricultu- 
rist borrows  in  these  parts — Coimbatore  and  Devacottah — 
as  in  other  parts  of  the  Presidency  in  the  months  of  Adi 
(16th  July  to  15th  August)  to  Masi  (16th  February  to  15th 
March) .  The  returning  of  loans  is  from  Panguni  to  Ani  or 
16th  March  to  15th  July.  Agricultural  operations— plough- 
ing, sowing  and  harvesting — take  place  between  July  and 


February  and  afterwards  the  marketing  of  crops  is  financed 
by  the  bankers.  The  Tinnevelly  bazaar  rate  of  interest 
which  prevails  in  respect  of  transactions  between  one 
banker  and  another  will  be  interesting  if  studied  in  con- 
nection with  the  period  of  loans  given  to  agriculturists, 
The  bankers  in  that  district  deal  mainly  with  traders  and 
the  fluctuations  in  the  rate  of  interest  will  show  the 
stringency  of  the  money  market  for  traders. 

The  particulars  of  Tinnevelly  bazaar  rates  are  as 
follows:  — 

Tamil  Month.          Corresponding  English  Month.     Rate  of  Interest. 

11  Annas  or    8V4% 

9       „  or    6V4% 

8       „  or    6% 

8       „  or    6% 

11  „  or    8V4% 
14       „  or  10%% 

1  Rupee  or  12% 

1       „       or  12% 

1       „       or  12% 

14  Annas  or  10%% 

13       „       or    9%% 

12  „       or    9% 

*Madras  Banking  Enquiry  Committee  Evidence  Vol.  Ill,  p.  1164. 

During  16th  December  to  15th  January,  the  rate  of 
interest  to  traders  begins  to  rise  and  the  highest  rate  to 
traders  is  during  the  period  of  Masi,  Panguni  and  Chitrai 
when  the  agriculturists  do  not  require  any  credit  for  their 
agricultural  operations. 

The  pronote  on  personal  security  is  the  most-common 
method  of  lending  to  agriculturists.  Some  Nattukkottai 
Chettiars  lend  money  on  what  is  known  as  the  kandu  kist, 


.  .    16th  August 

to  15th 



..      „     Sep. 

to    „ 



..      „      Oct. 

to    „ 



..      „     Nov. 

to    „ 



„      Dec. 

to    „ 



„      Jany, 

to    „ 



.  .      „     Feby. 

to    „ 



„      March 

to    „ 



„      April 

to    „ 



„      May 

to    „ 



„      June 

to    „ 



.  -      „      July 

to    „ 



or  thandal  system.  Only  small  money  lenders  resort  to 
this  system.  When  money  is  lent  out,  interest  is  taken  in 
advance  and  the  borrower  pays  in  equated  instalments 
daily  or  monthly.  Default  entails  the  payment  of  penal 
rate  of  interest.  The  Devacottah  and  Coimbatore  bankers 
say  that  agriculturists  borrow  on  this  system.  But  as  the 
agriculturist  gets  his  income  in  a  lump  at  a  certain  period 
of  the  year,  it  will  not  be  possible  for  him  to  pay  the  instal- 
ments daily  or  monthly  easily.  This  system  of  kandu 
loans  will  be  very  helpful  to  small  traders. 

Next  10  the  pronote,  the  most  common  method  of  lend- 
ing is  the  raising  of  loans  on  produce  like  rice  or  paddy, 
tobacco  leaves  and  cotton.  If  on  the  stipulated  date  the 
money  is  not  returned  the  banker  persuades  the  agricul- 
turist to  sell  the  produce  in  his  custody  on  that  day  at  the 
market  price  and  pay  back  the  loan.  Sometimes  the  banker 
himself  sells  the  produce  and  claims  from  the  agriculturist 
the  margin,  if  any,  left  over. 

A  still  another  method  of  lending  which  is  not  so  com- 
mon is  what  is  known  as  'pokkiarn'  or  'othi'  by  which  money 
is  lent  out  on  the  security  of  lands  or  any  other  immovable 
property  in  lieu  of  which  the  banker  enjoys  the  benefits  of 
possession  of  property  till  the  money  is  returned  or  till  a 
maximum  period  of  sixty  years.  If  after  sixty  years  money 
is  not  returned,  the  property  automatically  becomes  the 
banker's  when  sued  in  a  court  of  law.  These  are  the  differ- 
ent types  of  loans  prevalent  among  Nattukkottai  Chettiars 
in  the  Coimbatore  District  and  in  and  around  Devacottah. 

True  to  the  traditions  of  the  great  Nattukkottai  Naga- 
rathar  families,  the  Rajah  Sahib  of  Chettinad  started,  very 
early  in  life,  his  individual  banking  business  under  the 


name  and  style  of  "S.Rm.  M.A."    It  grew  in  importance 
and  in  a  short  time  expanded  into  a  number  of  branches. 

As  in  the  case  of  his  charities,  here  also  he  turned 
from  the  beaten  track  and  to  secure  efficient  control  and 
management,  he  converted  his  firms  into  Limited  Com- 
panies. In  the  course  of  the  past  ten  years,  a  number  of 
trading  concerns  have  been  built  up  through  his  instru- 
mentality which  are  all  in  a  very  flourishing  condition. 
These  are  the  Bank  of  Chcttinad  Ltd.,  The  Chettinad  Bank 
Ltd.,  the  Chettinad  Corporation  Ltd.,  South  India  Corpo- 
ration, Ltd.,  South  India  Corporation  (Madras),  Ltd., 
Madura  South  India  Corporation,  Ltd.,  Burma  Commer- 
cial Corporation,  Ltd.  and  Trichy  and  Tanjore  Stores,  Ltd. 
These  have  60  and  more  branches  and  are  scattered  all  over 
Indo-China,  Malaya,  Straits,  Ceylon,  Burma,  British  India 
and  the  Native  States.  These  are  all  handling  a  large 
volume  of  business  and  are  successfully  run. 

The  Bank  of  Chettinad  and  the  Chettinad  Bank,  besides 
their  banking  business,  own  about  100,000  acres  of  paddy 
lands  in  Burma  and  extensive  rubber  and  coconut  estates  in 
Ceylon  and  Malaya. 

The  Rajah  Saheb  owns  several  villages  in  South  India, 
the  chief  of  which  are  an  estate  consisting  of  116  villages 
called  the  Chettinad  Estate  in  the  Chittoor  District  and 
several  villages  in  the  Tamil  Districts. 



Medical  Officer. 

The  problem  of  medical  aid  in  Annamalainagar  began 
when  the  Minakshi  College,  the  nucleus  of  the  Annamalai 
University,  shifted  to  its  own  building,  the  Arts  Block,  from 
the  premises  of  the  Ramaswami  Chettiar's  Town  High 
School,  Chidambaram,  in  1923.     About  a  hundred  students 
and  four  members  of  the  staff  came  into  residence  in  tempo- 
rarily     improvised      structures.      Communication      with 
Chidambaram  was  not  easy,  and  the  place  itself  was  a 
sandy    wilderness    with    palm    trees    and    prickly    pear 
and    two    small    groups    of    huts.    The    Rajah    Saheb, 
with    his    usual    solicitude    for    the    welfare    of    the 
students  tackled  the  problem  of  medical  aid  to  the  resi- 
dents of  Annamalainagar  by  establishing  a  small  dispen- 
sary  in   one   of   the   rooms   with    a   part-time    medical 
officer  and  a  compounder.    The  Sub-Assistant  Surgeon  and 
Compounder  of  the  Town  Hospital  visited  the  dispensary 
thrice  a  week.    They  were  also  available  for  urgent  calls. 

The   strength    of    the    College    grew    by    leaps    and 

bounds;  and  the  number  of  residents  grew  consequently; 
the  more  so  as  proper  accommodation  in  the  Hostel  be- 
came available.  The  part-time  arrangements  were  found 
to  be  inadequate  and  the  dispensary  was  placed  on  a 
permanent  basis  in  1926  with  a  full-time  Medical  Officer, 
Compounder,  attender  and  menials.  The  accommodation 


was  also  increased  by   annexing  another  room  for  the 
increasing  store  of  medicines. 

Successive  medical  inspections  of  the  College  and  the 
University  revealed  that  in  a  very  large  proportion  of  cases 
the  students  had  defects  in  the  eye,  the  organ  of  which  they 
should  take  the  greatest  care.  To  be  of  real  help  to  the 
students,  the  University  deputed  the  Medical  Officer  for 
training  in  the  Minto  Opthalmic  Hospital  at  Bangalore  in 
1931.  It  then  became  necessary  to  increase  the  accommo- 
dation and  equipment  by  providing  a  dark-room  and  dark- 
room equipment.  Successive  annual  reports  show  that 
these  have  been  put  to  good  use. 

With  the  rapid  increase  in  the  strength  of  the  Univer- 
sity and  as  the  University  became  more  and  more  residen- 
tial, the  need  for  a  good  Hospital  with  provision  for 
accommodating  in-patients  began  to  be  felt.  The  authori- 
ties readily  made  arrangements  for  erecting  a  building  for 
the  purpose  and  the  present  Hospital  building  with 
accommodation  for  four  in-patients  and  an  isolation  ward 
was  completed  and  occupied  in  September,  1936.  The 
equipment  was  increased  by  a  grant  of  Rs.  2,000.  To  cope 
with  the  additional  work  arising  out  of  increased  facilities 
the  staff  was  increased  by  taking  in  another  compounder, 
one  more  ward-boy  and  more  menials. 

With  the  admission  of  women  students  into  the  Uni- 
versity and  the  starting  of  a  women  Students'  Hostel,  the 
need  for  a  Lady  Assistant  to  help  the  Medical  Officer 
was  felt.  With  the  increasing  number  of  the  women  stu- 
dents the  need  became*  greater  and  in  1940  a  midwife  was 
appointed  so  that  she  might  be  useful  to  the  ladies  of  the 
locality  and  took  charge  in  June  1941. 


The  daily  dispensing  is  mostly  for  minor  ailments 
such  as  disorders  of  the  digestive  organs,  influenza,  middle- 
car-diseases,  tonsil itis,  eye-troubles,  wounds  and  bruises. 
Cases  of  pneumonia,  fractures  and  dislocations  come  in 
occasionally  for  treatment.  The  table  below  gives  the 
annual  attendance  at  the  dispensary  during  the  several 
years  and  may  give  some  idea  of  the  benefit  rendered. 


Year.  In-patients.  Out-patients. 

1940.  59  14,422. 

1939.  52  12,985. 

1938.  —  12,811 

1937.  —  14,486 

1936.  —  12,151 

It  may  also  be  mentioned  that  ever  since  its  inception 
the  dispensary  has  been  useful  not  only  to  the  residents  of 
Annamalainagar,  but  also  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  large 
number  of  villages  all  round.  And  all  this  medical  aid  is 
given  free  of  cost  to  everyone. 



Commissioner.  H.  R.  E.  Board,  Madras. 

The  culture  attained  by  a  nation  is  gauged  by  the  civili- 
sation which  it  has  attained  from  the  past.  It  is  not  the 
production  of  a  single  day's  work  but  is  one  which  has  been 
built  up  step  by  step  by  a  slow  and  steady  development 
of  thought  by  its  prominent  sons.  It  has  been  preserved 
in  the  literature  and  arts  of  the  country  in  the  customs 
and  manners  of  it?  folk  and  has  been  nurtured  by  its  educa- 
tional institutions  founded  by  its  people.  Educational  insti- 
tutions of  pre-eminence  are  known  as  Universities  in 
Modern  parlance.  Universities  in  the  West  are  the  out- 
come of  a  few  centuries.  But  thoir  development  and  expan- 
sion have  been  quick  and  all-embracing  especially  during 
the  past  one  century.  In  the  East,  University  education 
has  been  a  matter  of  ancient  times,  a  heritage  of  centuries. 
The  Universities  of  Nalanda  and  Taxila  are  world  renown- 
ed, but  political  eruptions  have  over-flowed  and  submerged 
them  under  their  irresistible  lava  of  repression.  But  cul- 
ture did  rot  die  having  been  nurtured  in  the  minds  of  the 
humble  country  folk  and  of  the  un-ostentatious  learned 
South  India  was  more  fortunately  situated  and  the  anci- 
ent Tamil  culture  was  preserved  by  the  nature  poets  of 
the  Sangam  age  and  by  the  patronage  of  the  enlightened 
imperial  Cholas  and  Pandyas.  After  their  fall,  the  holy 
seats  of  Saivaism,  viz.,  the  hoary  maths,  protected  it  from 
decline  and  at  present  the  two  eminent  Universities,  the 


out-come  of  modern  civilisation,  have  taken  the  burden  of 
preserving  our  ancient  heritage.  In  fact  it  is  not  only 
the  ordinary  duty,  but  its  main  function  for  a  University 
to  preserve  the  culture  of  a  nation. 

When  the  idea  of  a  University  was  started  about  85 
years  ago  by  the  present  Government  their  main  object  was 
the  trainii-g  of  students  to  befit  them  as  clerks  and  officers 
to  run  the  affairs  of  the  state.    As  ideas  advanced  further 
modifications  had  to  be  introduced.     The  original  object 
merely  required  a  system  of  examination  of  pupils  to  grade 
them  according  to  their  attainments  for  various  posts  in 
public  service.     Nobody  thought  that  culture  had  some- 
thing to  do  with  University  education.  Knowledge  became 
wider  and  people  felt  a  change  in  the  angle  of  vision.  The 
heritage  of  the  nation  ought  not  to  have  been  cornered  and 
screened  in  preference  to  foreign  cultural  ideas.     Hence 
research  scholarships  nnd  professorial  chairs  were  slowly 
introduced.    At  the  beginning,  chairs  for  foreign  arts  and 
sciences  were  preferred.    With  considerable  difficulty  and 
delay,  vernacular  culture  was  recognised  and  introduced. 
Readerships  and  studentships  were  established  and  a  certain 
amount  of  work  is  supposed  to  be  done  in  this  line  in  the 
provincial  University. 

Tamil  culture  is  great  and  its  literature  is  vast.  It 
had  been  hidden  in  the  minds  of  a  few  scholars  and  preserved 
in  the  moth-eaten  palm  leaves  hoarded  in  the  nooks  and 
corners  of  the  thatched  houses  of  the  village  teacher  and 
in  the  dark  niches  of  ancient  maths.  It  had  not  reached 
really  the  study  room  of  the  modern  educated  scholar  with 
its  full  import.  There  was  an  agitation  in  the  country  to 
place  it  on  a  pedestal  worthy  of  it.  When  the  premier  mer- 
chant prince  of  Chettinad  came  forward  to  light  the  lamp  of 


culture  near  the  Sacred  Hall  of  Cosmic  Dance,  the  Tami- 
lians  were  overjoyed  that  the  time  had  come  when  their 
dreams  would  be  fulfilled.  Massive  buildings  for  dispens- 
ing learning  amongst  scholars  arose  and  various  subjects 
of  real  merit  were  taught.  Students  thronged  and  a  full 
blown  University  sprang  amidst  green  fields  in  the  midst  of 
sacred  soil  trodden  by  the  holy  feet  of  the  four  great  Masters 
of  Saivite  culture.  The  people  were  immensely  pleased. 

Tamil  was  given  a  seat  and  Lecturers  were  appointed 
and  a  course  of  study  was  instituted.  Art,  Music  and 
Teaching  formed  the  various  courses  of  study.  But  are 
they  enonsrh?  One  important  branch  of  Tamil  culture  was 
entirely  forgotten.  Tamil  had  developed  two  aspects  of  life, 
secular  and  religious  or  philosophical.  The  secular  aspect 
is  represented  by  the  Pandits  and  Annamalai  as  well  as 
Madras  have  recognised  and  made  sufficient  provision  for 
it  with  enough  patronage.  But  what  about  the  religious 
or  philosophical  aspect?  Is  it  not  hieh  time  for  this  aspect 
to  be  studied,  preserved  and  developed? 

Tamil  has  evolved  a  comprehensive  system  of  philo- 
sophy known  as  Saiva  Siddanta.  The  works  of  the  four 
great  Acharyas  and  of  Tirumular  give  a  very  well  deve- 
loped system  of  philosophy  equal  to  none  in  the  land. 
They  are  far  older  than  twelve  centuries.  In  the  13th  and 
14th  centuries  of  the  Christian  era  various  ideas  enunciated 
by  the  ancient  saints  were  codified  by  the  Saint  Meikanda 
Deva  and  his  disciples.  They  have  been  consolidated  into 
a  series  of  14  sacred  works.  Nobody  till  now  has  render- 
ed their  full  import  in  English  and  other  world  wide  langu- 
ages except  by  way  of  a  few  essays  by  Dr.  Pope  and  by  late 
Nalluswami  Pillai.  Recently  one  or  two  treatises  have 


appeared     in     the     shape     of     theses     for     University 
degrees  by  a  few  scholars. 

It  may  be  said  that  there  is  a  chair  for  philosophy  at 
the  University  of  Madras  and  Saiva  Siddanta  being  one 
aspect  of  philosophy,  could  be  very  well  studied  there. 
Those  who  know  the  real  greatness  of  the  system  of  Saiva 
Siddanta  can  understand  what  sort  of  treatment  could 
be  given  to  it  at  the  hands  of  a  chair  which  has  specialised 
in  Vedantisin  and  allied  subjects.  True  there  is  a  sylla- 
bus prescribed  by  the  University  for  Saiva  Siddanta. 
But  it  must  be  noted  that  till  now,  no  college  in  the 
Presidency  of  Madras  has  undertaken  to  prepare  students 
for  the  examination  in  that  subject.  There  are  not  enough 
teachers  to  teach  the  subjects  since  no  encouragement  has 
been  shown  to  it  till  now.  If  such  be  the  case,  is  it  not 
necessary  to  put  forward  a  strong  case  for  the  study  of  this 
important  subject  and  to  press  for  establishment  of  a 
separate  chair  for  it  with  the  object  of  introducing  study 
and  research  work  therein? 

The  Translation  of  various  treatises  on  philosophy  into 
English,  the  writing  of  thoughtful  articles,  and  the  devo- 
tion of  a  portion  of  the  University  journal  for  this  study  are 
some  of  the  necessary  acts  to  be  undertaken  at  once.  A 
chair,  a  readership  and  a  few  studentships  should  be 
created  without  loss  of  delay.  The  only  University  which 
can  undertake  this  work  is  the  Annamalai  University  since 
it  is  wedded  to  nurture  the  culture  of  the  Tamilians.  We 
hope  that  the  Rajah  Saheb  the  Founder  of  the  University 
will  bestow  his  serious  thought  on  the  subject  and  will  give 
a  practical  turn  to  it  thereby  earning  the  praise  and  the 
gratitude  of  his  loving  compatriots. 



M.  S.  RAMANUJAM,  B.A.,   (HoNs.) 

The  19th  century  died  away  with  its  trail  ablaze.  The 
political  complacency  of  Britain  received  its  first  rude 
shock  and  in  the  twilight  was  seen  the  hum  of  a  new  life. 
1'he  long  lull  of  supine  inaction  in  Tamil  literature  began 
its  downward  inarch,  and  in  the  short  spell  it  saw  the  birth 
of  new  veterans,  the  growth  of  people  into  their  full  sta- 
ture. The  political  subordination  of  India  to  the  British, 
regarding  its  cultural  aspect,  was  a  blessing  in  disguise. 
Earnest  savants  of  English  birth  and  origin  scintillated  on 
the  Tamil  sky  and  Tamil  literature  shall  always  bear  the 
long  furrows  made  by  their  powerful  plough.  I  mean 
Dr.  Pope  and  Bishop  Caldwell.  The  birth  and  growth  of  a 
new  science,  the  Dravidian  philology,  proclaims  in  mute 
eloquence,  to  the  Tamils  and  the  rest,  the  incalculable 
worth  of  their  indefatigable  endeavours  for  Tamil  learn- 
ing and  culture:  needless  to  embark  on  a  cataloguing  of 

their  activities,  magnificent  and  beautiful. 

The  long  streaks  of  the  rosy  dawn  broke  on  us  with  a 

golden  promise  and  the  literature  of  our  language  stood  on 
the  throes  of  a  new  birth.  The  frigid  cold  of  an  extended 
monotony  was  sought  to  be  substituted  with  the  fragrant 
blossoms  of  a  new  spring  and  thus  proceed  our  language 
for  'fresh  honours  and  pastures  new.' 

Modem  Tamil  literature,  with  its  many  offshoots, 
though  not  without  signs  of  hope  and  promise  yet  betrays 


long  lines  on  her  face,  signs  of  senility  and  stagnation. 
Theories,  really  are  they  opinions,  of  varied  hue,  more 
novel  than  useful  have  been  propounded.  They  contain, 
no  doubt  some  grains  of  truth  amidst  sandy  waste,  but 
yet  they  are  not  un-alloyed.  A  clear  picture  of  the  currents 
and  cross-currents  in  Tamil  literature  is  as  opportune  as  it 
is  necessary. 

The  history  of  Tamil  Renaissance,  must  really  be  begun 
with  Processor  Sundaram  Filial,  the  author  of  "Manon- 
maniam,"  a  Tamil  "literature"  drama.  The  morning  star 
of  the  Revival,  with  his  unerring  instinct  and  deep  intuition 
to  sense  the  charge  of  the  atmosphere,  had  mingled  in  his 
product  both  the  old  order  and  the  new,  silently  leading  us 
to  the  threshold  of  the  New  Dawn.  We  feel  not  the  change 
he  is  working;  the  deliberate  employment  of  the  old  meter 
deludes  us  of  his  new  spirit,  "the  spirit  of  revolution."  It 
is  deep  enough;  he  had  poured  the  new  wine  into  the  old 
bottle.  "Manomnaniam"  is  but  the  properly  punctuated 
warning  of  the  imminent  ebullition  of  a  new  spirit,  the 
flowering  of  a  fresh  manhood.  Sri  Subramania  Bharathi, 
the  poet  of  national  awakening,  who  came  close  on  his 
heels,  took  up  the  trail  and  our  literature  has  become  a 
ferment  of  confused  changes.  The  impetuous  youth  in 
him  had  the  better  of  him;  and  was  but  too  ready  with  ever 
new  suggestions  and  ideals;  and  their  velocity  and  volume 
refused  to  be  bound  within  necessary  literary  limits.  He 
had  not  been  partly  responsible  for  the  beautiful  confusion 
in  our  literature.  Political  pressure,  visionary  ideals  un- 
ceasing anxieties  left  his  thoughts  in  a  wilderness  only  to 
be  scattered,  unsettled  and  riotous.  His  was  the  riotous 
license  of  a  prodigal  son  rather  than  the  mellowed  libera- 
tion of  a  soaring  poet.  A  careful  and  unbiassed,  detached 
and  critical  study  of  his  poem  is  bound  to  reveal  the  pro- 



gressive  mellowing  of  his  intellect  and  some  of  his  early 
songs  do  no  little  violence  to  Tamil  literary  forms.  They 
look  like  scattered  rubies  over  a  field  (cf.  his  viruthams 
and  venbas  are  no  more  than  puerile  versifications).  His 
"Kannan  Pattu" — not  the  whole  but  the  majority,  has 
found  proper  haven.  Some  of  them  have  attractive  forms 
and  arresting  ideas,  touching  the  very  fringes  of  the  sub- 
lime. Students  of  Modern  Tamil  literature,  in  their  im- 
patience fcr  things  novel,  too  often  err  on  the  side  of  indis- 
criminate generalisations;  for  them  the  parts  are  the  whole. 
Instead  of  a  scrupulous  analysis,  they  view  them  as  an 
amalgam  and  grievously  falter;  in  the  midst  of  the  wood 
they  fail  to  see  the  trees. 

After  Bharathi,  Mr.  Desikavinayakain  Filial  of  Putheri 
is  the  Tamil  poet  to  be  reckoned  with  in  our  literature.  His 
is  a  valuable  contribution  to  an  atrophied  literature  like 
Modern  Tamil.  The  significance  of  his  poems  lies  not  in  the 
deluding  transparency  of  his  form  and  style,  but  deeper 
still.  The  fusion  of  the  literary  spirit  with  the  comrnonfolk 
dignity;  the  endowment  of  the  common  intelligibility  with 
a  classic  significance  and  cultured  elegance;  he  has  thus 
with  extraordinary  success,  evolved  out  a  useful  literary 
compound.  With  Bharathi's  literary  morbidities  and  emo- 
tional excesses  well  chistled;  thfc  classic  age,  its  rigidity 
hammered  out,  grammatical  conventions  relaxed,  in  its 
pristine  elegance  and  pure;  Sri  Pillai's  vivacious  imagina- 
tion flooding  the  field  with  his  effulgent  rays;  these  have 
made  his  poetry  a  regulated  whole,  where  the  parts  har- 
monise into  a  simple  and  significant  unity,  presided  over  by 
a  supreme  imagination.1  "He  recreates  it  and  charges  the 

1.    Translations  from  the  "Light  of  Asia"  and  Gitanjali  and 
"The  River  " 


fact  itself  with  the  Poet's  own  sense  of  ultimate  values."2 
He  feels  largely  and  intensely,  thus  they  smoothly  flow  in 
metric  dance  to  merge  into  a  general  significance. 

New  patterns  and  textures  have  their  attraction  when 
produced  by  a  mil]  and  the  mind  of  an  artist  as  well.  The 
new-found  glamour  blinds  lovers  into  a  sense  of  security 
and  self-love.  This  promiscuous  propensity  has  been  res- 
ponsible for  the  birth  of  a  few  heresies  in  the  Tamil  litera- 

The  heresy  that  matter  is  superior  to  the  manner  of 
self-expression  has  not  outgrown  the  stage  of  profuse  pole- 
mics. For  either  side  the  protagonists  are  not  wanting. 
There  is  also  a  liberal  school  of  thought  that  strives  to  strike 
a  golden  mean.  Agreed  as  it  is,  it  is  idle  to  deny  the  im- 
portance of  form  in  literature  as  elsewhere.  Do  we  not  find 
it  a  distinct  pleasure,  intellectually  apprehended  when  we 
quote  a  stanza  from  Kamban?  Compare  this  mental  state 
with  the  frame  of  mind  when  we  express  Kamban's  idea 
not  in  Kamban's  verbal  form,  but  in  our  own  language. 
The  difference  in  the  effect  is  understandable.  To  be  suc- 
cinct, form  is  not  a  non-existing  abstraction,  but  an  inte- 
gral abstraction  that  inheres  in  the  poem  as  such. 

Another  heresy,  too  common  with  us,  is  simplicity  of 
style.  The  heresy  of  simplicity  is  being  overdone.  It  is  in 
the  "imperceptible  blending  of  the  plain  with 
the  ornate  that  a  great  writer  is  distinguish- 
ed. He  uses  the  simplest  phrases  without  triviality,  and 
the  grandest  without  a  suggestion  of  grandiloquence." 
"Without  overflowing  full"  is  the  law  of  simplicity,  and 
plainness  does  not  mean  frugality  but  unity.  Intelligibility 

2.    Abercrombie:  Epic,  p,  54, 


is  an  attribute  of  simplicity  and  intelligibility 
in  literature  is  different  from  apprehension  in  journalism. 
The  two  offices  differ  in  their  material  operation.  In  litera- 
ture anything  of  worth  shall  be  intellectually  apprehended 
to  live  the  piece  and  be  in  the  spell,  while  Journalism  does 
not  share  these  elegant  literary  manners.  Literature,  in  as 
much  as  it  is  refined  thought,  is,  by  its  very  nature,  pre- 
cluded from  making  a  common  cause  with  the  public  pro- 
phylactics-journals-which  are  incapable  of  being  worked 
up  to  those  ecstatic  regions  of  intellectual  and  imaginative 

With  the  rapid  march  of  political  events  an  idea  has 
been  set  afoot  that  political  education — an  euphemism  of 
high  danger  in  itself — could  be  easily  had  if  a  standardisa- 
tion could  be  achieved  in  the  field  of  letters;  something 
like  a  socialistic  doctrine,  but  applied  for  a  different  pur- 
pose; a  case  of  political  theory  tried  in  literature.  Not 
going  too  deep  into  this  'standardisation'  fover,  we  cannot 
but  be  amazed  at  the  sponsors  of  the  idea.  It  is  really  a 
brain-wave.  In  literature  the  instruments  of  operations 
are  too  deHcate  and  subtle  things,  but  never  brittle.  "Words 
are  not  like  iron  and  wood,  coal  and  water,  invariable  in 
their  properties  calculable  in  their  effect.  They  are 
mutable  in  their  powers  deriving  force  and 
subtle  variations  of  force  from  very  trifling  change 
of  position;  colouring  and  coloured  by  the  words  which 
precede  and  succeed;  significant  or  insignificant  from  the 
powers  of  rhythm  and  cadence/'3  The  form  of  matter  is 
the  form  of  thought  and  the  thought  is  mutable  with  the 
change  in  the  subject-matter.  Description  varies  from  nar- 
ration and  the  differentia  is  not  supererogatory  but  suffi- 

3.     G.  H,  Lowe:   Success  in  Literature,  p.  135, 


ciently  essential.  "What  are  we  to  say  to  a  man  who  spends 
a  quarter's  income  on  a  diamond  pin  which  he  sticks  in  a 
greasy  cravat?  A  man  who  calls  public  attention  on  him 
and  appears  in  a  slovenly  undress."4  This  standardisation 
is  bound  to  bring  things  to  a  dead  level,  which  is  neither 
proper  nor  preferable.  Style  is  the  man  and  the  variety  is 
but  the  irrefutable  assertion  of  Nature  wedded  to  beauty 
against  the  artificiality  of  mortal  exertions  towards  a  dead 

The  realistic  school  is  the  counterpart  of  the  romantic 
school  in  English  literature.  This  school  maintains  with 
little  consistency  that  anything  in  literature  must  corres- 
pond to  the  actual  and  real  in  nature.  This,  obviously  un- 
tenable, is  the  upshot;  of  a  comprehensive  ignorance  of  the 
connotation  of  the  term  "Realism"  as  applied  in  matters 
literary.  Realism  and  intelligibility  in  literature  almost 
point  at  the  same.  Anything  intellectually  lived,  felt  and 
enjoyed  is  a  literary  reality.  We  delect  in  Ilango's  po